The memory worksheet

23 Mar 2015

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Using the text, Cognition: The Thinking Animal, the University Library, the Internet, and/or other resources, answer the following questions. Your response to each question should be at least 150 words in length.

  1. What is primary memory? What are the characteristics of primary memory?
  2. Primary memory is working memory, which is processes work from images within the memory. Primary memory is the decision-making and awareness part of short-term memory concerned with the temporary incorporation, processing, removal, and recovery of information. Primary memory retrieves information from short-term memory, the environment to possibly be kept later in secondary memory.

    The characteristics of primary memory tasks involve the active handling or monitoring of behaviors or information. Additionally, primary memory is essentially different from secondary memory. The characteristics include forgetting (how this occurs), memory representation, storage of information (how much), processing of acoustic information (phonological loop), processing of visual information and how decisions are made. Primary memory theories exist both regarding the theoretical structure of working memory and the role of specific parts of the brain involved in working memory. Furthermore, research identifies that the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, anterior cingulate, and parts of the basal ganglia are crucial for working memory function. Working memory is generally considered to have limited capacity.

  3. What is the process of memory from perception to retrieval? What happens when the process is compromised?
  4. The process of memory from perception to retrieval is the sorting of all information by the brain into short-term or long-term memory. Additionally, the brain will discard the information if the information is not needed. Our short-term memory allows an individual to hold on to information that is needed during a precise moment and then the brain discards it. Short-term memory stores small amounts of information. Some information can be moved from short-term memory to long-term memory by encoding. Then the brain consolidates the information by linking the new memory to any current memory. There are three ways of measuring memory retrieval that differ from one another. They are the recall method, the recollection memory, the recognition method, and relearning method.

    When the process is compromised it causes a person to only recall certain portions of the information that is trying to be retrieved, but not the exact information needed. This is known as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

    Is it possible for memory retrieval to be unr

  5. eliable? Why or why not? What factors may affect the reliability of one's memory?

Yes it is possible for memory retrieval to be unreliable because of inaccurate recall due to the environment, prior memories of the individual or biased questions. For example, eyewitness testimony given by an individual that witnessed a crime first hand. The questions that are asked by a police officer or lawyer in reference to the crime, these questions can contain cues that might influence the individuals memory retrieval. Another factor that can affect the reliability of a memory is bias. Some factors that affect the reliability of an individuals memory are being tired, stress, emotions, or under the influence of drugs or alcohol at the time of the incident



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