23 Mar 2015
Job satisfaction is very vital for an employee, because when an employee is pleased with his/her job then he/she will give greatest productivity in his/her working hours. Job satisfaction is in stare to one's consideration or state of mind relating to the nature of their work. Job satisfaction can be tending by a sum of factors, e.g., the quality of affiliation with supervisors, the quality of the atmosphere in which they work and degree of completion in their work, etc. it can also be exposed through observing the employee's values. It is good not only for employees but employers as well because it increases effectiveness.
Job satisfaction may be defined as a pleasant or positive affecting state resulting from the assessment of one's job or job experiences (Locke 1976). It can also be determined as representing a complex collection of cognitions (belief or knowledge) and emotions (Landy, 1989).
Job satisfaction has often been considered equal with associated concepts of self-esteem and job contribution. Morale has been defined as an outlook of job satisfaction with a need to continue and eagerness to pursue the aims of an institute (Viteles, 1953).
Soleman (2005) suggests that the average score of job satisfaction among male and female are 64.69 and 66.4 respectively. So, there is no foremost difference between the job satisfaction levels among both genders. Female social workers reported fewer opportunities for promotion, less excellence of supervision, and higher workload than male social workers.
Marianne & David (1997) find private school teacher inclined to be more content then public school teacher and elementary school teacher tends to be more pleased then secondary school teachers. Jernigan & Joyee (2005) disagreed, when it comes to satisfaction, the supervisor's proceedings and behaviors do matter. An employee's satisfaction with his or her supervisors is a valuable aspect related to the person's delicate job satisfaction.
Janet & Warwick (1998) proposed that the significance of being less valued as professionals than they believe they ought to have would then be potentially very destructive for them and their satisfaction with personal life as well as to the professional life at work.
The fix pay can result in a positive influence on job satisfaction regarding performance and skill. In fact, the more employees are contented with the internal impartiality of their fixed pay, the more they tend to be satisfied with their job (Jacques & Patrice 1999). Shakir, Ijaz, Arif & Tahil (2007) found that most of the doctors in all positions and with different credentials were not found satisfied with their employment due to deficiency of proper service structure and stumpy salaries.
According to McEwen 2001, global leader for The Gallop Organization, the most repeatedly discussed company assets are those that are recognized by or have been established through the conventional "four Ps" of marketing: product, place, promotion, and price. Of course, the assets associated to these categories are well worth defensive and building, for they are the backbone of the company. Though, there are other company assets that are of same importance but are barred because either they are not obviously documented as "assets" or more effort is necessary to administer them effectively. "These are the assets that surround the important fifth 'P': people; human assets; human capital" (McEwen, 2001)
There have been two major approaches to compute job satisfaction. Firstly, the facet approach focuses on aspects concerned with the job that contribute to total satisfaction. Some of these consist of salary, promotion, and appreciation within the workplace. This approach holds that workers might feel in a different way towards each factors of the job, but the cumulative of each facet would construct overall satisfaction. Even though, the massive use of this approach by researchers it has been criticized on the hypothesis that individuals might not characterize equal importance to each of the facets (Thierry, 1996)
The global approach is the second approach that focuses on an individual's complete job satisfaction. The global approach suggests that job satisfaction is more than the collection of its parts and individuals can articulate discontent with facets of the job and still be usually satisfied (Smither, 1994)
There is no consent in the journalism as to which is a better approach. Researchers who have used the facet approach argue that the global approach is too broad and as a result responses cannot be efficiently interpreted (RICE ET AL, 1989, Morrison, 1996)
However, studies, which have utilized the global approach, have a opinion that the global approach is more inclusive (Weaver, 1980, Scarpello and Campbell, 1983, Highhouse and Becker, 1993)
Job satisfaction is distinct as the opinion of workers regarding the company, their occupation, their colleagues and other psychological objects in the work atmosphere. The attitude towards these indicates job satisfaction and vice versa. (Michael Beer 1964)
Job satisfaction is frequently described as a valuable response to one's employment, but generally computed largely as a cognitive assessment of job features. Positive and negative emotions both make distinctive assistance to satisfaction, and contribute to the forecast of overall satisfaction above and ahead of facade satisfaction. (Cynthia D. Fisher 2001)
Graham (1982) described Job satisfaction as "the calculation of one's total feeling and attitude concerned to one's job". Job satisfaction is the collection of attitude in relation to job. Job satisfaction is how employees experience about different factors of their job.
Job satisfaction defined as "any collection of psychological, physiological, and environmental situations that impels a person to honestly say, "I am satisfied with my job". (Hop pock R., 1935)
Importance of Job Satisfaction
According to Marc Drizin(2004), an employee loyalty specialist, "Employees are assets with feet. They are the only reserve of organizations that have made a willful decision to return the next day". (Modic, 2005) The study of job satisfaction has made its significance as one of the most widely researched topic in industrial and organizational psychology. This research interest is well explained by a huge number of available articles (estimated at 3350 by Locke, 1976). Oshagbemi (1996), suggests that this figure today would have been multiplied.
Factors of Job Satisfaction
Many scholars have calculated the height of job satisfaction. For example Steven and John after gathering data through job satisfaction survey (JSS) concluded that the complete level of job satisfaction of software developers was 4.05 which can be described as slightly satisfied (Steven G. Westlund and John C. Hannon, 2000)
The organizational reward system often has a major influence on the altitude of employee job satisfaction. However, if pay increments are directly concerned to performance, an employee who gains a healthy pay increase will probably also encounter feelings of achievement and satisfaction. The five major factors of job satisfaction are; (Byars & Rue, 2000)
Attitude towards work group
General working conditions
Attitude towards the company
Attitude towards management.
The following top six components causing frustration and the top six factors causing contentment, listed in the order of higher to lower importance (Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory, 2010)
Leading To Dissatisfaction
Relation with Boss
Relation with Peers
Leading To Satisfaction
Furnham (1992) arranges factors that can have an impact on job satisfaction into three groups namely;
Organizational policies and mechanism that have to do with the nature of the compensation package, supervision and decision making actions, and the sensitivity of the quality of supervision
Factors of the total workload, the variety of skills applied, independence, feedback and the physical nature of the working atmosphere.
Personal components such as self-image, talent to deal with stress and general satisfaction with life.
According to DeVaney and Chen (2003), demographic changeable aspects such as age, gender, race and qualifications have an influence on job satisfaction. Variables concerned with work such as whether the job is attractive, good associations with management, job security (permanent or contract jobs), higher pay, a sense of control over one's work were recognized as important components primary job satisfaction (Miller, 1980; Souza-Poza, 2000)
Employees favor work circumstances that permit them to use all their skills, psychologically and physically, autonomy and quick response on their work presentation to one's abilities may bring in annoyance (Robbins, 1991)Workers prefer jobs that remunerate them on the basis of what they recognize as economically reasonable (Robbins, 1991). Age, qualification, gender, shift and part or full-time status as the aspects leading to job satisfaction (Wiedmar 1998). Provision of sufficient and suitable working equipment and clean services are linked to high job satisfaction (Robbins, 1998).
The most appropriate condition for this case is the qualitative study. Qualitative approach is used when the essential principle of the research is to realize and increase imminent (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2005).
The essential characteristic of a qualitative research is that the primary instrument in data collection and analysis is the researcher. The research activities include fieldwork and the process is primarily inductive. The data collections that can be used are the documents data archival data, interview data and direct observation (Merriam 1998). Maxwell (1996) claimed that in qualitative research the main threats of validity are;
So keeping in view the overall scenario of research we will adopt
SWOT and Porter's Analysis
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