Application of Communication Theories


14 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

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Choose one communication theory which you think will help organization and how it will help communication requirement?


In other words communication theories explains systematic summary about the nature of the communication process, certainly, theories can do more than summarize.

Amongst the various theories of communication, diffusion and agenda setting theory would help meet the communication requirements at the GDW. (Sligo,1997)

Diffusion Theory:

Diffusion Theory is related to human behavior, getting new ideas, how to implement them, step-by- step, this theory explains how one reaches an important decision.

There are five stages within the diffusion process:

1. Awareness - Individual is aware of "it."

2. Interest - Wants to learn more.

3. Evaluation - Asks others for feedback.

4. Trial - Uses a sample, etc.

5. Adoption - Now a user/believer.

Agenda Setting Theory:

Agenda setting theory is more beneficial for public relationship; it works wonder to get the attention of the media, the public and policy makers. Some researchers says it is "set of issues" that can be used for multi-directional purpose.

By applying the above two theories communication requirement can be fulfilled at the government disability workshop. As these two theories would help interact easily with each other, understanding will improve, thus maximum output can be gained.(Sligo,1997)

Can you evaluate how effective was Ralf Ocker communication to the staff? (You need to analyze good and bad communication within the organization)


Ralf communication is not good. Email is not a good communication always. He always do communication with the staff by email. He can sit with the staff and give feedback their questions. He needs to listen his staff. He is a good listener and professional rather being emotional. Ralf don't care of others and fire people. He should follow face to face communication with the staff, because it is two way communications and resolve so many conflicts quickly.

As far as the role of Mr. Ocker to reshape the GDW is concerned, he used the parallel theories & models of good communication & restructuring, as he announced cutting down of substantial funds also he closed the workshop for some time until a way could be found to make them significant and profitable.

In such manner he assesses the most significant & valuable planned changes for the GDW.

  1. He observed the situation that workshop need changes,
  2. He arranged meeting with the staff from other department to think together about whole processes
  3. In order to evaluate new ideas he listened to the planning of Mr. Fred, Mr. Mavis & Ms. Mary
  4. In adoption, he brought up a team whose main motive would be to bring changes in organization which was called "Ability Plus"(Locker,2003)

In the conclusion, the Mr. Ralph Ocker communication planned changes brings a new era of business behavior to the GDW. His strategy is quite similar to Diffusion theory in which changes are adopted or rejected the all stages.(Locker,2003)

i)Identify four stages of perception process (theory)


Perception is a process, by which we study the world around us, world that consist persons, objects and its experiences. Perception is unique to each person, two people cannot experience the world exactly the same at a time. Perception process occurs in four stages, namely-

1. Stimulation: When someone receive the information.

2. Attention: When someone pays attention and receive/accept only what he wants

3. Organization: How do someone organize other ideas what he listen or receive

4. Evaluation: Evaluate the information. Understanding of the parts

ii) Identify and explain Ralf listening technique.


1. Ralf Ocker is a experienced guy and stimulates information perfectly

2. He paid full attention to the message. ( In this stage Ralph Ocker took two weeks in order to know and understand the organization and the staff)

3. He organize the information (After knowing the way the organization behaved Ralph Ocker then organized how and what has to be done, he announced cutting down of substantial funding, then he closed the workshop for some time until a way could be found to make them actually turn into something significant and profitable, he also welcomed suggestion from the staff).

4. He also evaluates the information perfectly. (In the this stage Ralph Ocker interpreted the changes he was about to bring. In this stage he added meaning to the points he had brought in front of the staff by sending a mail which had a detailed account of proposed changes).

i) Definition of Assertive Communication.


Assertive communication is the straight forward & open expression of your needs, desire thoughts & feelings it involves advocating for your own needs while still considering & respecting the need of others.

All of us use assertive behavior at times, quite often when we feel vulnerable or unsure of ourselves we may resort to submissive, manipulative or aggressive behavior.

Assertiveness is a useful communication tool. Its application is contextual and it's not appropriate to be assertive in all situations. Remember, your sudden use of assertiveness may be perceived as an act of aggression by others.

There's also no guarantee of success, even when you use assertive communication styles appropriately.

ii) Analyze GDW staff assertive response by using Four Fs-Facts, Feelings, Focus and Feedback.


Facts: Remain neutral and don't attack; talk about fact, truth; Do not blame anyone and speak the truth. Fred speak the truth.

Many of GDW staffs were ex armed personnel who had very rigid structure & who used autocratic management style, machinery were out dated , GDW had a limited amount of contract cause of little funding & were unable to compete with the commercial rivals.

Focus on Action: Ocker planned a better and productive strategy, & he made sure changes were strictly followed. Fred focused on action.

Feelings: Some people from the staff were favoring the new management system (accepted by Ocker & Fred) and some of them was against, but in the mail sent by Ocker clearly states that changes would go ahead as planned.

Feedback : Feedback refers to the process of exchanging information is order to make things clearer. There were many instances that took place in the GDW which explains how feedback process was done in GDW from the joining of Ocker to the decision he finally made in the end.

i) Identify and evaluate the guideline for giving and receiving feedback.


Giving and receiving feedback should be Specific and objective, on timely, and honest.

ii) What advice you give Rlaf Ocker regarding receiving and giving feedback.


Giving and receiving feedback involves the interaction of both the parties, thus Ralph Ocker should make sure he not only explains his point but should also understand what the staff wants to say. He should also clarify them in order to avoid confusions. While giving or receiving feedback there can be statements which might sound nitpicky to one, Ralph Ocker should make sure he avoids such situation and should assume that the persons who pointed it out would did so as it was important to be mentioned.

  • Make it a positive process and experience.

Ralph Ocker should always remember that his main purpose was to reshape the GDW

and hence his main focus should be to improve the condition of GDW and in order to do that he should make sure he shouldn't be harsh, critical or offensive.

  • Be timely and regular and specific

Ralph Ocker should make sure that he does not take much time in receiving and giving the feedback i.e. he should make sure he keeps interacting with the staff of GDW on regular basis so that there is no point of confusion and maximum output can thus be generated.

  • Have available all the necessary information

Ralph Ocker should make sure he has all the required data, facts, information which would be needed in the process of interaction also he should make sure that all of them is well organized in order to avoid any confusion and for easy reference.

  • Be a good listener and ask for clarification

Giving and receiving feedback involves the interaction of both the parties, thus Ralph Ocker should make sure he not only explains his point but should also understand what the staff wants to say. He should also clarify them in order to avoid confusions.



1. Invite individual to self access

2. Comment on position

3. Focus on behavior not person

4. Own the statement and don't wait

5. Be clear and specific

6. Discuss with staff and ask how they feel

7. Try to give positive feedback

8. Use "I"

9. Immediate feedback is more reliable, So give feedback as soon as possible


1. Self access your ideas and work before hand

2. He shall check if he has understood the specific of feedback where more focus required

3. Take negative feedback too, it is useful

4. Prepare specific question that you want on other person to provide feedback on

Regarding conflict negotiation-

i) Identify two causes of conflict at GDW.


Conflict is an integral part of Human being, it is said that until, you have people dealing with people, making decisions or meeting deadlines you will Have Conflict. Mass causes of conflict in organization are poorly defined Goal, Divergent personal Values, lack of co-operation, unclear roles, communication failure, personality conflict etc. The two causes of conflict at the GDW are as follows:-

1. Restructuring:

2. Difference of Opinion: In organization many people work so opinion might be different.

3. Lack of Formal Communication: It refers to the condition of GDW which lacked formal conversation as the earlier staff was rigid in nature and they followed an autocratic management style. When people don't interact in an organization of formal topics chances of conflicts rises to a higher point.

4. Poorly Defined Goals: Before the arrival of Ralph Ocker the GDW lacked planning strategy and had undefined goals due to lack of communication between the staff members. When such huge things are ignored chances of conflict rises to a large extent

ii) In your opinion what conflict management style or technique Ralf should have used at GDW.


Conflict management is the practice of Identifying & handling a conflict in sensible fair & efficient manner.

Ralph Ocker should have used/considered the following to prevent conflicts:

1. Frequent meeting with the staff members

2. He should have allowed the team to express openly
3. He should sharing objectives completely and correctly
4. He should give a clear & detailed Job description
5. Ocker should distribute task fairly
6. He should never criticize any of the staff members publicly

7. He should always be fair and should do justice with everyone


Collaboration: This is where Ocker will pair up with the other stuff to achieve both of their goals.

Competition: This is 'win-lose' approach. Ocker should act in a very assertive way to achieve his goal.


i) Discuss the key principles for restructuring communication.


Restructuring is one of the biggest decisions your organization can make and you will find it much harder to undo damage done by a poorly managed restructure than it is to ensure that the restructure is a success in the first place. It's likely that your managers and HR staff will not have undergone a restructure before and therefore lack of the knowledge and experience of conducting one. If they have, then their previous experience may have been focused on improving their own individual circumstances. They may have limited knowledge as to how things could or should have been done better at an organizational level.

I would like to suggest the following new principles/guidelines for the management-

  • Bring a flat structure of management into picture
  • Enable decision-making informed by strong cross-system consultation, listening and respect
  • Promote close productive working relationships within the Ability Plus Retain a 'learning
  • organization' philosophy of continuous staff development, engagement and teamwork
  • Outsource, eliminate, or transfer non-essential services,
  • Bridge the communication gap between the staff members in the "ability plus" Adopt a cross
  • functional team approach to problem solving
  • Reduce complexity
  • Focus on core activity
  • Maintain flexibility
  • Use role model in leadership development, etc.

ii) How do you restructure communication?


1. Face to Face Communication:

2. Accountability of Communication:

3. Communication with Truth:

4. Communicate the Vision:

5. Listening to the employee:

6. Senior Manager should be visible and accessible to the employee:

7. Communicate timely:

i) Business Report Guideline


Report cover

Executive Summary

Table of contents

1 Terms of Reference

2 Procedure

3 Findings / Analysis

3.1 Profitability Development Process of Metalwork Department

3.2 Making Profit out of Metalwork Department

4. Conclusions

5. Recommendations



ii) Do you think presentation is good idea or not after report?

Answer: Presentation is good idea because face to face communication is possible through it not by report.

iii) Why each person is different perception of Andrews performance?

Answer: Because each people have different perception about others.

Ray: Selective Attention. Ray heard that Andrew is doing well. because he is qualified and bright. this is called selective attention. First immersion last long.

Tim: Perceptual Accentuation: He said Andrew is too slow to learn the job, because he saw Andrew day to day activities and fix Andrew mistakes.

Kate: Differences in perceptual ability: Kate said that he is not a good member of team and slow.

Sione: Consistency Effect: Andrew is a Rugby Player, So he likes Andrew and think he must be a good team player.

Andrew: Self-serving attribution bios: He think he is doing well and it is called self serving attribution.

iv) List the four elements that define culture. What are the strategies you can use that can help communication between culture?


  1. Time:

2. Context:

Context is best defined as the array of stimuli surrounding a communication event including: body gestures; tone of voice; physical distance between interlocutors; time of day; weather; situation (for example, during a war commemoration ceremony); societal norms; geographic place of communication; and other external factors.

3. Memory/ Understanding:

4. Space/Distance:


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