Natural product chemistry

23 Mar 2015

11 (4,194 )

Introduction Of Natural Product Chemistry In the beginning of organic chemistry was natural products chemistry. For a long period, up to the 1960's the structural studies of natural products served as the principle driving force for the discovery of new chemical reactivity. The introduction of spectroscopic techniques, however, removed much of the "intellectual challenge" involved in structure elucidation. Furthermore, natural products chemistry suffered a dramatic decline from ...

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Desmear and electroless plating

23 Mar 2015

18 (6,856 )

Introduction Printed circuit board is used in the electronic manufacturing for mechanical and electrical support. It is electronically connects the electric components using conductive traces, carved from copper covered onto a non-conductive material. Printed circuit board are usually include copper and copper mixture materials that are coated to provide good mechanical and good conductivity with other devices in the assembly. Printed circuits board are used in all ...

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The multiple emulsions

23 Mar 2015

15 (5,839 )

Introduction: Seifriz started his pioneering work about multiple emulsions since 1925, which is regarded as the fundamental knowledge in the later research. Multiple emulsions are complicated systems which are considered as "emulsions of emulsions" (Garti, 1996).In the outer continues phase, the droplets of the dispersed phase named as globules which contain even smaller dispersed droplets ,the globules are separated from each other in external continues phase by ...

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The genesis of elements

23 Mar 2015

14 (5,352 )

Introduction The periodic table is continually enriched with new elements synthesised by nuclear reactions in laboratories, but only 90 of all the elements occur naturally. Those are found between atomic numbers 1 to 92, which is from 1H to 92U, excluding the elements technetium (43Tc) and promethium (61Pm). The latter two are made artificially, even though technetium has been recently discovered in stars. All the elements are ...

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Biosensors or enzyme electrodes

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,271 )

INTRODUCTION OF BIOSENSORS:- Biosensors or enzyme electrodes invariably refer to such devices that sence and analyze biological informations. A biosensor is a device that detects, records, and transmits information regarding a physiological change or the presence of various chemical or biological materials in the environment. More technically, a biosensor is a probe that integrates a biological component, such as a whole bacterium or a biological product (e.g., ...

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Polymer formulation

23 Mar 2015

20 (7,900 )

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Pigments are additives in a polymer formulation which provide countless possibilities to designers who want to differentiate their product. Legislation and uprising environmental awareness has led to the gradual phasing out of heavy metal inorganic pigments and increased usage of organic pigments. Despite their good heat stability, light fastness, tinctorial strength and low cost, certain organic pigments are widely known to cause significant warpage ...

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The Chemistry Of Fireworks Chemistry Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,844 )

The chemistry behind fireworks is a series of oxidation and reduction reactions which result in the desired sound and light. This happens as propellants push the firework into the sky. Oxidation reactions ensure that the oxygen needed to exhaustively burn the mixture of reducing agents and excite the atoms in the light-emitting compounds is produced. Oxidizers used such as chlorates, nitrates and percolates and reducing agents such as ...

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Studying complex ions of copper (II)

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,706 )

Aim In part A of the practical, the empirical formula of hydrated copper (II) sulphate was determined, is the waters of hydration of water of crystallisation. Making complex ions of copper (II) sulphate with Chloride and Ammonia ligands is done in part B. Introduction In this case, copper (II) exists as a hydrated molecule, also, x is often equal to 5 in the formula CuSO· 5HO. Firstly, ...

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FTIR spectroscopy of SO2

23 Mar 2015

10 (3,684 )

Abstract In this lab, the IR spectrum of SO2 gas was taken. The spectrum was then used to determine which peaks corresponded to the vibrational modes of SO2­. Once the modes had been determined, the experimental wavenumbers of the v1 and v3 modes and the overtones were used to determine the anharmonicity of the two different modes. While there was a difference between the two modes' anharmonicity, ...

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The word perfume

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,491 )

Introduction: History of Perfume The word perfume itself is derived from the Latin per fume, which means “through smoke”. Due to the fact that the original use of aromatic materials was of burning incense, as an offering to the gods.1 Aromatic materials have been used for a variety of different purposes over the past thousand years. Perfumes during this era largely consisted of uncharacterized aromatic compounds.2 Ancient ...

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X-ray diffraction

23 Mar 2015

14 (5,501 )

INTRODUCTION: X-ray diffraction The diffraction of X-rays as they pass through a substance, usually forming an interference pattern that can be captured on film and used to analyze the internal structure of the substance. The scattering of x-rays by crystal atoms, producing a diffraction pattern that yields information about the structure of the crystal. X-ray diffraction is used in x-ray crystallography . X-ray diffraction - the scattering ...

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Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Studies of NDPAH

01 Jan 1970

6 (2,320 )

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