Strategies to Maximise Shareholder Value

06 Feb 2018

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Introduction Firms may have different objectives to achieve. However in theory, a firm should set its' objectives to increase its value for its owners. Shareholders are the owners of a firm. Therefore according to theory maximising shareholders wealth is the fundamental objective of a firm. (Watson & Head –Corporate Finance principles and practice 2007) Investors generally expect to earn satisfactory returns on their investments as they ...

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Development of CT Scans for Cancer Studies

06 Feb 2018

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According to the statistics presented by the World Health Organization (WHO), with around 7.4 million deaths (around 13% of the total death) in 2004, cancer is the leading cause of death throughout the world (WHO, 2009). These levels are expected to rise further in future, 'with an estimated 12 million death in 2030' (WHO, 2009). There are more than 100 different types of cancer (Crosta, n.d.), ...

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Ethical Questions in the Stem Cell Debate

06 Feb 2018

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The Stem Cell Debate: Ethical Questions The story for the year 1997 was the sacred. We fear a Promethean blunder. We fear that our own human hubris will violate something sacred in our nature; and we fear that nature will retaliate with disaster. To protect ourselves from a possible Promethean blunder by science, we are tempted to stop further research with the commandment: "thou shalt not ...

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Role of Elevated Levels of Homocysteine in Blood Plasma

06 Feb 2018

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Homocysteine, a non-protein amino acid, is an intermediate in the metabolism of methionine and biosynthesis of cysteine. It has gained prominence in the past half-century because its accumulation in the body has been linked to increased risk and occurrence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Homocystinuria is due to errors in metabolism and homocysteinemia is attributed to polymorphisms in the genes involved in methionine metabolism and cysteine ...

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Effects of Exercise on the Human Body

06 Feb 2018

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Exercise represents one the highest levels of extreme stresses to which the body can be exposed. Exercise physiology is the study of the function of the human body during various acute and chronic exercise conditions. These effects are significant during both short, high intensity exercise as well as with prolonged strenuous exercise such as done in endurance sports like marathons, ultramarathons, and road bicycle racing. In ...

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Immune Privilege of Tissue Engineered Articular Cartilage

06 Feb 2018

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The immune privilege of tissue engineered articular cartilage derived from mouse adult mesenchymal stem cells and the potential of tissue engineered cartilage as a gene delivery method Chapter 1 Stem cell biology 1.1 Categorization of stem cells Stem cells are generally defined as cells possessing the following 3 characteristics: (1) self-renewal, (2) the ability to produce all cell types made in that tissue, and (3) the ...

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Sodium, Potassium and Urea Measurement

06 Feb 2018

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Introduction Electrolytes are solutions that conduct electricity. Any molecule that becomes an ion when mixed with water is an electrolyte. Salts such as sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride are examples of electrolytes. When these molecules dissolve in water, they release ions with an electric charge, positive or negative, that attracts or repels other ions during a chemical reaction. In living cells, most chemical reaction occur in ...

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Creatinine Clearance Test to Estimate Renal Function

06 Feb 2018

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Introduction: Kidney is a part of group of organs that constitute the urinary tract system which consists of two kidneys, two ureters, bladder and urethra. The kidneys do the major function of the urinary system. The other parts of the system are mainly passageways and storage areas. The kidneys are reddish, bean-shaped structure and located just above the waist between the peritoneum and the posterior wall ...

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Evolution of Australian Flora: Hymenopteran Visual Systems

06 Feb 2018

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Abstract Very little work has been done on the evolution of floral colour diversity, outside of Europe and the Middle East. In particular, we know almost nothing about the evolution of the Australian flora in the context of hymenopteran visual systems. Such a study is likely to be important due to the geologically long isolation of the Australian flora and the high proportion of endemic plant ...

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Plant Diversity and Angiosperms in India

06 Feb 2018

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INTRODUCTION Angiosperms or flowering plants (also called Angiospermae, Magnoliophyta, or Anthophyta) are the most diverse group of the plant kingdom, comprising of about 2,50,000 species in 350 families (Kenrick, 1999). Flowering plants are by far the most numerous, diverse, and “successful” extant plant group, containing well over 95% of all land plant species alive today (Simpson, 2006). Angiosperms are characterized by (i) seeds produced within a ...

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Biochemical Analysis of Rice

06 Feb 2018

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Rice (Oryza sativa (2n = 24) is a monocot plant and belongs to the Poaceae family and Oryzoidea subfamily. It occupies almost one-fifth of the total land area under world cereals. It covers about 148 million hectares annually that is roughly 11 percent of the world-cultivated land. It is life for more than half of humanity and in past, it shaped the cultures, diets, and economies ...

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Toxicity and Autoactivation of Baits Experiment

06 Feb 2018

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Abstract Alternate splicing in exon 47 of the Purkinje cell calcium channel generates a splice variant with a five base pair insert (ggcag) before the stop codon in rat. This five base pair change the open reading frame of the exon 47 for resulting in an extended C-Terminal. Novel protein interaction at this region was hypothesised. Yeast Two Hybrid System was employed to screen against cDNA ...

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Handling, Storage and Disposal of Samples

06 Feb 2018

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Expectations of a Health Care Professional In the histology laboratory all specimens arrive fixed in 10% buffered formalin. In the laboratory, the specimen and the request form are labeled with the same lab number. The specimens are left in the same order the lab number is given and processed. Safety gloves and an apron are worn when processing the specimen. Unfixed specimens received in a plane ...

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Haemoglobin-related Diseases Management Strategies

06 Feb 2018

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Abstract Haemoglobinopathies or inherited disorders of haemoglobin are the most common monogenic disorders in humans. Red cell transfusion is a well accepted therapy for clinical management of the most severe form of haemoglobinopathies namely, sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassaemia major. Patients affected by SCD need red blood cell transfusions on a regular basis to reduce morbidity and mortality. The transfusions are administered intermittently to control ...

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Ecology and the Biosphere

06 Feb 2018

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Ch. 50 (Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere) I. Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment. Events that occur in the framework of ecological time translate into effects over the longer scale of evolutionary time. The environment of any organism includes two components. Abiotic, or nonliving, components - chemical and physical factors such as temperature, light, water, ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Biological Control

06 Feb 2018

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Summary Following numerous discussions of the risks associated with biological control, (see Howarth, 1991; Simberloff & Stiling 1996; Thomas & Willis 1998) literature was reviewed in order to investigate whether biological control was an environmentally friendly or a risky business. Although a lack of firm evidence suggests that risks may be 'perceived' rather than 'real', the release of the biological control agent Harmonia axyridis by countries ...

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Biochemical and Hormonal Changes in Childhood Obesity

05 Feb 2018

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The prevalence of chronic or non communicable disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, by the 2020, non communicable diseases will account for approximately three quarter of all deaths in the developing countries (WHO. Global Strategy for non communicable disease prevention, 1997). In this regard, a potential emerging public health issue for the ...

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Pathogenic Etiology of Atherosclerosis

05 Feb 2018

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Atherosclerosis Heart Coronary Special Topics in Pathophysiology Introduction to the Components of the Cardiovascular System: To understand the basis of this paper, the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, it is vital to appreciate the basic physiology of the heart, circulatory system, and most importantly, the coronary arteries. This fundamental comprehension will lay the foundation to better understand the devastation caused to the coronary arteries by the pathogenesis of ...

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Causes, Symptoms and Treatments of Anaemia

05 Feb 2018

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1. Introduction Anaemia is a syndrome characterised by a lack of healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin deficiency in the red blood cells, resulting in inadequate oxygen supply to the tissues. The condition can be temporary, long-term or chronic, and of mild to severe intensity. There are many forms and causes of anaemia. Normal blood consists of three types of blood cells: white blood cells (leucocytes), ...

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Septic Shock Case Study: Causes and Effects

05 Feb 2018

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Introduction Septic Shock is a serious circulatory disorder often characterised by a whole- body inflammatory state and the systemic response to infection (Titheradge, 1998), with the most common cause being the contamination of blood with bacteria. Septic shock is defined as 'sepsis with hypotension' which develops in almost half of all septic patients as a complication with a mortality rate of 40-60% (Titheradge, 1998). Septic shock ...

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