The Evolution of Interior Design


03 Oct 2016 21 Sep 2017

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Question: Discuss the work James Stirling; Norman Foster; Ettore Sottsass; Richard Rogers; David Hicks; Philippe Starck.

Post- Modernism period is from the1950s to 21th century. Post-modern style leadership at 1970s influenced today architecture and product design even graphic design. Apart of influence to architecture design, it also has culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Post-modern style make more same style building in the world appeared. Post-Modernism makes local characteristics and traditional design fade out. Nowadays architecture and urban landscape are too boring and no special point. However architecture industry appears young designers and young architect groups that try to change and develop the Post-Modern style building outlook. That occurred revolution of the architecture industry.

Classical, Modern and Post-Modern architecture are simple definition. We can see every city established the architecture by using of the geometric. The geometric structure is the most popular style. These thought had been given from Bauhaus. Bauhaus is influenced to modernism architecture mostly. The modern architecture it is not too much decoration. The material and functional architecture is a modern style feature mainly. Until now, the Post-Modern architecture is not only about aesthetic. Meanwhile Post-Modern architecture the characteristic is focus in environmental protection. Besides that, we can found the Post-Modernism return to classical style in architecture and furniture design.

I will introduce several most important Post-Modern Architects and Designers. James Stirling he is Architect in British. He designed the History Faculty Library, Cambridge, completed in 1968. He was a led in Post-modern movement important person. In Italy Ettore Sottsass is a designer. Graduated with a degree in architecture but some of his iconic works is a product design Typewriter Valentine. Richard Rogers is a British architect. He corporate with the Italian architect Renzo Piano Designed the Pompidou Center in 1971-77 in Paris. The Centre approach is high-tech. David Hicks is an Interior Designer. He strongly introduced Color and Graphic such as clashing colors and geometric pattern carpets. He pioneered a mix and match antique with the modern pieces. There are two important person will be discussed in below. They are most popular architect Norman Foster and Designer Philippe Starck at today.

Firstly let us discuss Norman Foster, Norman Forster is a Post-Modernism high-tech iconic architect designer. He is worldwide famous architect. He is a star in architectural industry also he won many of the world class architectural awards. He is one of the world's major architects.

The Gale Group Inc (2004) point out that

“Called the "hero of high-tech," his architectural signature is a design that opens a building up to the public, is mindful of the environment, and saves money by using modern materials and advanced technology.”

HSBC Bank is a most popular bank In Hong Kong. Also Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) Headquarters. Looking buildings around in Hong Kong Central the architecture is still most modern, even though it was established in 1985. That architecture is a British architect Norman Foster design.

In fact, his famous designed Huge Financial Commercial Building and Airport Terminal. In 1986s Hong Kong, we all know HSBC Building Hong Kong designed by him the building style is high-tech. Structural of steel parts was manufactured in United Kingdom. Glass, aluminum outer frame and flooring was manufactured in America. Component facilities were manufactured in Japan. The building architecture design structure is not internal support. All supporting structures was located outer frame of the building and free removal. And glass facade designed to make the best use of natural light. The ground floor lobby door is toward north south, winter keep cool in the lobby, it save air-conditioning costs. The High-tech architecture is also known as Structural Expressionism. That building gives him famous in the international architecture industry. At 1998s Hong Kong International Airport Terminal also designed by him. That made him well-known in architecture industry. At 2013s, he designed Kai Tak Cruise Terminal in Hong Kong. In addition Hong Kong International Airport Terminal and Hung Hom Station were close to the same design.

At the same time at Beijing, China 2003 – 2008. He designed Beijing Airport. The outside of the Beijing airport look like similar to Hong Kong International Airport. That is Norman foster style I would say. Although, the airport is look like too similar of outlook. But we if carefully study for that architecture. We will find some differences and interesting is come from the Beijing airport architecture design. Norman Forster is not only just applying technologically improved to airport building. He is very intimate design for in terms of passenger experience. The terminal it’s used soaring aerodynamic on the roof. And then the roof Imagination form Chinese dragon form and Chinese colors red. It is so symbolic for China. Norman Foster designed for maximum flexibility to care with cannot know in future of the aviation industry. It is resolve the future complicated air travel. The Beijing Airport Terminal that interior spatial clarity combining with high service standards. As for public transport, the airport building connect are fully integrated all kind of transportation. Passengers are not walking too long distances arrive destination. He suggested shorten distances of the road for flights. It can be made transfer times flights are minimized time. Beijing airport terminal is like to Hong Kong International airport terminal. The concept is both of the open view to the outside. Special remark, the Beijing airport just four years can be design and built that airport terminal.

David McManus (2015) point out that

“The terminal building is one of the world’s most sustainable, incorporating a range of passive environmental design concepts,”

Mr. Foster he very good use the skylight. The skylight can be gain from the sun light. I’m agreeing he is "hero of high-tech". His great use high technology for himself design concept. Mr. Foster has unique architecture system and form. If no Hong Kong International Airport design and build experience. I think Beijing Airport cannot finish within four years of design and built that airport terminal. I would say he is architect of high-tech father.

What is this? UFO can be making an orange juice or lemon juicy? The UFO let me imagine that just a micro-sculpture is not having functional. But that product is a citrus squeezer. That might be one of his best-known works. This citrus squeezer Iconic symbol of Philippe Starck and produced by Alessi.

Philippe Starck is famous Product Designer, Industrial Design as well as architect. He is amazing designer in my mind. His characteristic is the focus on different areas of the design. His works is from high budget of the architectural design to smaller works of the toothbrush product. He is very creative in all design. Such as designed of the computer mouse for Microsoft, as well as redesigned new packaging for Beer Brand. Philippe Starck design usually use different material mixed such as glass and stones or plastic and aluminum combining. His almost famous design works in 1990 Juicy Salif. That Juicer looks as a Rocket Launcher that is designed for Italian Brand Alessi Housewares. The most well-known is the 1984 Paris Café Costes. In addition, the Asakusa Tokyo Asahi Beer Tower, Hong Kong Peninsula Hotel Felix bar. His interior design style keeps in classical or old style and mixed with the contemporary material. That his effort is design for every body

Philippe Starck with Baccarat’s signature red crystal pendant lamp redesigned. He adds black crystal and lined with aluminum on the pendant lamp. The name is ZÉNITH NOIR it is neoclassical historical style. He likes to change the historical style using new modern material renew. Another iconic and great design is ghost chair. The chair is best sellers today. That is neoclassical historical style. He redesigns the classical chair was used by transparent polycarbonate material. The chair used by transparent material, it will be invisible in the interior has no chair effect, that effect is so interesting.

Philippe Starck in 2014s cooperates with RIKO. RIKO is a wooden constructions company. The project name is a Prefabricated Accessible Technology Homes short name is PATH. We are living in a modern age; the PATH house has been given living with nature for human. The PATH house design concept is come from future. Combining high technology, comfortable, sustainable, timeless design and respect environment. The PATH idea is come from Philippe Starck. But he is adamant that PATH house design its does not used a Starck style. The house construction is using Aluminum and Spruce Wood. The house outside is using aluminum material. This material is good for insulation effect. Indoor interior design is using spruce decor. Overall for the house, his design is included coordinating, renewable energy power generation, solar panels, wind turbines, geothermal systems, and rainwater collection system. It will be installed on the roof. It can be greatly reduced by more than 50% of ecological engineering. That house design is a Philippe Starck breakthrough his design thinking.

Philippe Starck design is in use the historical elements very well. Even the PATH house design is not Starck style but we if carefully study for that house. We will found the house is a roman ionic order transforming of the elevation. He is my favorite designer for me.

In conclusion, I think Norman Foster has influence to architecture go to high-tech trend and systematization constructions. He is leadership the High-tech architecture functional building and environmental protection building popular development movement. Today design style influence contemporary architect and have High-tech outer frame style usage. Philippe Starck has influence to contemporary material and renaissance classical or old style design mixing usage. Beyond the Post-Modernism and design rules. His amazing design way inspires a new generation of architect and designers what is creative and multitasking of design think.


Reference List:

Muschamp, V. (1992, June 26). James Stirling, 66, a Bold British Architect, Dies. Retrieved from

Moore, R. (2014, May 18). Ettore Sottsass: the godfather of Italian cool. Retrieved from


Zukowsky, J. (2013, May 30). Richard Rogers British architect. Retrieved from

Lambert, E. (1998, April 2). Exhilarating eclecticism and abundant color reawaken English taste. Retrieved from

The Gale Group Inc. (2004). Norman Robert Lord Foster of Thames Bank Foster. Retrieved from

McManus, D. (2015, January 26). Beijing Airport Building. Retrieved from

McManus, D. (2015, January 26). Beijing Airport Building. Retrieved from

The Starck truth: Does British design need saving?. Retrieved from

Philippe Starck's new prefabricated house realises the modern living ideal. Retrieved from


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