Analysis of Treatment Options for Depression

04 Apr 2018

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Cognitive Therapy

  • Donna Thompson

An accruing relapse of depression is hard to overcome nevertheless; preventing these relapses is the key. The length of depression constitutes a major problem in the treatment of depression. The aim of any treatment is to lessen relapses and the recurrence of depression in patients. All patterns are different and the level in mental codes that are used in the treatment of depression Antidepressant medications (ADMS) are a common form of treatment for major depression. However, not all individuals want to take medications since the side effects could be lethal or unwanted.

There have been other studies for treatment such as; BA (Behavioral Activation) treatment. Depression can lead to suicide and the feeling of hopelessness that lays dormant in people who attempt suicide. Cognitive therapy has a few sessions that target suicide tendencies due to Cognitive therapy targets the key reasons. Clinical practice concentrates on group therapy and the format is recommended to help people with depression. Group methods can be seen as evidences as implementing an intervention.

Literature Review

Brown, G. K. (2005) discovered that treatments that prevent the repeat of suicide attempts is limited. The research is based on randomized trials that concentrates on treatment differences between medications and therapy.

DeRubeis et al (2005) found that experienced therapist could be as effective as medications. The research was done at top universities and clinics such as: University of Pennsylvania, Vanderbilt University and more. The research used a controlled placebo trial target at the similarities of cognitive therapy.

Dimidjian et al (2006) researched AMD (antidepressant medication) against cognitive therapy. There is very little study and cognitive therapy has not been proven to help. The research was based on the testing of cognitive therapy against the AMD. The research founded that with experience cognitive therapy helped more than the medication.

Scope et al (2013) research is based on cognitive therapy evidence in helping PND (postnatal depression) victims. This study compared one on one therapy against group therapy and suggested an intervention in the current standards. The research reviewed the evidence scientifically.

Teasdale et al (1995) research was based on the theory that relapses of depression can be reduced by cognitive therapy during the main treatment. An information analysis was used to weigh the effectiveness of the primary therapy. The research concluded that similar effects of cognitive therapy can be used in other mental disorders using meditation techniques.

The Interaction to Cognitive Therapy (ICS) Study

An accruing relapse of depression is hard to overcome nevertheless; preventing these relapses is the key. The length of depression constitutes a major problem in the treatment of depression. However, many evidences suggest that psychological treatments have been withdrawn to the many treatment trials that have been found in cognitive therapy such as drugs or different types of therapy that defends against depression. “The preventive interventions such as the drugs operate through effects in changing the patterns of the cognitive processing that becomes active in mild negative side effects” (Teasdale, Segal, & Williams, 1995, p.25).

The aim of any treatment is to lessen relapses and the recurrence of depression in patients. Therefore, the interaction to cognitive subsystems (ICS). ICS works through information that may be developed for cognitive therapy.

The different aspects and experiences are represented in patterns that are qualitatively different to ICS. Different inflections and patterns seem different. Many analogies, recurring patterns are common to visual inputs from similar objects and what objects are different. All patterns are different and the level in mental codes that are used in the treatment of depression. A research done by Teasdale, et al (1995) found that the level of study denotes a concerned meaning that can be demonstrated by the similarities between a poem and a sentence (p.26).

Information processing involves the transformation of patterns in one information code into patterns. Depression shows that emotional reactions occur when emotion relates to schematic models that are produced from patterns of lower level meanings and patterns that show production of depression and emotional responses. The main effect is to help control the relapse of depression. In addition, “The insight to sounds and physical sensations depends on implicated schematic models, creating propositional outputs (specific meanings) that are extreme to derive information from current sensory input” (Teasdale, Segal, & Williams, 1995, p.36).

Antidepressant Treatment Study

Antidepressant medications (ADMS) are a common form of treatment for major depression. However, not all individuals want to take medications since the side effects could be lethal or unwanted. However, there have been other studies for treatment such as; BA (Behavioral Activation) treatment. Dimidjian et al., (2006), conducted a study that had 258 people involved and came to a census of depression stresses the affiliation between action and attitude conditions that play a role of relative changes that are linked with reduced access to support antidepressant conditions (p.660).

The study indicated that BA was comparable to ADM. In the future the standard targeting avoidance behaviors will be in accordance with an earlier behavioral theory that may be an important to innovation on depression. Addressing treatments for depression has not emphasized targeting avoidances, with the exception of the use of opposite action for sadness within dialectical behavior therapy and early investigations of acceptance and commitment therapy with depressed patients.

Cognitive Therapy vs Medications

Antidepressant medications may treat depression. DeRubeis et al (2005) research was conducted across five universities that included 240 outpatients. He used The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), in which is a several item survey used to warn of depression, and it is used as a controller to evaluate the recovery of depression. This provided endless scores that permitted for descriptions of remission.

DeRubeis et al (2005) concluded that knowledge levels of the cognitive therapists seem to have subsidized the communication. Hence, cognitive therapy can be as effective as the drugs for the primary treatment of severe depression. Nonetheless, this degree of success may depend on a higher level of therapist that has experience or expertise in treating depression (p.409).

Suicide Cognitive Therapy Study

Depression can lead to suicide and the feeling of hopelessness lays dormant in people who attempt suicide. Cognitive therapy has a few sessions that target suicide tendencies due to most of Cognitive therapy tries to target the key reasons such as depression or the feeling of hopelessness. Brown did a study in 2005 and the objective of the study is to test a 10-session therapy. Throughout this study many relapsed, some were watching closer than others and some had many sessions.

“The severity of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory was significantly lower for the cognitive therapy group than for the usual care group” (Brown, 2005, p. 565). The participants was broken into two groups a cognitive therapy group and a care group. The study proved that overall the cognitive therapy group had less depression and hopelessness than the care group in lesser time.

Brown (2005) research concluded that “the cognitive therapy group also had significantly less hopeless than the usual care group. The severity of self-reported depression was significantly lower for the cognitive therapy group than for the usual care group” (p. 569).

Psychological Therapies Study

Clinical practice concentrates on group therapy and the format is recommended to help people with depression. Group methods can be seen as evidences as implementing an intervention. “Many selected studies were quality assessed, using Cochrane risk of bias tools that were data extracted by two reviews using a standardized data” (Scope et al., 2013, p.3). The method was a synthesized effect that was an inverse and variance method. The results of Meta analyses showed groups to (CBT).

The current national institute for health and clinical excellence (NICE) showed that clinical guidelines was intended for postnatal mental health. The outline that is recommended is to identify and treat women with psychological interventions such as undivided cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy (IPT) for women with (PND). In any future studies that may be beneficial is a psychological intervention because it is useful for treatments that may meet the requirements of evidence based practice to (EBP) if it is applied.

Conclusion

The length of depression constitutes a major problem in the treatment of depression. However, many evidences suggest that psychological treatments have been withdrawn to the many treatment trials that have been found in cognitive therapy such as drugs or different types of therapy that defends against depression. Depression shows that emotional reactions occur when emotion relates to schematic models that are produced from patterns of lower level meanings and patterns that show production of depression and emotional responses.

The main effect is to help control the relapse of depression. DeRubeis (2005) concluded that knowledge levels of the cognitive therapists seem to have subsidized the communication. Hence, cognitive therapy can be as effective as the drugs for the primary treatment of severe depression or other mental problems. Nonetheless, this degree of success may depend on a higher level of therapist that has experience or expertise in treating depression (p.409).

An accruing relapse of depression is hard to overcome nevertheless; preventing these relapses is the key. The length of depression constitutes a major problem in the treatment of depression. The aim of any treatment is to lessen relapses and the recurrence of depression in patients.

References

Brown,G.K. (2005). Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide Attempts: A Randomized Controlled Trial.Jama-journal of The American Medical Association,294(5), 563-570. doi:10.1001/jama.294.5.563 Retrieved from: http://www.behavioralhealth-ctx.org/resources/Suicide_Prevention.pdf

DeRubeis,R.J., Hollon,S.D., Amsterdam,J.D., Shelton,R.C., Young,P.R., Salomon,R.M., . . . Gallop,R. (2005). Cognitive Therapy vs Medications in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Depression.Archives of General Psychiatry,62(4), 409-416. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.4.409 Retrieved from: http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=208460

Dimidjian,S., Hollon,S.D., Dobson,K.S., Schmaling,K.B., Kohlenberg,R.J., Addis,M.E., . . . Jacobson,N.S. (2006). Randomized Trial of Behavioral Activation, Cognitive Therapy, and Antidepressant Medication in the Acute Treatment of Adults With Major Depression.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,74(4), 658-670. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.4.658 Retrieved from http://ww.abnormalwootwoot.com/Cool_Abnormal_Reads_Videos_ETC._files/Dimidjia n%202006-Randomized%20Trial%20of%20Behavioral%20Activation_1.pdf

Scope,A., Leaviss,J., Kaltenhaler,E., Parry,G., Sutcliffe,P., Bradburn,M., & Cantell,A. (2013). Is group cognitive behavior therapy for postnatal depression evidence based practice? A systematic review.BMC Psychiatry,13(1), 1-19. doi:10.1186/1471-244x-13-321 Retrieved from: https://eds-b-ebscohost- com.libroxy.chapman.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=8&sid=143e2edd-dfaa-4ad4-88aa- 90d630d4673d%40sessionmgr110&hid=113&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWlwLHVpZCxjb 29raWUsdXJsJnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=92802416

Teasdale,J.D., Segal,Z., & Williams,J.M. (1995). How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive relapse and why should attentional control (mindfulness) training help?Behaviour Research and Therapy,33(1), 25-39. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)E0011-7 Retrieved from: http://oxfordmindfulness.org/wp-content/uploads/Teasdale-Segal-and- Williams-1995.pdf



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