23 Mar 2015
When a certain subject or matter is being discussed by individuals it is best to trace the subject or matter to the root of it or in another word its history. In the early years of human civilization (the age of BC <Before Christ>) there was no such thing as Critical Thinking or logical thinking. It is all more on the concept of the teachings of religion, math, art and many more through the basis of monkey see, monkey do.
Thus, giving the title of this topic, the contribution of Greek Logics and Metaphysics in Critical Thinking. From the title of the subject in question, Greek Logics means the concepts of logic that originated from the land of Greek. Lastly, Metaphysics means a high level of physics concepts.
In this context, there are many from the ancient land of Greek that has given contributions to civilization regarding Logic and Metaphysics, however, there are only three that truly has given the true contribution to the civilization of the world. These three according to Hakim (1997) is "Ã¢â‚¬Â¦the three trinity of Greek philosophy". Before moving on, it must be thoroughly be understood that there were no critical thinking in the past and only philosophy exist. Furthermore, the philosophy of that time must not be confused with that of present time. This is due to the fact that the philosophy of the past until the age of the European Renaissance are a combination of science, language, ethics, mathematics, logic, and many more that are considered as such in this age and time. Therefore, it should not be of any question of whether philosophers of the past have given any contributions to the critical thinking of the present, for the answer is true.
The three that are meant by Hakim (1997) are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Furthermore, Hakim (1997) also states that Socrates had greatly influenced his student Plato, and in turn, Plato has greatly influenced his student Aristotle. This shows the relation of these three great thinkers of their time.
The first that will be discussed in this topic is the master out of the three, and is the person according to Wikipedia as one of the founder of modern Western Philosophy.
Socrates as according to Wikipedia was born on the year of 469 BC and that he met his untimely death on 399 BC. Even with the greatness that he has brought upon himself due to the contributions that he had made to the development of Western Philosophy, very little is known about the Master himself. This was mainly caused by the fact that Socrates never wrote any records regarding his theories or himself at that. Most of what the modern civilization even knows about the identity of Socrates is mainly due to the Socratic Dialogues that were written by his student Plato. (The Socratic Dialogues are documents written by Plato in dialogue form about what was spoken by Socrates in delivering his knowledge in his lifetime. The Socratic Dialogues are written at the early life of Plato)
Therefore, it must be understood that all of the information obtained regarding Socrates were passed on from his students such as Plato, Xenophon and others such as Aristophan.
According to the accounts that were given by all of the related individuals, Socrates was a son of a sculptor, and that he was married to a woman called Xanthippe. Furthermore, according to all the sources available, the family life of Socrates was as such; his mother Phaenarate after the death of Socrates' father Sophroniscus had remarried and gave birth to another child, Socrates' half-brother, Patrocles. In addition, it was also said that Socrates was never a father to the three children he had received from Xanthippe, it was said that he had left them to survive on their own. This was due to the fact that Socrates believed that knowledge cannot be passed from parent to child, it is more of what one does to gain the knowledge the person had originally possessed.
In accordance to the sources as well, when compared to the other Athenian males of that time, Socrates appeared poor. This is because the average Athenian male at that time are very well concerned about their fame, glory and wealth. In contrast, Socrates does not even care about his financial being.
Socrates by profession is a teacher, even with him himself denying the fact. Socrates can often be seen with crowds no matter the degree let it be a man, woman, children, slave or anyone and engage them in a question and answer form of conversation. However, even though he gives the community of Greek the treasure of knowledge he never accepts any payments in return for it nor did he ever ask for any payments.
Furthermore, it is understood that Socrates is a very pious person. He would never do anything without seeking consent from the Gods. Furthermore, it was said that Socrates had a voice that always advices him whenever he would do something bad. This voice became known as a Daemon for Socrates which guided him on all of his actions.
Lastly, it was made known from the Apology that Socrates started his life as philosopher after his friend told him that the Oracle of Delphi had said that Socrates is the wisest man of all Greek. In order to prove that statement wrong, he started questioning others whom considers themselves smart when after the conversation with Socrates proves that they are not. This showed Socrates that the reason of why he is the wisest man of Greek is due to his ignorance. Thus the statement of "I know cause I do not know" was born; which meant that only one who is ignorant and knows it is more willing to gain more knowledge.
Again, due to the little knowledge known about Socrates, little also is known about what his contributions truly are. This is partially due to the fact that Plato (the greatest contributor to the existence of Socrates tends to use the Master as a medium for his own theories, very little is truly known of the Master, this is called the Socratic Problem or the Socratic Paradox) does not give real accounts of Socrates more of a record of conversations made by Socrates and this posed a lot of problems for researches to truly understand Socrates. However, according to Hakim (1997) "Ã¢â‚¬Â¦a idol is sometimes best left enigmatic."
Therefore, after many research, philosophers agree that the main contribution of Socrates is his introduction of the Socratic Method. The Socratic Method or also known as the method of "elenchus" (sometimes pronounced as "elenchos") is a unique method where if an individual or group is to attempt to seek an answer to a subject or matter at hand, that particular person or group is must break up the subject into several questions and answer them accordingly in order to reach the answer they seek. The Socratic Method is similar to the Scientific Method which are used today except for the fact that the Socratic Method is a negative method compared to the Scientific Method. This is because as better hypotheses are found due to the experiments that were conducted, the Socratic Method forces one to examine ones own belief in order to obtain the answer they seek. In fact, Socrates once said: "I know you won't believe me, but the highest form of Human Excellence is to question oneself and others."
This led to Socrates' next contribution, the thinking of a subject in a logical manner. Whenever Socrates is in the city, he would always encourage everyone around him to think logically and not accept everything that was thrown into them. Furthermore, Socrates also always asked the people around him to reflect themselves better everyday. This concept of self-reflection and logical thinking became almost synonymous to Logical Thinking.
Plato is one of the student of Socrates, he received the greatest influence form the Master which drove him in writing works of his own which brought on Platonism. The full detail of this philosopher is as such.
Plato just like the Master is also an Athenian. Plato was born on 428/427 BC (due to inconsistencies of the records), and he died on 347 BC. Plato's family was confirmed to be an influential family in the Athenian Democratic rule and that Plato was believed by his peers that he would one day take his place in the political seat of power at Athens; however, this thought was nothing more than an illusion. This is mainly due to the unjustified death of his master Socrates. (Socrates was forced to drink a poisoned hemlock by the government due to the false accusations that was made to him by many others that hated Socrates due to the inferiority they felt to him. This event can be found in the Apology and Crito in Hakim (1997))
More on Plato's family, Plato's father is known as Ariston and his mother is Perictione. Plato had two brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon and a sister Potone. Also, originally, Plato was just a nickname for Plato, Plato's original name was Aristocle, the same as his grandfather, and the reason as to why he was called Plato is due to his broad forehead. (Plato means "broad" in Greek)
In Plato's early life, Plato was believed to had been instructed in the skills of music, grammar and gymnastics by the most distinguishible teachers of his time. Furthermore, it was also said that before Plato met with Socrates he also had studied philosophy with Heraclitus, Pythagoreans and Parmenidas. (Both Pythagoreans and Heraclitus are pre-Socratic philosophers)
After completing his early education, Plato met with Socrates and was under his tutelage until the death of the Master. After Socrates' death, Plato travelled to Italy, Sicily, Egypt, and Syrene; it was during those trips that Plato wrote his early works the Socratic Dialogues. After his travels, Plato returned to Athens and opened up a school of philosophy known as the Academy just outside of Athens.
It was understood that Plato lived at the Academy until his death.
Just as it was with Socrates, there are also not much that could be said about Plato's contribution other than the Academy (The first ever educational fascility built in the Western Countries). This is due to the fact that Plato kept records about philosophy in the form of a dialogue of the Master, therefore, making it hard for most scholars to differentiate the true works of Plato from that of Socrates.
However, not all hope is lost, this is because scholars discovered an inconsistency in the writings of Plato which were depicted in the form of Socrates' speech which hinted the possibility of the philosophy or theories spoken by Socrates in these works to actually be that of Plato. These works were ascertained to be that of Plato's works beginning from the Phaedo.
One of Plato's work Republic was a book that was written by Plato during his mid-life. Thus, rendering the philosophy or theories written in it to be that of Plato's original. There are many theories listed in the book, however, the one that was given the most care by scholars were the one regarding the rulers of a country; Plato said that until philosophers became kings or kings became philosophers the world will not know true peace. The meaning of Plato behind this statement is that a ruler or a leader of an organization must be one who have the proper knowledge to rule and will continue to have this kind of knowledge. This paved the road for the development of knowledge of rulers and showed that a ruler must always be thinking in order to rule a country; meaning active thinking, and according to John Dewey, one who thinks actively is a critical thinker. Therefore, Plato showed that critical thinkers are the perfect candidate for the seat of power.
Another one of Plato's contribution is that of the permanent and passing. According to Plato, this world consists of a permanent object from which those of the passing are copied from the permanent. This theory of Plato is known as the Platonic Dualism. The Platonic Dualism is further explained in his book on The Theories of Forms (Metaphysics). This concept of Plato can be simplified by the example of a tree; according to Plato there may be Oak, Pine, Palm and many other trees, but there is one tree from which the foundation for the other trees were derived from. The concept of Platonic Dualism spurred the thinking of many scholars into what it is meant by real and what is an illusion. This form of thinking brought upon self-reflection which is very much encouraged in the field of Critical Thinking.
According to Hakim (1997), Plato left in his writings which after translation mean that humans must bring about change in their thinking by constantly thinking about their thinking. From this point, we can conclude that Plato is telling to continuously think about their thinking in order to increase the quality of their thinking. This according to Richard Paul is one of the traits that define a critical thinker.
Finally, also according to Hakim (1997), Plato stress that one should always strive to free from the binding of the body and perceive the perfect by a steady, contemplative effort. The meaning of this statement is that one must always strive to search for the truth by the methods of constant thinking; this fact can also be associated with active thinking which shows critical thinking.
Aristotle is the student of Plato in the Academy. Aristotle works are known throughout the West as one of the most celebrated works of history due to subjectivity that it possessed. This was one of the main reason why the being known as Aristotle was able to overshadow that of his master Plato.
According to Hakim (1997), Aristotle was born on 384 B.C. in a town that lay in between Thrace and Macedonia called Stagira, Chalcidice. Aristotle is the son of Nicomachus, the personal physician of the King of Macedon. Therefore, due to his father's connection with the king, Aristotle had access to the Royal Court as a child and received his early education there as a member of aristocracy.
Aristotle's father, Nichomachus died when Aristotle was still a child. Even though orphaned, Aristotle was still loved by the Macedon royal court due to the influence he received from his father; which prompted Aristotle to be an observant child. Later on, when Aristotle became 18 years of age, he went to the Academy ran by Plato believing that it will be able to increase his knowledge in many matters.
After reaching the Academy, Aristotle met with Plato and since then regarded Plato as both a great teacher and a great friend. It was said that Aristotle stayed by Plato's side until the death of Plato. The period of his stay at the Academy was recorded for around 20 years.
After the death of Plato, Aristotle travelled with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atameus in Asia Minor (now known as Turkey). According to Wikipedia, whilst in Asia, Aristotle travelled with Theophrastus to the Island of Lesbos where they researched the botanical and marine biology of the island. Later on, Aristotle married with Hermias' adopted daughter (niece) Pythias who bore for him a daughter.
After the death of Hermias, Aristotle was invited by the King of Macedon to tutor his 12-year old son, Alexander the Great at 343 BC. By 335 BC, Aristotle returned to Athens and constructed a school which stands at a place with lyceum trees, with the name of the tree at the place, Aristotle named his school Lyceum. It was said that during his stay at the Lyceum, Aristotle conducted courses and wrote many of his works (where only a handful remain now).
At 322 BC, Alexander the Great died. At this time, most of the Athenians holds an anti-Macedonian sentiment due to the actions of Alexander the Great. Therefore, there were those that targeted Aristotle's life due to his involvement with Alexander the Great. However, before anything could be done, Aristotle left the city and headed for his mother's family estate in Chalcis, stating that he will not allow the Athenians to sin against philosophy twice. On that same year, Aristotle died at Euboea due to natural causes.
As the third of the Three Trinity of Greek Philosophy, Aristotle has given great contributions to the world. Furthermore, in contrast with his predecessors, Aristotle kept a very organized and well written documentation about himself and his works. Therefore, it made the matter of understanding Aristotle and his works very easy. Most of the works of Aristotle is lost due to many reasons. Furthermore, those that did survive are in the form of treatises or lecture notes. Although these documents are not able to give full account of the works of Aristotle, they are able to give hints on the works that he has done which are considered as his own contribution.
One of the contributions Aristotle has given to the world is the Aristotelian Epistemology. The Aristotelian Epistemology that we know today was known as analytics at the age of Aristotle. Basically, the Aristotelian Epistemology is basically the logic that we know today. As logic is the centre of critical thinking, Aristotle is the greatest contributor of critical thinking with the introduction of the method of searching for answers by focussing the scope from a general to its details by deduction.
The second contribution of Aristotle is the giving of subjects such as Mathematics, Physics, Biology and many greater meaning and depth than any other man at his time or until the age of the Renaissance. One of it is Aristotle's Metaphysics. The Metaphysics that Aristotle explained was regarding the universe. Aristotle believed that the universe is something that can be explained by the means of deduction and these lead many thinkers to actually think logically in order to solve the mysteries of the universe.
According to history, after the fall of Rome, the western countries had fallen greatly in the scope of knowledge development and founding, leaving the works of its past masters of knowledge to rot in cellars or underground storages without proper care or maintenance.
It was at this time that the newly appeared Islamic civilization bloomed in the development of knowledge and shadowing the West until the age of Renaissance.
The Islamic community were all guided by the Holy Quran to seek knowledge without rest and to forever learn new knowledge. This divine guidance of the Quran spurred the appearances of many scholars and researches in multiple fields. It was with the appearance of these celebrities of knowledge that the field of Critical Thinking was also able to expand.
Among these celebrities of knowledge there are three whose contributions to the world were the greatest; the three are Al-Kindi, Ibn Sina (Avicienna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes).
Al-Kindi or known in the West as Alkindus was an Arab and Iraqi polymath; he was also an Islamic philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, scientist, chemist, cosmologist, mathematician, musician, logician, physician, physicist, psychologist, and meteorologist.
Al-Kindi is also called the Arab Philosopher. This can be proven from Wikipedia which stated that the historian Ibn Al-Nadim (d. 955) had described Al-Kindi as such:
"The best man of his time, uniques in all his knowledge of the ancient science. He is called the Philosopher of the Arab. His books deal with different sciences such as, logic philosophy, geometry, astronomy, and etc. We have connected him with natural philosophers because of his prominence in Science."
Al-Kindi was born at 801 CE at Kufa, Iraq to a Kindah family. His full name is AbÃ…Â«-YÃ…Â«suf Ya'qÃ…Â«b ibn IsÃ¡Â¸Â¥Ã„Âq ibn as-Ã¡Â¹Â¢abbÃ„ÂÃ¡Â¸Â¥ ibn 'OmrÃ„Ân ibn Isma'Ã„Â«l al-KindÃ„Â«. The father of Al-Kindi was the governor of Kufah, and it was at Kufah that AL-Kindi received his early education. Later on, Al-Kindi moved on to Baghdad to complete his education.
After the completion of his education, Al-Kindi was acknowledged and appointed by Abbasid caliphs, Al-Ma'mun andAl-Muta'sim into the House of Wisdom in Baghdad due to his adept for education. (The House of Wisdom was a newly established institute in Abbasid by the caliphs in order to translate the ancient wisdom from other languages into Arabic, the ancient wisdom was the writings and books that was left by the Greek and others western philosophers before Islam.) It was said that during Al-Kindi's work at the House of Wisdom, his own wisdom expanded due to the influence of the documents he was transcribing and this lead to the creation of his own books. However, as time passed, the writings of Al-Kindi had been lost due to two main reason; first the destruction of the libraries of Abbasid by the Mongolian army; second, the disinterest of Al-Kindi's works by the later philosophers.
After the death of Al-Ma'mun, Al-Mu'tasim rose in power, however, at this time Al-Kindi had fallen. According to historians this was due to the harsh treatments of Al-Muta'sim against unorthodox Muslims. There was even the occasion of when Al-Kindi was beaten and had his library temporarily confiscated from him.
Al-Kindi died in Baghdad at 873 CE during the rule of Al-Mu'tamid.
Thanks to his time spent at the House of Wisdom transcribing the ancient knowledge, Al-Kindi was able to gain incredible knowledge in many fields such as physics, geology, astronomy and many more. This gain I knowledge inspired Al-Kindi to write books of his own in regards of his knowledge. The books that were written by Al-Kindi was described as encyclopaedic in form.
One of Al-Kindi's greatest contributions was that of cryptology. Al-Kindi wrote a book regarding the method of encrypting and decrypting codes. The method of decryption that Al-Kindi explained was the frequency method; where within a specific encrypted text there is a certain similarity between each verse, and Al-Kindi suggested that one looks for the similarity in order to decrypt the text.
The second contribution of Al-Kindi is in the field of science. Al-Kindi like his predecessor Geber placed a strong emphasis on scientific research and methods which requires observations and empirical proofs in order to verify a fact or principle. Other than that, Al-Kindi also introduced a new emphasis on quantification. In which AL-Kindi stated that after all the evidence have been given in that regard, one must accept it no matter the result of the research, the statement to which this is derived from is as such:
"We must not hesitate to recognize theÂ truthÂ and to accept it no matter what is its origin, no matter if it comes to us from the ancients or from foreign people... My purpose is first to write down all that the ancients have left us on a given topic and then, using the Arabic tongue and taking into account the customs of our time and our capacities, to complete what they have not fully expressed."
Which means that we must not ever close our eyes or ears to the truth after it was proven even if it came from someone other than ourselves or our colleagues. This principle is one of the principles that are in Critical Thinking.
The third and perhaps one of the most important of the contributions that Al-Kindi has made was the introduction of Philosophy into the Islamic culture. As explained before, in the beginning, the Islamic culture depended on the divine mysteries of the Holy Quran as well as the knowledge given by the Prophet Muhammed. However, after Al-Kindi went to the House of Wisdom, he translated the other works of the past Western philosophers into the Arabic language and made them available for use by the other scholars. These translations brought upon the rising of other Islamic philosophers such as Al-Farabi and Ibn Sina (Avicenna).
The last of the contribution that Al-Kindi gave was that of metaphysics. According to Aristotle, the universe in infinite and that it is absolute. However, this fact was denied by Al-Kindi due to his faith which believes that only God is absolute and also due to other factors. One such factor is that where he believed that there is no such thing as infinite. This is because for a matter to be infinite it will have to have an infinite temporal existence. This fact was also supported by Garos.
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) is on of the most celebrated intellects of the Islamic world. In profession Ibn Sina is a physician. However, Ibn Sina is also a philosopher, astronomer, chemist, astrologer, logician, geologist, palaeontologist, mathematician, physicist, poet, psychologist, teacher, and scientist.
Ibn Sina was a celebrated intellect due to his incredible contribution not only to the works of medicine but also to the fields of geometry, physics, astrology, and logic. In an excerpt from the History of Science by George Sarton:
"One of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalismÂ and an eminent figure inÂ Islamic learningÂ was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna (981-1037). For a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of the greatest thinkers andÂ medical scholarsÂ in history. His most important medical works are theÂ Qanun (Canon)Â and a treatise onÂ CardiacÂ drugs. The 'Qanun fi-l-Tibb' is an immense encyclopedia of medicine. It contains some of the most illuminating thoughts pertaining to distinction ofÂ mediastinitisÂ fromÂ pleurisy; contagious natureÂ ofÂ phthisis; distribution of diseases by water and soil; careful description of skin troubles; ofÂ sexual diseasesÂ andÂ perversions; ofÂ nervous ailments."
This shows that the individual known as Ibn Sina was a great intellect known through the ages is still being regarded as such.
The true name of Ibn Sina is Al-Hussain bin Abdullah bin Hassan bin Ali bin Sina. He was born at Bukhara, Turkistan on 980. Ibn Sina' mother' name is Setareh and his father Abdullah.
According to records, Ibn Sina was given careful education by his father at Bukhara. Furthermore, thanks to the intelligence and great memory that Ibn Sina possesses, he was able to memorize the contents of the Holy Quran by the age of ten. In Islamic culture, one is considered to have completed their education with the completion and memorization of the Holy Quran and that any other forms of education are to be made on one's own account. It is due to this facthat Ibn Sina went to libraries available in Bukhara at that time in order to pursue the knowledge that are available. It was said that Ibn Sina read the writings of Aristotle regarding Metaphysics 40 times in order to gain the meaning of the text. However, still in confusion after the readings it was said that Ibn Sina would perform the prayers in seeking revelation from God and that one day his prayers was answered in the form of Aristotle's Metaphysics commentaries of Al-Farabi being sold at an extremely cheap price at a book store. And then, at the age of 16, Ibn Sina turned towards the direction of medicine and learned it from a wandering physician. Furthermore, according to records, Ibn Sina is said to have mastered all there is to master at the age of 18.
Soon after began the terbulation of Ibn Sina's life. After treating the emir from a serious illness, Ibn Sina was rewarded with access of the Royal library of the Samanids. However, after the library was burned down not only was Ibn Sina accused of the crime by his enemies. However, by not being appalled by the event, Ibn Sina helped his father in the financial labors and wrote some of his early documents.
After the death of his father, Ibn Sina traveled to many places helping out those that are in need, offering his services to where it can be found and teaching giving lectures to whomever that wishes for it. However, after many events, Ibn Sina was struck by colic and this had caused Ibn Sina to not be able to perform his work as well as he did before. However, even at these circumstances, Ibn Sina still refuses to give up and continued his work till his death at June, 1037.
The contribution of Ibn Sina to the world has been so great till it overshadowed that of Al-Kindi (Alkindus). This was not only due to the amount of knowledge available to him from an early age but also to his incredible memory and intelligence that many others including Al-Kindi (Alkindus) did not have.
One and most probably the most important of the contributions of Ibn Sina is that in the field of medicine. Everything that can be related to that of human treatment such as have all been given contribution by Ibn Sina; the fields mentioned are chemistry, psychology, medicine, biology, and many more. The contributions that Ibn Sina gave to the world were so magnificent till we of the present call him with the name of The Father of Modern Medicine. This is because of these such contributions; the founding of infectious diseases and its properties, the founding of psychological states, the explanation of the human body, the introduction of medicinal herbs to the world, and many more. All of the greater of Ibn Sina's contribution can be found in his book the Canon of Medicine.
The other contribution that Ibn Sina gave to the world is those in the form of the Islamic Metaphysics. According to Ibn Sina, there are two things that life is based on, essence and existence. Essence (Mahiat) is something which are false and that it cannot exist by itself and that it requires something in order for it to exist. Whilst existence is something that does and can exist by itself, and that even though it cannot be accounted for it can still exist. This was the main reason as to why Ibn Sina said that these two elements cannot coexist.
The next contribution that Ibn Sina gave to the world is in the form of logic. Even though Aristotelian logic was still being used greatly at that time, it was not long after that the Avicennian logic had replaced the former as the most dominant logic system used in the Islamic world. This was because of the fact Ibn Sina had developed a theory on hypothetical syllogism and that formed the basis for his risk factor analysis. Other than that Ibn Sina also developed an early theory on propositional calculus.
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) is the third of the Islamic contributors. He was an Andalusian-Arab polymath: a master of Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, celestial mechanics, physic, Maliki Law, jurisprudence, psychology, logics, politics, Arabic music theory, the science of medicine, astrology, geography, and mathematics.
Ibn Rushd or known by his true name as AbÃ…Â« 'l-WalÃ„Â«d MuÃ¡Â¸Â¥ammad ibn AÃ¡Â¸Â¥mad ibn Rushd is born at Cordoba on December 10, 1198. Ibn Rushd was a student of Ibn Tufail, Ibn Bajjah. Just like his grandfather and father before him, Ibn Rushd also served the people as a legal scholar at Seville as a Qadi (judge) and served many court appointment at Cordoba, Seville and Morocco. However, after the conquest of the Almohads of Cordoba Ibn Rushd's career came into a halt and he was sent to exile. However, not short before his death he was reappointed the Qadi of Cordoba. It was from that moment onwards that Ibn Rushd wrote his philosophical works.
Ibn Rushd's main contribution is in the point where he tried to link the thoughts and view of Aristotle's philosophical view with that of Islam and to show that there are no conflicts between the two. This is because as according to Ibn Rushd one needs an analytical mind in order to assess the Holy Quran properly, and that this kind of mind is best obtained through the study of philosophy.
In conclusion, although these individuals were all different people with different culture; such as, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle of the West and Ibn Sina, Al-Kindi and Ibn Rushd from the East, they each have their own similarities in the development of the human civilization with the development of the human thinking, which is the thinking in the Critical field. It was with the contributions that these individuals had left behind that the present humans are able to move on forward without many obstacles.
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