Construction Delay Is A Universal Evident


02 Nov 2017

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1.1 Introduction

Construction delay could be defined as the time overrun means the time of the construction project exceeds completion date state on the contract document or the date that the parties agreed upon for delivery of a project. According to Hamzah et al. (2011) delay is a situation when construction project is late completed or the actual progress of a project is slower than planned schedule. Besides that, delay can be defined as extension of time or time overrun to complete the construction projects. Aftab Hameed Memon et al. (2011) stated that most of the definition associates delay with extension of time to the projects. However, a delay in construction industry can be classified into two characteristic which is project delay and construction delay. Project delay refers to delay the duration of the projects while construction delay refers to delay in construction progress.

The construction delay is a universal evident reality not only in Malaysia however all the countries faced this global fact. Construction sector is one of the important sectors that contribute to the economic growth in countries. The delay in construction can causes a number of changes in a project such as lost productivity, late completion and contract termination. Delay in construction project is considered one of the most common problems causing a multitude a negative consequence on the project and its participating parties. According to Abinu and Jagboro (2002) founded that the six effect of construction delay were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, litigation and total abandonment. Quality defects are also one of the impacts caused by delay. Chan and Kumaraswamy (1993-1994) indicated a successful project is achieved if it is within budget, completed on time and achieve the specified quality standards. A delay in the owners or client’s view is loss of income. In case of contractors, delay refers to the higher cost due to longer works and increase in the labour costs.

Furthermore delays can categorise into two types which are non-excusable delays, excusable delays by Omran et al. (2009). The non-excusable delays are caused by the contractors and there is no fault by the owner while the excusable delays are caused by the owner or owner’s consultants and it can divide into two categories which are non-compensable and compensable. Alaghbari et al. (2007) concluded that concurrent delay is also one of the types for delays. Concurrent delay is a more complicated and it very typical in construction project. This situation happened when more than one factor delays at the same time or in overlapping periods of moment.

Construction delay can be caused by various factors. Khoshgoftar et al. (2010) indicated that finance and payments of completed work, improper planning, site management, and lack of communication between the parties are the key factors cause the delay in construction industry. Causes of delay may be caused by construction practitioners. For instance, late submission of drawings and specification, frequent change orders by clients or owners and the poor managerial skills, inadequate experience by contractors. The external factors such as weather condition, shortage of material and lack of equipment and tools also considered causes of the delay in construction.

1.2 Problem Statement

Many construction projects have faced various delay problems in construction. Construction delays may caused by various factors and each countries has different factors to cause delays. In this studies will discuss the causes of delays in Malaysia construction. Iyer et al. (2011) conducted a survey to analyzing factors affecting delays in Indian construction projects and founded out the most critical factors of delay is lack of commitment. Besides, the study pointed out the survey result was clear contrast with the Bassioni et al. (2008). A survey on causes of delay in building construction projects in Egypt by Bassioni et al. (2008) and the result showed that financial problem of a contractor is the most important cause. In different countries there have different root causes of delay in construction because they come from variety types of human behaviour, different background and resources.

Furthermore, various studies have been discussing the potential solutions to reduce delays in construction industry. Unfortunately, the problems of delays faced by the construction industries have not been effectively addressed. When discusses the causes of construction delays, the first impression associate to the main construction parties. Because the construction parties are play an important role in the whole construction process. Hamzah et al. (2011) concluded that cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractor, ineffective planning and scheduling, contractors’ poor site management were the main cause of the delay. Besides, Ubaid (1991) discussed the performance of the contractors as one of the major causes in construction delay. In this studies will discuss the factors caused by the general contractors increase in the frequency of delays in construction industries.

Furthermore, many construction projects in Malaysia have faced various delay problems in construction. The various effects of delay such as it will give detrimental to the relationship between owner and contractor and also affect project cost, workers morale, quality of completed works and the industry’s reputation as well. These studies will investigate the impacts caused by delay in Malaysia construction industry. Previous studies concluded that the impacts of delays are time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, litigation and total abandonment. But the researchers are seldom to investigate the impacts related to the country’s economy. Sundaraj (2007) mentioned that construction industry is one of the productive sectors that constantly contribute to the economy.

1.3 Aim

To study the impacts of delays in Malaysia construction industry upon increase in the frequency of delays in construction projects by the building construction general contractor.

1.4 Objectives

To identify the causes of the delays in construction industry

To identify impacts due to construction delays upon increasing delays in construction project by the building construction general contractors

To determine the potential solutions to reducing delays in construction industry

1.5 Scope and Limitation

This scope of this research project is limited to the type of building projects are included residential, high-rise building, commercial shop lots and industrial. The data for this study has been gathered through detailed literature review and questionnaire survey. Furthermore, this study is limited to the areas of Klang Valley and Johor Bahru and the questionnaire survey will investigate the three construction practitioners namely owners, construction consultants and contractors.



2.1 Introduction

This chapter is about the literature research on the causes of delay in construction industry. The first section of this chapter is related to the delay in construction industry. Then, the following section is discussing the types of delay in construction. Apart from that, the subsequent section is talking about the previous studies, causes of delays and factors causing delay between client or owner, consultant, contractors and external factors from different countries. Next, is discussing on the impacts due to the construction delay. Lastly, the section is about the potential solution to mitigate the delays in construction industries.

2.2 Construction delay

A construction industry is regarded as a complex, fragmented and schedules and resource driven industry. Delays in construction industry are defined in many ways. The definitions of delay are to postpone until a later time. The time during which some part of the construction project has been extended or not performed due to an unanticipated circumstance was defined by Bramble and Callahan (1987) as delay. KPKT (2010) defined the project delay is projects who are experiencing delays in construction period where different gaps between the actual in progress site works compared to the work scheduled which is between 10 % to 30 %. Meanwhile the sick project is the construction period where different gap between work schedule compared to the actual in progress site works are more than 30 % or the projects are failed to complete in the construction period. In addition, according to Stumpf (2000) and Zack (2003) described that delay was an act or event which extends required time to complete the works under a contract and it usually shows up as additional days of work.

2.3 Type of delay

Trauner et al. (2009) mentioned that delays are usually divided into four categories:

Excusable or non-excusable

Compensable or non-compensable

Critical or non critical

Concurrent or non-concurrent

Trauner et al. (2009) mentioned there are four types of nature of delay. In the process of determining the effect of a delay on the project, it required to analyse whether it is excusable or non-excusable and critical or non critical delays. Delay can be classified into compensable or non-compensable. Apart from that, delay may be considered as concurrent delay after analysed. Besides, figure 2.1 shows the sequential relationships of various categories of delays which analysed by Vidalis and Najafi (2002).

Figure 2.1: Sequential Relationships of Various Categories of Delays

2.3.1 Excusable delay

Alaghbari (2005) mentioned that excusable delays are identified as force majeure delays because there are no faults of any parties. Therefore, excusable delays are commonly called Acts of God and the consequences will not affect any losses from any parties. In this situation, most of the contractors allow grant an extension of time, but there is no right to grant additional money.

2.3.2 Non-excusable delay

Omran et al. (2009) indicated that are caused solely by the contractors or its suppliers and that is no fault by the client or owners. When the delays caused by the contractors, its suppliers or subcontractors, the contractor might be entitle to compensation the owner’s losses. On the other hand, Hamidreza Khosravi et al. (2011) conducted a survey to identification of causes of non-excusable delays of construction projects and concluded that not selecting competent subcontractors, delay in forwarding material and equipment to the site and delay in awarding subcontractors’ contracts were the key causes of non-excusable construction delays.

2.3.3 Compensable delay

Alaghbari et al. (2005) stated that compensable delays are those that are generally caused by the clients or client’s consultants. For instance, inadequate drawing and specifications and late release of drawing to the contractors by the client’s architect are the most common problem cause the delay. In addition, compensable delays can also happen from the client’s failure to respond in a timely fashion to request for information, client’s disturbance and client’s changes in design or materials. Therefore, contractor is able to grant both additional money and time.

2.3.4 Non-compensable delay

According to Hamzah et al. (2011) and Omran et al. (2009) non-compensable delay are caused by the third parties or incidents beyond the control of both the client and the contractor. In this situation, the contractor receives a time extension only but not recovers delay related cost from clients or the clients due this is beyond the client’s control such as unforeseeable weather and strikes. Azhar et al. (n.d) stated that contractor need not be fine for any compensation, but he will be entitled for an additional time to complete or perform the work and also ease from any contractually imposed liquidated damages during the delay period.

2.3.5 Concurrent delay

Ahmed et al. (n.d) explained concurrent delays happen when there is involvement of both the client or owner and the contractor, and are accountable for the delay. Besides, concurrent delay is occurrence when more than one factor delays in the same period of time. Furthermore, Singh (2008) stated that concurrent delays are occurred when delay caused by one party own fault, but the alternative side of the party also delayed due to its own insufficiency.

2.3.6 Critical and Non- critical delay

Braimah (2008) mentioned that delays can be distinguished between critical and non-critical delays. It is more important to observe on delays that affect the progress of the project and it is not just the overall completion. Critical delays mean the delays have been affected the progress, compensation and completion of time. In contrast, non-critical delays do not affect the completion of time.

2. 4 Causes of delay

Many of the researchers have been studied into the construction delays and studies conducted on causes of delay in construction. Abdullah et al. (2010) conducted a survey of on delay on Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA). MARA is one of the government agencies of Malaysia. The eighteen causes have been identified and the study concluded that cash flow and financial difficulties face by contractors, contractors’ poor site management and ineffective planning and scheduling by contractors are main cause of delay.

Ubaid (1991) discussed the performance of contractors as one of the major cause of delay in construction industry. Al-Momani (2000) investigated causes of delay in 130 public projects in Jordan. The main causes of delay were related to designer, user changes, weather, site conditions, late deliveries, economic conditions and increase in quantity. The study founded that delays have strong relationship with failure and ineffective performance of contractors. Battaineh et al. (2002) stated that the most significant cause of delay in the traditional type of contract in perspective of contractor and consultant.

Al-Barak (1993) studied the main causes of failure in Construction industry in Saudi Arabia by surveying 68 contractors and about 34 different causes of failure. The study concluded that lack of experience, poor estimation practices, bad decisions in regulating company’s policy, and national slump in the economy are the severe factors.

Lee et al. (2008) reported that inaccurate estimates by consultant were one of the causes of delay in Vietnam construction.

Sambasivan and Yau (2007) indicated the top three causes of delay was under categories of contractor related factors, which is contractor’s improper planning; contractor inadequate experience and contractor’s poor site management. However, according to the Motaleb and Kishk (2010) argued that the client-related factors seem to be the most significant causes of delay in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The result showed that fifteen top causes of delay include six client-related factors, four project manager-related factors, three financial factors and two contractor-related factors.

Mezher et al. (1998) conducted a survey of the cause of delays in the construction industry in Lebanon from the viewpoint of owners, contractors and architectural or engineering firms. A total of 64 causes of delay were identified and categorized into 10 main groups which is material, manpower, equipment, financing, changes, government relations, project management, site condition, environment and contractual relationship. The survey was found that owners had more concerns with regard to financial issues while the contractors ranked contractual relationships is the most important, then consultants ranked projects management highest.

Bassioni et al. (2008) carried out a study to identify the causes of delay in building construction projects in Egypt. They decided to use the Assaf et al. (1995) nine groups of delays in this research while they changing the government relations description to the rules and regulations and the result showed that the respondent ranked the financing by contractor during construction and delays in contractor’s payment by owner as the first and second important causes of delay. Mahamid (2012) indicated delay in collecting payments from clients was the most important factor to affecting contractor’s business failure.

Mansfiels et al (1994) investigated causes of delay and cost overruns in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was carried out with contractors, consultants and client organization in Nigeria. The result showed that the most important factors are financing and payment for completed works, poor contract management, changes in site conditions, shortages of material. Lee et al. (2008) discussed the delay and cost overrun in Vietnam large construction project. The result showed that slow payment of completed works, shortages of material, poor project management, poor site management and supervision and financial difficulties of owner and contractors was the most important factors.

According to Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006) 73 different causes of delay have been identified and categorized these factors into nine groups. He studied the importance of various causes from the viewpoint of contractors, consultants, and owners. The most common cause of delay identified by all the parties was change order and this is also agreed by the Motaleb and Kishk (2010). Besides, the study found that about 70 % of the projects experienced time overruns and 45 out of 76 projects were beyond the completion date which delay occurred.

Ahmed et al (n.d) indicated there are two kinds of causes of delay in construction projects namely external and internal causes. Internal causes of delays include the causes, which come from parties involved in that project. While external causes means the delays do not come from these parties in the project for instance, material suppliers or weather. Shebob et al. (2012) conducted survey on comparative study of delay factors in Libyan and the United Kingdom (UK) construction industry, they concluded that severe weather condition on the job site, delay in delivering the site to the contractor and inadequate equipment used for the works were the most critical delay factors in Libyan.

Wael et al. (2007) indicated that delays occur in every construction industry and the magnitude of these delays varies significantly from project to project and country to country. For example, Shebob et al (2012) conducted a survey compared both countries one can be considered to be a developed country and another considered to be a developing country. The survey result showed that the rank levels of delay factors were different from views of three parties namely contractor, consultant and client.

According to Iyer et al. (2011) one of the most critical factors of construction delay was the lack of commitment. The research was to analysing factors affecting delays in Indian construction projects. However, they pointed out the finding was indeed a clear contrast to the findings of Bassioni et al. (2008), the financial problem of a contractor is the most important cause in Egypt. Table 2.1 to 2.4 shows the comparison on causes of delay due to client, consultant, contractor and external factors in different countries.

2.4.1 Comparison on causes of delay in different countries due to owner, consultant, contractor and external factors


Shebob et al.

Kasimu and Abubakar

Haseeb at al.










1. Delay in delivering the site

1. Financial ability

2. Priority on construction time

3. Not properly time decision

4. Late payment of bills


2. Design error

1. Completeness and time lines of project knowledge

2. Preceding working relationships

3. Missing some feature in drawing


1. Inadequate equipment

1. Improper planning

2. Mismanagement

1. Acquire out of data and machinery

External Factors

1. Serve weather conditions on the job site

1. Shortage of material

Table 2.1 Summary of Causes of Delays in between Owner, Consultant, Contractor and External Factors


Iyer et al.

Motaleb and Kishk

Fugar and











1. Increase in scope of work

2. Slow decision

1. Change order

2. Lack of capability of client representative

3. Slow decision


1. Poor Professional Management

2. Underestimation of cost of projects

3. Delay in honouring payment certificate


1. Delay in material delivery

2. Financial constraints

3. Poor site management and supervision

4. Delay in material procurement

1. Poor site management

2.Late delivery of material

3. Improper planning and scheduling

1. Poor supervision

2. Underestimation of time for completion

3. Poor site management

4. Construction method

External Factors

1. Shortage of material

Table 2.2 Continued


Bossionai et al.

Lee et al.

Sweis et al.










1. Delay Payment

2. Design changes

3. Slow decision making

1. Financial difficulties

2. Slow payment of completed works

1. change orders

2. Slow decision


1. Design changes

1. Poor project management assistance

2. Inaccurate estimates

3. Mistake in design


1. Financing

2. Slow delivery of materials

1. Poor site management and supervision

2. Financial difficulties

1. Poor planning and scheduling

2. Financial difficulties

3. Improper technical

4. Incompetent technical staff assigned

5. Shortage of technical professionals

External Factors

1. Unforeseen site condition

1. Weather condition

2. Rules

Table 2.3 Continued


Sambasivan and Yau

Kumaraswammy and Chan

Niazi and Gidado







Hong Kong



1. Finance and payments of completed work

1. Initiated variations

1. Delay in progress payment


1. Delay in design information


1. Improper planning

2. Site management

3. Inadequate contractor management

4. Subcontractors

5. Mistake during construction stage

1. Poor site management and supervision

2. Inadequate experience

3. Delay in subcontractors’ works

4. Improper control over site resource allocation

1. Poor qualification of the technical staff

2. Poor site management and supervision

3. Ineffective planning and scheduling of project

4. Financial difficulties

5. Poor communication and coordination

External Factors

1. shortage in material

1. Security

Table 2.4 Continued

Based on the summary analyse as shown in the above, the following conclusion has been made:


Literature shows that delay in payment by the client to contractor is the primary leading causes of the construction delay in projects (Sambasivan and Yau, 2007; Bossionai et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2008; Haseeb at al., 2011; Niazi and Gidado (n.d) ). In addition, slow decision made by client was also an important factors cause of delay in construction (Bossionai et al., 2008; Sweis et al., 2008; Haseeb at al., 2011; Motaleb and Kishk, 2010; Iyer et al., 2011). Besides, construction delay may caused by factors of financial difficulties faced by client (Sambasivan and Yau, 2007; Lee et al., 2008; Haseeb at al., 2011). In consequence, failure to pay the completion works regularly will impede the work progress, sequence and cause delay.


The delay factors caused by consultants mostly are related to the design problems. Kasimu and Abubakar (2012) pointed out the design error is one of the factors cause delay in Nigeria construction. According to that Lee et al. (2008) indicated mistake in design by consultant may lead to construction delay and delay in design information identified by Kumaraswammy and Chan (1998). Besides that, Lee et al. (2008) and Fugar and Agyakwah-Baah (2010) pointed out inaccurate estimates are one of the factors of delay due to consultants.


Nowadays, the contractor has been paid least concentration to the importance of the site management and supervision. Poor site management and supervision is the major cause of delay in construction industry (Kumaraswammy and Chan, 1998; Sambasivan and Yau, 2007; Lee et al., 2008; Fugar and Agyakwah-Baah, 2010; Motaleb and Kishk, 2010; Iyer et al., 2011; Niazi and Gidado (n.d) ). In addition, planning plays an important role in construction projects because effective planning is ensure that the work is complete within the project’s period and accomplished according to work programme. However, few studies pointed out improper planning is important causes of delay due to contractor (Sambasivan and Yau, 2007; Sweis et al., 2008; Motaleb and Kishk, 2010; Kasimu and Abubakar, 2012; Niazi and Gidado (n.d) ).

Moreover, financial difficulties are considered another factors cause of delay in construction (Lee et al., 2008; Sweis et al., 2008; Bossionai et al., 2008; Niazi and Gidado (n.d) ). According to Bossionai et al. (2008), Motaleb and Kishk (2010) and Iyer et al. (2011) evaluated that delay in material delivery by contractor may lead to the construction delays.

External Factors

According to the Sambasivan and Yau (2007), Fugar and Agyakwah-Baah (2010) and ; Kasimu and Abubakar (2012) mentioned that shortage of materials is the main external factors of causing delay in construction. Besides, shortage of materials may lead to low productivity in the construction. Weather is another factors identified by Sweis et al. (2008) and Shebob et al. (2012) as the external factors lead to the construction industry suffered by delay.

In certain, some causes may lead to the construction delays. There are some factors for the construction industries are facing difficulties nowadays:

Lack of coordinate at design phase

Site ‘s topography is changed after design

Keep changing the sub contractors or suppliers

Improper inspection approach

Lack of high technology equipment

Variety types of attitude among the construction practitioners

2.5 Effects of delays

Delays on construction projects are a universal phenomenon and that may bring some impacts to the construction practitioners, construction industry and the countries as well. Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) studied and evaluated the effects of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry. The six effects of construction delay have been identified which included time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration and litigation and total abandonment. Figure 2.3 shows the effects of construction delays in construction industry.

Time Overrun




Cost Overrun

Effect of Construction Delays

Total Abandonment

Figure 2.3 Effects of Construction Delays

Sambasivan and Yau (2007) conducted a survey to identify the causes and effects of delays in Malaysia construction industry. This study identified six different effects of delay. That concluded that time overrun and cost overruns are two most significant effects of delay in Malaysia construction projects. Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) and Motaleb and Kishk (2010) indicated that time and cost overruns were frequently effects of delay. Abdullah et al. (2011) pointed out that disputes were another common effect of construction delay. This dispute was normally between contractors and clients and it significantly affects the progress of construction projects.

Kaming et al. (2006) studied influencing factors on 31 high rise projects in Indonesia and found out that cost overruns happened more frequency and are more serve problem than time overruns. They pointed out that the major factors influencing cost overrun are material cost increase due to inflation. While the most important factors causing time overrun are design changes, inadequate planning and poor labour productivity.

Abdullah et al. (2011) conducted a survey to assessing the effects of construction delays on MARA large projects and argued that time overrun is ranked extremely high by all respondents. Time overrun is very significant effect of delay while cost overrun is significant effect of delay. More than 90 % of its projects experienced time overruns where more than 30 % suffered time overruns for more than 200 days. Besides, Assaf and Hejji (2006) and Abdullah et al. (2011) pointed out that inadequate planning by contractors the potential causes delay that may contributes to time overrun. They concluded that time overrun has strong influence to cost overrun because extension of time of the project will increase the cost of the project.

According to the Haseeb et al. (2011) seven effects of delay in construction projects of Pakistan have been listed down. This included overtime, overcost, disputes, negotiations, lawsuit, litigation and abandonment. They described that parties included in contract through claims agree on the additional capital and extra time linked with construction delay. The general consequences are the loss of wealth, time and capacity.

Omran et al. (2009) concluded that lost of interest by the stakeholder ranked by the respondent as one of the most important factors which has an impact in construction project delay. Besides that, blacklist by authorities was the second highest impact of delay in construction projects. The four effects have been identified which included:

Lost of interest by the stakeholder

Blacklist by authorities

Declination of reputation

Waste of money and time

According to Djordjevic and Djukic (2008) company reputation is one of the most important intangible assets. Murray (2003) indicated the company reputation is very important because an adversely affected reputation can become a business threat. Strategic planning, corporate governance are the top factors that affect company reputation according to the study conducted by Ismail et al. (2006). Thus, company frequently faced delay in projects may affect the company reputation in the construction industry.

Construction industry plays a vital role in economic growth of Malaysia. Lindsay (2012) indicated in 2010, the construction sector contributed 5 per cent to the nation’s Gross Domestic Product, albeit small in percentage terms but the total value of RM 18.2 billion was actually very significant as it helped to generate huge economic linkages. The Construction Industry development Board Malaysia published the information of number and value of projects awarded by status of contractor in Malaysia. Table 2.5 shows the number and value of projects awarded by status of contractors from year 2009 to March 2011 in Malaysia. Construction delay may cause cost overruns, affected the reputation of the company and lost of interest by stakeholder invest into construction sector, this few impacts may affect the economic growth in countries and the Gross Domestic Product as well.

Projects Category

Total Number

of Project

Total Project


(RM mil)



Private Projects


Government Project

(Number of project)



Private Projects


Government Project

(Number of project)











March 2011





Table 2.5 Number and Value of Projects Awarded by Status of Contractors from Year 2009 to 2010

2. 6 Methods of reducing delays

According to the Ibu Abbas Majid (2006) has identified the top fifteen effective methods of mitigate delays, the top five most effective methods were:

Ensure the adequate and available source of finance

Finance factor acts as significant key issue in the construction projects. Fugar and Agyakwah-Baah (2010) mentioned that construction clients must ensure that funds are available or adequate arrangements for funds are made before projects are started.

Competent project manager

Nguyen et al. (2004) mentioned that project manager plays an important role in construction industry because the role of project manager is responsibility for the successful initiating, monitoring, planning and established of clients’ objectives. Therefore, project manager is the one who looks into the application skills, knowledge, competent and techniques to describe, organize and control the various project processes.

Availability of resource

Nguyen et al. (2004) stated if the effective amount of resources in the site, the process of the project will be fasten because it serves a lot of time and the productivity growing rapidly.

Frequent progress meeting

Holding progress meeting frequently is the way to minimize the delay problems. Throughout the progress meeting and it keeping a periodic check on the project progress and making any decision to implement corrective action. In addition, it can avoid any delays happened in construction projects.

Awarding bids to the right / experience contractor and consultant

Sambasivan and Yau (2007) mentioned that before selecting the contractors, the clients have to make sure the contractor have sufficient experience, financial capability and not just based only on the lowest bid. Assaf and Hejji (2006) also pointed out owners should give special attention for the selecting of contractors, it have to check for resources and capabilities, before awarding the contract to the lowest bidder.

Furthermore, Sambasivan and Yau (2007) divided prescriptions into three groups to reduce delays.

Recommendation for owners

Clients are advised not to change the main requirements and also should not disturb the works during completion works. Besides, the clients have to pay the contractors after completion of a work on time. Thus clients should work closely with the financing bodies to release all the payments on schedule. The immediate decision must be made clients in order to solve any problems which occurred in the construction stage. Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006) stated that clients should pay progress payment to the contractors on time because impairs the contractors’ ability to finance the work and avoiding delay in reviewing and approving of design documents than the anticipated.

Recommendation for contractors

Contractors should consider the ability to handle the works or expertise in the field of works when they take up the jobs. Besides that, the contractor should have able site managers to assist them in order to run through the works smoothly. Proper work scheduling and planning are important to the contractor to refer and match with the resources and time to develop the work. Omran et al. (2009) indicated proper planning as the factors which need to be considered to avoid delays. Abdelnaser et al. (2005) stated that in order to avoid the delays during the construction stage, had a proper planning is a must. In addition, contractor should ensure that they have a sound financial backing.

Recommendation for consultants

Consultant should prepare and approve all the relevant drawings on time and monitor the work closely by making inspection at suitable time as well in order to prevent the delay on time in projects. Furthermore, Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006) recommended that consultants should be flexible in evaluating contractor’s work.

Jaafari (1996) mentioned that incentive provision can be used as a contractual strategy with significant potential to address performance problems in projects. Mehmood and Shah (2012) stated that incentives may be provided to the staff and contractors for early completion of the projects, which will serve as motivation for their involvement .According to the Bubshait (2003) , clients can provide time incentive for early completion, cost incentive for cost saving, quality incentive for zero or minor defects. Rose and Manley (2011) pointed out used of incentives as a key means to improving project performance by simulating the motivation to work harder and smarter in pursuit of high order performance objectives.

Nguyen et al. (2004) studied the project success factors in large construction projects in Vietnam and the found out accurate initial cost and time estimates and multidisciplinary project team are the three more effective methods can minimise construction delays.

2.7 Chapter Summary

This chapter also discussed about the previous studies on type of delays, cause of delay and comparison on causes of delay in different countries due to owner, consultant, contractor and external factors. Throughout this chapter, due to the demographic patterns with variety of human behaviour, the main causes of delay are also differences in respectively countries. It is also discussed the impacts of delay in construction projects. On the other hand, it provided the prevention methods to recommend to the owners, contractors and consultants in order to mitigate the delay in construction.



3.1 Introduction

Research methodology is the way to conduct for the dissertation. Literature review and questionnaire are conducted for this research methodology. Besides, construction on the design of questionnaire, research strategy and data collection will include in this chapter. The results which are collected from the respondent is recorded and analysed. In addition, this chapter will discussing about the data analysis techniques and conducted with the most accurate way. Hence, the results are well and clearly presented in the next chapter. All the collected data was being summarised in the most effective way in order to make a comprehensive to the reader.

3.2 Data Collection Approaches

There are two types of data collection approaches in the dissertation which are:

Primary data

Secondary data

3.2.1 Primary Data

Primary data is the collection any information or data from the primary resources. Which means those data is unpublished and collected from researcher itself. However, the pros and cons for the primary data can define as the primary data are more reliable and accurate with the objectives of the research. In contrast, primary data are more spending on time, manpower to collect for the data.

3.2.2 Research Strategy

Noaum (2007) mentioned that choosing the right research strategy is depends on the purpose or aim of the study and types of information or resources which is demanded. The research strategy is the tools to explain the research questions. Besides, there are two types of research strategies which namely qualitative research and quantitative research.

Qualitative research methods were developed in the natural settings and study on the social and cultural phenomena. For example, case study research, interviews and open-ended questionnaires. Whereas, quantitative research is the research objectives require quantification such as analysed with statistical, measured with numbers and proportion of population and it is normally used in the questionnaires. Moreover, using quantitative research is the best way to prove the hypothesis, aims, objectives and research questions of the study. Therefore, quantitative research has been chosen as a research method because this method can lead a better understanding and more factual answer from the respondents.

3.2.3 Research Method: Questionnaire

Questionnaire is an efficient method to conduct the aim and objectives. The advantages of questionnaire are those responses gathered in a standardised way, so the questionnaire seems more objective and certainly if compare with personal interviews. However, a complicated questions are not encouraged due to difficult question can lead the misunderstanding by the respondents.

3.2.4 Types of Question Format

There are two types of the questionnaire which open-ended questions and closed-ended questions. While, open-ended question are known as unrestricted type and the questions can be answered widely by the respondents.

By contrast, closed-ended questions are which respondents can reply with a finite number or limited choice of answer. For instance, short response in the form of Yes or No, Agree or Disagree and etc. Therefore, the both types of the questionnaire have been chosen for this research.

3.2.5 Question Design

The questionnaires are divided into four sections in the research. Section A is the background of the respondents. Section B is about the causes of the delays. Section C is related to the impacts of delay in construction. Last part of the questionnaire is the Section D which is about the determination of the effective methods of reducing delays. There are 100 sets of questionnaires are prepared and distributed to respondents through mail and by hand in.

The structure of the questionnaire is classified into four sections:

Section A

General information about respondents personal information, for example name of respondents, respondents’ position, respondents’ year of experience, nature of business.

Section B

3.2.6 Data Collection Method

3.3 Secondary Data

3.3.1 Literature Review

3.4 Data Analysis


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