02 Nov 2017
This essay is to discuss how motivation is based on the question "why we do what we d" (Ozgurzan, 2010). "Motivation is the key factor of doing something you as an individual are interested in and excited about without being discouraged" (Dictionary, 2009-2012). Moreover, pay has been seen as the main motivator for most employees; a business is therefore meant to satisfy each employee with every need required. Therefore, if the needs are not satisfied, then the motivation of the employee or employeeâ€™s will certainly bring down production in the working sector the person is situated in. "It is therefore known that for a businesses to produce well, it must have very interesting and hard working employeeâ€™s that work in a very tremendous and effective way that will then support the organizations goals that are aimed for" (Boddy, 2002). For instance, in a short run, lack of motivation will certainly lead to less effort put in from the employees and lack of commitment, while in the long term; lack of motivation will lead to a fall in productivity of the business and a fall in its profits. However, it is said that employees that are well motivated will of course increase the productivity of the business leading to higher profits and efficiency for the business. Therefore, this essay will then define the different types of motivation theories that can be classified into two different categories, which are Content and Process theories. Moreover, content theories are classified as what motivates people and it is to do with individual needs and goals. Theories, such as Maslow, Herzberg, etc studied motivation from a content type of scheme. On the other hand, theories that studied with a process type of scheme, was concerned with how motivation occurs. Equity theory, Expectancy theory, Reinforcement theory, etc studied motivation from a process type of scheme. This essay will therefore begin with stating the principles of management and then define some of motivation theories, compare them and their views regarding to motivation techniques that may be used in appropriate times of austerity (recession).
(Boddy, 2010) states that, Taylorâ€™s approach mainly concentrated on the relationship between the employee and the usage of how the machine-based production systems work in a wide way. Therefore, Taylorâ€™s principle aim due to management was that, security must be the most successful situation fulfilled for the employer, together with the security needs for every employee in the working sector. Moreover, workers could only gain this by how much effort they have put in their duty that has been given to each of them and understand it. The manager is in full responsibility of all processes that have been properly processed by the employeeâ€™s. However, they are certain motivational principles such as, employee empowerment, ways to punish those that are not working sufficiently, positive reinforcement, rewards and recognition, etc. So, the manager is then forced to use a Paternalistic management style in order to give or pay more attention to the basic needs that their employeeâ€™s have requested for, in order for them to be effective due to their respective duties. With this type of management style, Managers act like a fatherly figure making their workers happy (RILEY, 2012). Firstly, managers are meant to listen and view a random selection of employeeâ€™s before decisions are actually made. However, the actual decisions are made by the manager relating to the interests of the workers, because the managers still feel that their workers still need direction, and in a way this is similar to an Autocratic management style. Moreover, the social needs of Maslow (which I will explain about later in the essay) are closely linked with a Paternalistic type of management style. Meaningful must me created in the work place to promote motivation and good communication amongst the managers and employeeâ€™s to achieve a successful production leading to a positive income of profit for the goods and services provided to the consumers by the business. What a worker mostly need is supervision and a good atmosphere concerning their work not more benefits or bonus of pay. On the other hand, an organization with a positive culture will support the work environment, and this can then prove to be more beneficial and cheap in terms of the goals to achieve a successful employee satisfaction technique. Most business today use a common method of adding recognition and respect to a workerâ€™s job, which is simply involving them in a decision-making process and motivates them because, they feel more important. Therefore, businessâ€™s will set challenging and reward able goals which is also another way to motivate their workers, and later on the business will then gain positive results from their goods and services provided. Secondly, another method that is also used is used to raise employee motivation is, communication. Therefore, Communication between the managers and the work force is a significant sign towards employee performance. Although, communication within a business varies at times; communication set in a top-down style takes time to reach employees, however the decisions made are understood by all employees effectively, while communication in a two- way or direct communication between workers and their managers is or could be more on the crucial side and has an impact towards employee performance. Moreover, collection of feedback of the work force is not only used for finding out the performance of the work force and its atmosphere of trust, it provides a well set communication in the organization or business. Therefore, (RILEY, 2012) states that "an autocratic management style creates them and us attitude between the managers and employeeâ€™s, leading to employeeâ€™s being less motivated. So, managers are therefore meant to listen and respect their employeeâ€™s views and communicate with one another and after that, they can then take forward all suggestions, concerns and wishes to the higher management who should be the directors. Businesses are all known to use different types of motivation theories in order for them to motivate their employeeâ€™s. Furthermore, businesses will also find that certain motivation theories could be very helpful in times of a recession. Therefore, different theories are deeply looked into, so that it can well act upon what exactly the business managers in that sector; theories such as, Taylor, Mayo, Maslow, Herzberg, etc are used to motivate the working sector of a business. Moreover, Taylorâ€™s approach was so into that fact that pay was the only method that would preferably motivate employees. Employees would therefore work to the highest methods management has put out on them, in order for management to reward their output with more income. "Managers in the industrialized economies adopted Taylorâ€™s ideas widely, if selectively, during the 1920s and 1930s" (Thompson and McHugh, 1995). Therefore, in times of a recession, firms with a set method of Taylors approach will either cut out some workers from the working sector, in order for them to be able to support the rest of the employees and the business, or they could try their best to motivate their workers in such times though itâ€™s not really needed especially when a business is in recession because, most of their time spent is to focus on how they are going to survive. However, motivated employees are needed by most companies, so that in times of a recession, when the economy is moving at a slow rate, it will be felt has a short term period for it get back in a recovery. "Managers are set to look for golden opportunities during an economic boom. The best opportunities, however, often arise in the worst of times" (Sull, 2010). Therefore, companies must motivate their employees at a very flexible standard, which will then make their employees stay in the firm during and after a recession. "Mans desire to be continuously associated in work with his fellows is a strong, if not strongest, human characteristicâ€¦." (Mayo, 1949). Therefore, Elton Mayo (1880 â€“ 1949) believed that money is not the only thing workers should be motivated with; he believed that social needs are or most important aspect a worker will need whilst at work, which is the opposite of Taylor. Mayo then introduced a programme called the Human Relation School of thought, which was based on managers taking more of an interest in their workers social needs such as, hearing out each opinion an employee gives out, and bringing together the fact that workers enjoy being together. From the above this simply says or tells us that Mayo was trying to put out that workers are best motivated by good communication skills with the managers and worker to worker, good attention from management to enable the workers to work with respectable supervision, and being able to Work in groups. However, when it comes to a time of a downturn most workers tend to drop out of work or get less motivated. So managers then introduce an initiative to cut down costs. Though this may seem to be of a crucial suggestion to make because, support from their employees and the commitment towards the reduction of costs is not a certain one. Therefore, (Katzenbach and Bromfield, 2009) states that, "A workforce that is actively involved in the initiative and understands the need to make tough decisions can reduce costs more and sustain the reductions longer".
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