A Review on the Role of Expert System in Nephrology

19 Apr 2018

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  • Mr. Sagar S. Mali, Dr. R. V. Kulkarni

Abstract

Expert system refers to ability of the machine to collect data, performing operations on that data, and provide the correct and accurate results. The Expert system brings the intelligence like the human intelligence which is embedded into them by the computer programs. The use of Expert system in Nephrology concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, and the treatment of kidney problems by the use of IT. There is need to transformation of the human expert knowledge to the machine. So that users of the system get the quick information about the particular disease in the field of Nephrology. The many researchers want to develop the system by using the fuzzy sets and neural computing. Author wants to present the exhaustive review on the role of expert system in Nephrology with special reference to kidney functions, kidney problems and kidney problem solutions through expert system.

Keywords – Expert System, Nephrology

INTRODUCTION

The human body is the made up of the various parts. To take care of it the medical science exists from thousands of years and growth of its growing tremendously. It includes the various branches like biochemistry, molecular biology, medicinal chemistry, microbiology, neuroscience, physiology, nutrition, vision science and biomedical technology etc. In the recent era the use of IT for the medical science gives the precious contribution for the systematic development.

The Medical Expert helps for diagnosing the medical disease that suggest to patients for about their health problems. But due to new amendments use of expert system is must. The Medical experts / doctors give treatment to patients with their experience and judgment. But sometimes he/she fails to treat the patient if the correct diagnosis is not made on patient disease or due to lacunas of expert Knowledge in the respective field. So it is the major problem for the junior doctors to learn new things and to patients also to know about their health problems because they can’t make experiment in reality because life is the very important. Another major problem is that the experienced Doctors/ Experts cannot always teach to junior or cannot tell to individual patients about their disease due to geographical location problems. It may require lot of cost and time for doctors and patients also.

EXPERT SYSTEM

Expert system refers to the mechanism which has the capability of collecting core data, process on it, analyze, make synthesis, perform operations, and provide the correct and accurate results which help to any individual or to any organization to take their best decisions. It is the specialized branch of Artificial Intelligence.

Now days in various areas the expert system is working just like the medical, space research, security department, in banks and so on. The major use of the expert system to reduce the technical error related to business processing, logic processing and data processing. Expert systems are widely used in the field of medical to diagnose the patient disease.

OBJECTIVE

To take the review on the role of expert system in Nephrology with special reference to kidney functions, kidney problems and kidney problem solutions through expert system.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Laith R. Fleaih, in his paper “Expert system for Diagnosing kidney diseases” stated that the neural computing system designed to support the medical decision process using medical imaging databases and creating the optimal systems for ministry of the health to help the physician to making the correct decision with high certainty also give suitable medical device and can use for training the medical stuff easily. Main aim of the proposed system is the ability to diagnose of the kidney disease by in hospital or in the clinical center.

Pornpimol Meemasuk and Chantana Chantrapornchai, presented paper “On the Development of Nutrition Information Systems for Kidney Disease Patients” focuses on the use of information system to aid kidney disease patients. There are various kinds of kidney diseases. Each of them requires the certain limitation of food nutrition, especially, sodium, potassium, protein, etc. In some situation, the protein may need to increase while in some case the protein needs to be decreased.

Sandeep Soman, Gerard Zasuwa, Jerry Yee in the paper “Automation, Decision support and expert system in Nephrology ” presented that increasing data suggest that errors in medicine occur frequently and result in substantial harm to the patient. Clinical decision support systems (cdsss) are active knowledge systems that use 2 or more items of patient data to generate case specific recommendations. This article describes how automation, templating, and cdss improve efficiency, patient care, and safety by reducing the frequency and consequences of medical errors in nephrology.

M.Surendra Prasad Babu, L. Sreedhar, Dr. K. Rammurthy, in the paper “Hematology Expert System Using Rule Based Mechanism” stated The Hematology information system helps the people to know about the information about the different aspects of Hematology. The Hematology Advisory system helps the patients to get the required advices about the different diseases attacked to them due to their blood disorders. System is developed using JSP and MySQL.

Wim Van Biesen, Guido Sieben, Norbert Lameire and Raymond Vanholder In their paper stated that the patients as having glomerular or tubular disease with a high sensitivity and predictive value. The rule-based system performs worse than the neural networks. The most adequate results were obtained with the hybrid system. They used Kohonen map is cap able of classifying the patients.

Miroslave ivandic, walter hofmann and walter g guder, in his paper “Development and evaluation of a urine protein expert system” developed expert system that describes use of DSS for medical assessment of urine protein differentiation provides a standard of high and constant quality. A graduated and transparent decision process is implemented in the hybrid knowledge base that uses both production rule and geometric distance classification as complementary method of knowledge representation.

Leonardo F. Duarte said in his research paper “Expert System for diagnosis and treatment of diabetes” that intelligent system gives diagnosis and steps to follow in order to achieve optimum health status for the patient.

FINDINGS

  1. There is Expert system for Nephrology but all the aspects are not covered related to the nephrology.
  2. No fully implemented expert system is available which open source.
  3. The system is not used by the patients only doctors or experts are using it for diagnosis purpose in their clinic or hospitals.
  4. No web based full-fledged implementation.

SUGGESTIONS

  1. Expert System in Nephrology which includes collection of disease data in well from and then it will make diagnosis.
  2. Also system should provide the suggestion for food nutrition to the kidney patients according to their age group.
  3. System will be open source which will be used by anybody across the world.
  4. System will provide the drugs information and exercise information to the patients also depending on their type and stage of kidney disease.

CONCLUDING REMARK

Although the literature presents that researches are made in the field of Nephrology but whole areas of it is not taken into consideration for developing the expert system. So author want to propose new research in all areas of Nephrology which includes diagnosis, suggestions, and food nutrition for the patients and system is developed by using open source platform.

REFERENCES

[1] Laith R. Fleaih, Expert system for diagnosing kidney diseases, international journal of computers & technology, Vol.14, No. 3, Page 5517,Dec. 2014.

[2] Pornpimol Meemasuk and Chantana Chantrapornchai, “On the Development of Nutrition Information Systems for Kidney Disease Patients”, International Journal of Database Theory and Application, Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2013.

[3] Sandeep Soman, Gerard Zasuwa, Jerry Yee, “Automation, Decision support and expert system in Nephrology” US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health , 15(1):42-55, Jan 2008.

[4] M.Surendra Prasad Babu, L. Sreedhar, Dr. K. Rammurthy, in the paper “Hematology Expert System Using Rule Based Mechanism”, ISSN: 2231-071 IJCSET | April 2011 | Vol 1, Issue 3,103-106.

[5] Miroslave ivandic, walter hofmann and walter g guder, “Development and evaluation of a urine protein expert system”, Clinical chemistry 42, No. 8, 1996.

[6] Leonardo F. Duarte said in his research paper “Expert System for diagnosis and treatment of diabetes”, spring 2003.

[7] http://www.kidney.nyc/kidney-disease/

[8] http://www.webmd.com/drugs/index-drugs.aspx

[9] http/en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephrology



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