The Functional And Dysfunctional

02 Nov 2017

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Conflict, which define as interactive process manifested in disagreement or dissonance with social such as group, individual or organization. For other example like conflict is involve fighting, war, trade embargos and different opinion, perspective or personality is also involve in conflict. Besides that, the interaction with independence people who perceive opposition of goals, aims, and values, and who see the other party as potentially interferes with the realization of these goals in 1987. But once argue was start, whether group, teams, organizations and like can engage in behaviors, and that is the risk anthropomorphizing groups and organizations. Toward on conflict, conflict is also stems from unsatisfied human needs and people represent their interests, but not their underlying needs. However they will use power and coercion to meet those needs by Burton’s. (linda k. stroh, 2003)

1.1 Functional and Dysfunctional

The interactive approach can be classified as functional and dysfunctional. Functional conflict that to improve the group performance and support their goals of the group. The organization without functional conflict, there a constant complement and the organization will become stagnant. Thus, functional conflict can be considered a type of ‘creation tension’.

Dysfunctional conflict is hinders the achievement of organizational goal or harm the organizations performance. Most of the cases which the functional conflicts become dysfunctional is impossible to accurately to determine. Pressure and conflict level may help to create a healthy and positive movement toward a group of target may be great damage and dysfunctional to another group. Dysfunctional conflict may produce negative effect of personal, group or organizational performance. However, beneficial conflicts are often to make the good conflict change to bad conflict. (management class)

2.0 Level of conflict

One of the ways to understand conflict is to distinguish it by level. That is four levels of conflicts such as intrapersonal level (conflict within individual), the interpersonal level (individual to- individual conflict), the intergroup level (conflict among groups or teams), and the interorganizational level (conflict among organization).

Intrapersonal level

Intrapersonal is also called intrapsychic conflict, this conflict occurs within an individual which include idea, thoughts, emotions, value, predispositions, or drives drive that are in conflict with each other and the actual or perceived pressure from incompatible goals and expectation. A character is the collection behaviour and attitude widely anticipated people occupy a particular social position. There have three types of intrapersonal conflict, which is approach- approach conflict, avoidance- avoidance conflict and approach- approach conflict. Approach- approach conflict that occurs when a person has choose between two positive and equally attractive alternative. An example is when the boss has recommend X and Y name for promotion that are equally competent for a position. Avoidance- avoidance conflict occurs when a person choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. The example is being asked either to accept a job transfer to another town in an undesirable location or to have one’s employment with an organization terminated. Approach- avoidance conflicts occurs when a person must decide to do something that has both positive and negative consequence. An example is being offered a higher- paying job whose responsibilities entail unwanted demands on one’s personal time.

Interpersonal conflict

Interpersonal conflict occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another that involve resentment and discontent. Conflict resolution may include trying to reduce resentment and the feeling of dissatisfaction. For example, to help people see things from the perspective of the other person thinking may contribute to the solution of the conflict to reduce resentment.

Intergroup conflict

Intergroup conflict occurs among member that difference group, team and work. It will cause the organization or group difficult to make decision and make the coordination and integration of task activity. This is very common conflict for the organization. For example between accounting and operation team, perceived different status and group goal can fuel intergroup conflict. Organization should concern on this issues, because this problem can end the business when allowing the conflict continue.

Interorganizational conflict

Interorganizational conflict occurs in the competition and rivalry that characterize firms operation in the same market. And it also occurs between unions and organizations employing their members. For the example is the continuing battle between U.S. business and their global rivals. Interorganizational conflict is a wide issue than that represented by market competition alone. Some of the conflict can be functional by firm when improve the quality of their products and services in the spirit of healthy competition.

(Sandra D. Collins, 2005) (schermerhorn, 2008) (conflict)

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2.1- Thomas- Kilmann conflict modes

Competing

Competing is self- confidence and uncooperative, a power- oriented mode with the individual to pursue his or her own concerns about the other costs, the use of any of the powers. It seems appropriate to his position to win. Who attend competitive style take a firm stand and know what they want. It is very important and useful when needed to make a decision fast and defending someone who exploits the situation selfish. However, it can make people unsatisfied and resentful when used in less urgent situations.

Collaborating

Collaborating is include assertive and cooperative since the collaboration was trying work together with other people to find out solution that can make satisfied for both sides. It also involves find out and identify potential problem and find an alternative to meets both sides concern. Collaborating will take by two persons with take the form of explore and learn from other insights to solving some of the condition that complete for resources, or trying to find creative solution to an interpersonal problem. This is win- win solution is whether or not the conflicting parties to see the situation when achieves each other goals, acceptable to both parties and establishes a process to all parties involved the responsibility to be honest about the facts and feelings.

Compromising

Compromising is both assertive and cooperative. That occurs when reach party gives up something of value to the other. It was useful with the cost of conflict is higher than the cost of losing ground, when the strength opponents force to standstill when the deadline approaches. Compromise was falls on a middle ground between competing and accommodating to giving up to more than the competition while less than the accommodating. Meanwhile, can find out the problem more directly than avoiding, but does not explore it in as much depth as collaboration.

Avoiding

Avoiding is unassertive and uncooperative; the individual is not immediately to pursuit of his or her own concerns or other person with avoiding. Now a day, the people are tending towards this style to evade the conflict entirely. When the controversy is trivial or when someone has better position to solve this problem while appropriate victory is impossible. However, this is a weak and ineffective approach to many cases.

Accommodating

Accommodating is unassertive and cooperative, they are willing to meet the needs of others at the expenses of the person’s own needs. Known when mediators often to others, but can be persuaded to surrender a position even it is not warranted. Accommodating is ignore his or her own personal concerns to meet other person, this elements is self- sacrifice in this mode. And they may be form of selfless generosity or charity, when you would more prefer not, or succumb to the view of others. (Schermerhorn, 2008) (Thomas–Kilmann conflict model instrument )

2.2- Organization change management

Restructuring of an organization, in this change, the organization from an old country, new country a known control time, usually involves a series of steps of the transition range of the largest organizations to move to a completely different and sometimes unknown future state.

Technology change

Technology change will make people often think of computerization. This change is bringing about the computer to have far- reaching implication, and a commitment to more dramatic changes. For example, to obtain cheap computer equipment may allow some foreign competitors to narrow the technology gap between some of the organization, if not surpassing the Unites States.

People change

It is a best laid strategic plan must ultimately be enacted staff themselves. Structure has a significant impact on people. Therefore it is important to think through people related changes exactly like you want by changing technology and others. Provide training opportunities is also including with it for a new technology is implemented. Besides that, it just like long- term strategic in staff training to expand their knowledge to the next implementation. It also possible by changing the recruitment for new employees or by firing existing one either it is the executive level or at the line level.

Strategic change

Organizations often to change goals and tactics that show this plan is change in mission statement designated organizations or other place. Organizations like to changes their strategic with concentrate on few core businesses. For example, Pizza Hut and Taco Bell restaurant was purchase the Pepsi international food services with is, so it could concentrate on a few core businesses such as soft drinks and snack foods. (R.Sims, 2002)

2.2.1- Kurt Lewin change process

Threes stage of theory of change commonly referred to Psychologist Kurt Lewin recommends that three phases will change effort which is unfreezing, changing and refreezing.

Unfreezing

The first stage is probably one of the important states to understand in our life. It involve getting a point to understanding, change is necessary and preparing to move from current comfort zone with environmental pressures, declining performance, recognition of a problem, or awareness that someone else found a better way, among other things, facilitate the unfreezing stage. For the example, organization can fall victim to similar circumstances. When the agents was change, their will fail to monitor their environments, they can recognize important trends, or sense the need to change their organization may slowly suffer and lose the competitive edge. Since the signal was changed may be need to be available, they don’t notice or give special attention. (How to Make Life Changes Using Psychologist Kurt Lewin's Unfreeze - Change - Freeze Method)

Changing

This stage is involved taking action to modify a situation by changing things such as people, task, structure, or technology of the organization. Mean that this stage is the most difficult people are not sure even fear. In the difficult situation, when you can do it you may learn a lot about yourself. This is not simply time for people to understand the change and need to be given time to understand and work with them. Support is very important due to can be form of training, coaches and expected mistake as part of process. Therefore, allow people to develop their own solutions to help make the change. It is also helpful maintain a clear communication required changes and benefits to the people so they do not lose sight of where they are heading. (How to Make Life Changes Using Psychologist Kurt Lewin's Unfreeze - Change - Freeze Method)

Refreezing

It also can call freezing, it is the final stage in the planned change process. Refreezing was design to maintain the momentum and eventually to change part of institutionalization, normal equipment daily maintenance, safety and integrity of the benefits of change. In this stage may begin to take place during the change stage and may feel like a struggle, so it can take assists the refreezing phase. Refreezing will involves assessment progress and results to evaluate the change of cost and benefits. Changes are often abandoned in a short time or incomplete execution. (Schermerhorn, 2008)

2.3- Organizational cultures

The organization culture has classified by Handy, there have four types of culture such as power culture, task culture, role culture and person culture.

Power culture

Power culture is the strong leader at the centre and is often like a spider web. Central power is analysis all the activities of the organization. Employees must according to the central power holder to anticipate what is expected from them. The people who are fascination and possess strong leadership skill with holding the power culture organization. It was helpful to help the organization to have great loyalty and promise to achieve organization goal. For the individual success in such as culture, he must have network and influence skill along with intuitive and decision making ability. Leader must have a good judgematic in action to prove it.

Task culture

Usually will using on the in engineering companies and high- technology companies. Because the task culture was focus on the completion of the task or project. There is no single source of power and often culture is related to flexible project based or matrix structure. For the example, one team was brought together for four different projects, while each team need project leader, but that the other function that make up the teams will vary, depending on the needs of the project. Shaded boxes indicate where team members come from the particular project- note how they are distributed across functions.

Role culture

Role culture is important on team rather than individual. Usually this kind of culture career path is logical, and length of services and length of services. Those who seek stability, great clear job and responsibilities division will enjoy working in role of culture. Normally it using in the large banks and insurance companies in role culture. The department have to do report to the head of organization, every department have specialized roles and report to the head of organization. Government department is the best example for this culture role. Finance department, within that department one person will fill one, narrowly defined role.

Person culture

Person Culture is a business culture in which individuals have the authority to make all decisions regarding specific tasks and or activities. The theory behind Person Culture is therefore about working on your own. This is the least common with the four cultures. Personal success in this kind of culture comes from commitment to upholding a shared set of personal values with a group of other like minded individuals. (Knowledge, 2002)

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3.0- Relationship of culture and conflict

Employees in avoiding models may involve people culture in their workplace. The employees who involve in people culture with avoiding models, irresponsible since they are always avoid the responsible to do their job. Because they will try to avoid an issue until a better time since they think the issue is not over for them. So they will ignore or refuse to responsible to done their job.

Employees in competing models may involve with power culture in their workplace. The employees who involves in power culture with competing modes, they will high concern with personal goal, it same as power culture. Due to the power culture, they concern on individual rather than committee. They will think their decision is the best for the organization due to the power culture; they will try to influence people to accept and follow the decision.

Employees in compromising models may involve with task culture in their workplace. In this models, employees who involves in task culture with compromising modes. They have a highly skill and specialized in their own area with focus on teamwork. Not discrimination for them to work with other group or department. With the compromising models will concern for personal goal and relationship and make the mutually decision to help the organization.

Employees in collaborating models may involve with task culture in their workplace. In this model, they have high skill on specific on own area. Between the task cultures, they will focus on the organization goals, to help the organization achieve the goal. And they will get same goal for the organization to complete the project together.

Employees in accommodating models may involve with power culture in their workplace. In this models, building the relationship is important than solve the problem of organization. In power culture, the persons who like control and react quickly to danger situations. So this will cause those group achieve the goal with high expenses compare to other group with using achieve goal with easy way. Due to the power culture, they will change their mind to accommodating to other group to achieve the organization goals. Role culture is also can relate to accommodating. Because the role culture had important on team, which mean they can same as accommodating high concern with relationship. To help them achieve organization goal. These is more responsibility rather than on individual to do the project.

3.1- Relationship of change and conflict

Unfreezing

The leader was failing to monitor the organization, this will cause the organization fail to handle their competitor and client and the organization may slowly suffer with it. Since the problem is out, and the organization was not give the attention until the organization is fall down. This will make the conflict between the middle level of management and top management with the monitors. Due to the agent bad performance for organization, all the staff will lose confidence with monitors and feel to resign their job. The top management must take action to the monitors to change the other new agents to monitor the organization.

Changing

This stage involves taking action to modify something. When the organization has started to modify like technology change, it will make a lot conflict come out from worker. Because new technology begin mean that organization have to recruit new staff to handle it. That mean the old staff may be fired due to there do not know this skill with using the latest technology. So they will start conflict with the top- management with that. Although it can help the organization in future, but currently the staff will more suffer due to the technology change.

Refreezing

Refreezing is the stage which changes are reinforced and stabilized. The organizations have provided the training session for the employees to attend with apply them diligently and resolve to change things in their organizations. But when they return to the workplace, they find it easier to conform to the old ways than to make waves. But some of the employees will like the traditional way to do their work, but due to the organization want to reinforced to better way. So they will start the conflict with it, because the old employees feel they want to keep the traditional way to launch the business. So the old employees will start conflict with the management which do not want the new skill or system replaces the traditional systems.

4.0- Negotiation

Distributive negotiation usually unfolds in one of two directions, neither of which yields optimal results. Hard distributive takes place when each party holds put to get its own way. This lead to competition through each party seeks dominance over the other and tries to maximize self- interest. And it also will lead win- lose outcome in one of the party dominates and gain. Soft distributive, it will take place when one party is willing to make concessions to the other to get things over with. One party tried to meet each other desires, and this will lead to lodging, one gives up the value of things to react an agreement. In this case, may be at least few potential satisfaction could be developed. Dissatisfaction may exist since each party is deprived of what it originally wanted. (Schermerhorn, 2008)

Integrative negotiation, integration can make their interest to reach agreement while cooperation of both parties achieve maximum benefits. At the same time, it also competing to divided the value. Selective avoidance is also involve by integrative negotiation, since they is important things to focus their time and attention. Term win- win is using on this type of arrangement. For example, the manufacturer- supplier case just described, Kraft got the unit price it wanted, but gave around to Gomez Electronics on payment terms. (richard luecke, 2003)

5.0- Conclusion

In conclusion conflict and negotiation is very important to each other. And that is useful to people between the culture and conflict. Conflict will happened any time when they face the problem, so Thomas- Kilmann model and organization culture model had been related to people with each other. The good change of organization model can help the organization solve the conflict. Besides that, under Kurt Lewin, unfreezing, changes and refreezing can help people to solve the conflict problem between each other. Lastly, negotiation is also can solve the conflict and that is very important for it.

6.0- Referencing

conflict. (n.d.). Retrieved november 4, 2012, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-4-types-conflict-1207.html

How to Make Life Changes Using Psychologist Kurt Lewin's Unfreeze - Change - Freeze Method. (n.d.). Retrieved november 2, 2012, from http://voices.yahoo.com/how-life-changes-using-psychologist-kurt-lewins-264803.html?cat=5

Knowledge, S. (2002). type of culture. united states: Select Knowledge Limited.

linda k. stroh, g. b. (2003). organizational behavior: a management challenge(volume in the applied psychology series). france: taylor and francis.

management class. (n.d.). Retrieved november 4, 2012, from conflict of management: http://finntrack.co.uk/leadership/people_and_org/conf3.htm

Naoum, S. (2001). People & Organizational Management In Construction. London: Thomas Telford Ltd.

R.Sims, R. (2002). managing organizational behavior. United States: library of congress cataloging .

richard luecke, m. w. (2003). harvard business essentials: negotiation. boston: harvard business school press.

Sandra D. Collins, J. S. (2005). managing conflict and workplace relationships. canada: south western.

Schermerhorn, h. o. (2008). organizational behavior 10/E. american: wiley plus.

schermerhorn, j. R. (2008). organizational behavior. canada: aptara.

sims, r. r. (2002). managing organizational behavior. united states: greenwood publishing .

Swartz, D. (1997). Culture & Power. USA: David Swartz.

Thomas–Kilmann conflict model instrument . (n.d.). Retrieved november 4, 2012, from https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/smp248248.pdf



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