23 Mar 2015
In this day and age, people enjoy various global sharing resources, and also what is the main contribution of globalisation. Globalisation is a word which is known to every household, which covers all aspects of human life, such as economic, culture, and politics. As the dominant form of modern political system, modern liberal democracy has also impacted by the progress of globalisation, and also has already influence countries which are illiberal democracy in the worldwide range. This essay will illustrate what the term of globalisation is, what the term of modern liberal democracy is and how globalisation has impacted on the nature and functions of modern liberal democracies, furthermore take China as an example to illustrate how globalisation impact on the nature and functions of modern liberal democracies.
What is globalization?
Globalisation is a word become popular in recent years. First of all, globalisation is a process, during this process people interact and integrate as a whole it has impacts on economic development and prosperity, on cultural, also on political systems all over the world (globalization101.org, n.d.). During this internationalised process, we can enjoy news, films, food, and culture among different countries all over the world. The process of globalisation has promoted mutual understanding to other countries and cultures which are developing in different background. More specific, the process of globalisation firstly derived from the international trade and, among this global economic progress the Eastern and Western worlds impact each other on all aspects of human life and the world system, just as Angermüller etc (2004) illustrates that globalisastion is a progress which is a fact and continuous, it is celebrated by neo-liberal economists as the highest stage of economic development, where goods, services, money and knowledge have highly movable on a world wide range. At the same time, World Trade Organisation (WTO) becomes the inevitable outcome of globalisation, which are 153 national members are included all over the world and, at a global or near global level it deals with the rules of trade between nations. Which is an organization for liberalizing trade and operated under a system of trade rules(World trade organization, n.d.).
In addition, the media information globalisation is another significant characteristic of globalisation. Along with the development of information technology, westerner culture and oriental cultural infiltration into each other and results in no obvious limits among their life style, for instance, people from East can enjoy the food from the West, such as pizza, spaghetti and hamburger, also, the Western can enjoy the Eastern food, such as boiled dumplings. Furthermore, even their policies, for instance, as a socialist country China government has made the policy of reformation and opening in the seventh decade of twenty century to adapting globalisation, I will expound this in the following part of this essay.
What is liberal democracy?
Dunleavy and O'Leary(1987,pp.5-6) state that'liberal democracy is a system of representative government by majority rule in which some individual rights are nonetheless protected from interference by the state and cannot be restricted even by an electoral majority.' More specifically, liberal democracy is a kind of representative democracy, which mean the people under the policy of liberal democracy can elect free, which is following the main thought of the Enlightment. Liberty democracy can be illustrated as a form that the people elect the party which can represent their will to exercising power of making decisions to the state. From ancient times to the present, liberty is always one of the key words of the Western politics, as Dunleavy and O'Leary (1987) shows that liberal democracy is the key word which we can using to analyzing the role of the state and, it is also the cornerstone of value of Western liberal democracy, which is based on the theory of freedom and rights of individuals and, which is mentioned by a lot of thinkers such as Plato, Locke, Hobbes, Marx and so on. With the continuous development of history, with the addition of the contribution of globalisation, liberal democracy is no longer the political system of the English-speaking world. The following section of this essay will focus on how globalisation has influenced the operating of liberal democracy.
How globalisation impact on liberal democracies?
In this day and age, the global economy is now undergoing a rapid and profound transformation. Moreover, this transformation has adjusting on the relationship between countries. According to the process of globalisation was firstly derived from the international trade, to a certain extent, capital can be considered as the motive force of the globalization. In order to get more capital, countries all over the world constantly adjust their own policies to adapt to the development of globalisation. In spite of what form of the politic systems of different countries, the economic globalisation has already leaded to a fuzzy boundary of politics in a world wide range. It seems verbose to mention that according to the internationalism, the establishment and their functions of Europe Union (EU) and United Nations (UN), which make some specific region and some specific countries operating as a whole under the process of economic globalisation. Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and Downs (2005) have shown that it was predicted that economic globalisation would result in political liberalization and, eventually, democracy. However, this political globalistion is mainly displayed as Eastern is affected by Western over the last several decades, which is because of the Western capitalism countries dominating capital in a world wide range. Nonetheless, along with the development of the economic globalization this situation of the Western capitalism countries dominating capital in a world wide range has changed in the resent years, more specifically, particularly after the financial crisis, there is no longer for one or minority of the capitalist great powers to dominate the world, at the same time, it is turns out that the world political and economic are more open to more diversified, which is a chance of other countries to improve their power of economic, furthermore it can also impact the balance of their policies. Such as Zheng(2004) illustrates in his book, globlisation has created challenges and opportunities to the global world and also particularly for the developing countries, of course, there no exception of China. In spite of China is a socialist country, we can also take China as an example to illustrate how globalisation impact on the nature and functions of modern liberal democracies, indeed, I personally think that take a socialist country as an example can prove how globalisation impact on the nature and functions of modern liberal democracies more influential.
It is generally believed that as a socialist country, China has created a significantly development during the past decades, which is attributed the success to the specific process of globalisation in China. Science the Deng Xiaoping opened China's door to the global in the late 1970's China has integrated into the world at a significant pace. In the beginning of implement the reform and open-door policy capitalism was "illegally", after Deng Xiaoping's south tour in early 1992, capitalism was legitimised (Zheng, 2004). Science then, the Chinese economic has developed dramatically. At the meantime, also as Zheng (2004) shows in his book that as a member of World Trade Organisation(WTO) and other primary world and regional organisations, China now has been an integral part of the world. It is can be seen that order to adapting the requirement of the economic globlalisation, the policymakers of China have made policy and adjusted itself to adapting globalisation. In this case, money flow is the main power to drive the situation of the whole world. Furthermore, globalisation has drive developing countries such as China an opportunity for state transformation which re-making their state systems (Zheng, 2004). If there is no process which can influence the whole world as globalisation how China and other countries making their policy to adapt the requirements of capitalism, how can China making the open-door policy and how can China to be a membership of World Trade Organisation(WTO), that is, during the process of globalisation, there are a lot of boundaries becoming indistinct, for instance, the boundary of culture between countries, the boundary of political forms of different political landscapes.
To sum up, it is easily can be seen that globalisation has already been an irresistible trend, the process of globalisation firstly derived from the international trade and, among this global economic progress, the Eastern and Western worlds impact each other on all aspects of human life and the world system, in fact, it is mainly displayed as the developing Western world influence developing countries. Along with the progress of globalisation, it has covered all aspects of human life, such as economic, culture, and politics. As the main political form of capitalism, liberal democracy has already disseminated by economic globalisation, just take China as an example, which is originally an unalloyed socialist country, under the impact of economic globlisation China re-making it's policy appropriately to adapt the power of capitalism, which plays the main role of the world economic system. In another words, it can be seen as an evidence of which the nature and functions of liberal democracy has been disseminate by globalisation, at the same time, the impaction which is coursed by globalisation to the nature and functions of liberal democracy can also to be seen as the impaction on the nature and functions of liberal democracy coursed by proliferation of capital, on account of what I have mentioned before, in fact the process of globalisation is dominated by the power of capital.
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