Supercritical Fluids (SFCs) / Supercritical Fluid Extraction

08 Feb 2018

27 (10,413 )

I. ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) The experimental determination of the yield of pyrethrins from the Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium flower is usually carried out with Chromatographic Techniques. A lot of methods about this have been reported over the years [Z-M. ChertY.H. Wang (1996)]. These include HPLC [13 -22], GC [22-26] and SFC [B. Wenclawiak, A. Otterbach (2000) methods. Because of the need for only analyzing the pyrethrins (not reporting for ...

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Processes of Drugs Metabolism in the Body

08 Feb 2018

30 (11,956 )

Abstract Metabolism of drugs is a complex and major process within the body, occurring primarily in the liver. The aim of metabolism is to make the drug more polar to enable excretion via the kidneys. The basic understanding of drug metabolism is paramount to ensure drug optimisation, maximum therapeutic benefits and a reduction in adverse effects. Essentially drug metabolism is broken down into two phases, Phase ...

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Literature Survey on Hydrogen Separation Technique

08 Feb 2018

26 (10,012 )

Literature review has been performed in order to identify recent publications on hydrogen separation methods, hydrogen solubility, materials and concepts in research institutes and laboratories. The aim of the performed literature survey was to monitor recent worldwide literature and find out whether some of the developed and reported solutions might possibly help to improve existing hydrogen separation concept in PDh system, enabling efficient complete separation of ...

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High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) 214

08 Feb 2018

13 (4,881 )

Introduction High performance liquid chromatography 214 is the most widely used of all of the analytical separation techniques. The reasons for the popularity of the method is its sensitivity, ready adaptability to accurate quantitative determinations, suitability for separating non-volatile species or thermally fragile ones, wide spread applicability to substance that are of prime interest to industry, many fields of science and the public. The applications of ...

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Physico-chemical Processes that Occur During Freezing

08 Feb 2018

38 (14,847 )

1. Introduction Lyophilization respectively freeze-drying is an important and well-established process to improve the long-term stability of labile drugs, especially therapeutic proteins.[1] About 50% of the currently marketed biopharmaceuticals are lyophilized, representing the most common formulation strategy.[2] In the freeze-dried solid state chemical or physical degradation reactions are inhibited or sufficiently decelerated, resulting in an improved long-term stability.[3] Besides the advantage of better stability, lyophilized formulations ...

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Flow Cytometry for the Evaluation of Semen

08 Feb 2018

42 (16,594 )

State of the Art in Sperm Assessment Using Flow Cytometry Abstract Flow cytometry is emerging as a substantial tool in the domain of modern andrology for the routine analysis of spermatozoa. Recent application of flow cytometry in the artificial insemination industry especially for pig is a new approach. Until very recent, analysis of semen samples was routinely performed by microscopical evaluation and manual techniques by laboratory ...

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Predicting Effects of Environmental Contaminants

08 Feb 2018

35 (13,816 )

1.1. Debunking some chemical myths… In October 2008, the Royal Society of Chemistry announced they were offering £1 million to the first member of the public that could bring a 100% chemical free material. This attempt to reclaim the word ‘chemical' from the advertising and marketing industries that use it as a synonym for poison was a reaction to a decision of the Advertising Standards Authority ...

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Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Human Health

08 Feb 2018

39 (15,467 )

Abstract: A highly Sensitive (LOD; 0.04-0.4 ng/ml) method is developed for detection and quantification of acidic compounds (C3 -C10) containing mono and dicarboxylic acids on GC-MS. These compounds (C3 -C10) existed in trace amount, as secondary organic aerosols i.e. important constituents of Aerosols. Membrane extraction technique was utilized for selective enrichment (1-4300 times) of target compounds. Good repeatability (RSD% ≤ 10%) from selective organic phase (10% ...

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Enantioselective Disposition of MDMA and its Metabolites

08 Feb 2018

30 (11,800 )

INTRODUCTION Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are a group of drugs, mostly synthetic in origin, that are structurally derived from β-phenethylamine (Figure 1). Amphetamine (AMP, "Speed") was initially synthesized in Berlin in 1887 as 1-methyl-2-phenethylamine. It was the first of several chemicals, including methamphetamine (MET, "Ice") and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"), which have similar structures and biological properties, and are referred to collectively as "amphetamines" (Cody, 2005). Since 1887, ...

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