23 Mar 2015
It is believed that the demand for democracy, whenever or when it arises, always comes from individuals who believe that their leaders for some reason are sidelining their very needs and aspirations of their subjects. These kinds of people at times tend to either become leaders themselves or automatically establish a system where the population has good and accountable leadership. Democracy hence is said to be a very crucial element and practice. The practices and concepts of social equality have understood their place in a more advanced way in the constitutions of their various countries. Internationally there is very few traces of democracy that resembles a country's national dynamics. Hence it has been noted that major powerful countries tend to make decisions that dully affect the lifestyles of citizens belonging to other countries.
Absolutely there is then no question that there is a powerful connection between the social movements and globalization. It is clear enough that social movements theories for a very long time have been greatly state-based with the main analysis being that of social movements across a country. Again as time went by, during and by the 1980s it was noted that the nation-state was no longer the best way of analysis. This was facilitated by the rapid increase in international governance and the very change of roles in the institituions of global governance i.e. IMF, World Bank, and WTO. This came with the increase in power of transnational state and transnational capitalist class, multinational organizations, all under one main neoliberal ideology. Thus it should be noted that all these implementations and developments have deeply influenced social movements and globalization. Another yet result of globalization and a challenge to the deep conservative theories of communal movements was the uprising in the 1990s of what is apparently known as the traditional labor unions, worldwide advocacy networks and international social movements.
It was very impossible to assume the presence of such worldwide social movements as ala the traditional labor unions, native populace actions within the Amazonian areas, environmentalists from around Europe and the very individual rights advocates together joined forces in Seattle to discuss the very negative impacts of globalization at the World Trade Organization meeting. Thus the mass mobilization uniting different individuals within different states, engaging in long-lasting interactions with the political elites, worldwide institutions and multinational organizations is what is known as the transnational social movements. Hence social movements are said to be the internal rivalry between diverse groups and organizations having numerous sites for management and thoroughly structured along free networks commonly referred to as SPR. This type of structure has henceforth allowed movements to basically be free and flexible with the ability to engage likeminded various constituencies within the global system.
As people continue to be affected more and more by the transnational processes and the factors beyond the nation-state, social movements have rapidly continued to grow transnational. Hence these movements have strongly reacted towards the negative impacts of neoliberalism and globalization. It should be noted that the upcoming of the global civil society is due to the international deficit in regard to democracy, moreover the lack of proper systems in the very institutions of international governance. International social movements always share a worldwide frame of problems and issues to be addressed, target the population and have an international set of actions, thus they always tend to campaign for change regarding the international issues.
Moreover the choice between the three communal movements which include the global justice, feminist and Islamist do fully reflect the lack and disappointments within the transnational civil society. It should be clear to every population that not all the movements are generally emancipatory. Great diversity is experienced within these social movements. For example within the Islamist movement, the use of repertoires from terrorist hostility to parliamentary events is seen, whereas there is permanent disagreement inside the universal feminist activities over the anxiety that the grievances of women from the metro pole will actually assume important issues from the edge. Clashes amongst the secular and religious groups are hence experienced within the main global justice movements.
Thus with reference to the international feminist movement, the agenda is always based on the following three significant issues: fighting and campaigning for peace, campaigning for religious fundamentalism and campaigning against neoliberalism. The transnational women movements are said to have taken the very opportunity of the United Nations meetings on women such as those that were held in Beijing in 1995 and Nairobi in 1985, using these meetings as the stepping stone and with an intention of framing the agenda in opposition towards the religious organizations. The feminist movements have also been largely involved with the issues regarding feminization of poverty and gender-based violence as well as the feminization of employment. Again it is noted clearly that neoliberalism and patriarchy always try to comfort and depend on each other in order to continue the massive oppression of the woman in a situation of cultural, economic and social inferiority, devaluation and marginalization. This extends to excessive labor and commercialization of their being as women.
But, as mentioned, there are divisions on certain issues between different feminist groups, for instance, on the abortion issue:
Arguably the global justice movement is wider and is made up of numerous groups: labor unions, women's rights, anti-war groups, religious groups, population advocates, human rights and environmentalists. Generally this movement is basically highly motivated and dedicated by the idea that people can live much more better and happier without neoliberalism, this consist much more of debt relief, fair and easier trade, labor rights, sustainability and environmentalism and the very democratization of institutions which relate to international governance. Hence this kind of diversity has absolutely led to collective responsibility, from lobbying governments institutions to petitioning, with demonstrations and direct actions (such as Seattle in 1999).
Hence the election of Lula as president of the republic of Brazil in 2002 from a union leader was a clear indication that the uprising and emergence of global justice movement was taking place. Her election was vital to the formation and establishment of the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre. This has seen the global justice movement later involving itself with numerous protests against world organizations such as the World Bank, the IMF and the WTO with the ability and capacity for better formation and coordination through improved technological advancement.
It is thus clear that the rise of global social movements and transitional movements in the very past has largely grown due to the much lack of international democracy, with significant calls for social and economic justice. These movements have further shown that the nation-state is very significant either as an oppressive force or a promoting force.
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