Attitudes Towards Women in the Labour Market

28 Mar 2018

4 (1,502 )

A number of studies have analyzed variation in people’s attitudes towards women’s labor market participation and the division of labor among men and women in the Western world. Generally, citizens in Western countries show increasing support over time for women’s labor market participation, with some differences of opinion related to age, gender, education, etc. Cross-national studies also document differences across nations, which partly can be related ...

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Understanding the Social Word: Intuitive Scientists

28 Mar 2018

6 (2,079 )

Joanna Zbroniec In understanding our social world we act as “intuitive scientists”. Evaluate this proposition drawing upon relevant psychological research. The[p1] concept of people acting as naïve psychologists (has been) was originally proposed by Fritz Heider, and further developed by his research in 1944 (Buchanan Anand et al 2007). It has been claimed that people look for cause and effect and a certain ...

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Effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Restructuring

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,638 )

CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The final chapter included the summary of the research, findings obtained and the conclusions derived from the study. The recommendations will provide directions for the future research. 5.1 Summary Adolescence is periods of growth from puberty to adulthood are the stage of transition from dependency to autonomy. Therefore, adolescents are faced with various types of stress from school, physical dissatisfaction ...

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Child Understanding of Floating and Sinking Theory

28 Mar 2018

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Gemma L Sobah   Practical Report Word count: 2006 An investigation into the way of children's scientific thinking: concepts of floating and sinking Abstract This is a study on the nature of children's logical understanding of the theory of floating and sinking, and the cognitive challenge and scaffolding in supporting theoretical change. The study involved two video based interviews with two female participants of ...

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Clinical Judgement vs Statistical Predictions in Research

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,625 )

Jordan Hang The clinical and statistical approaches have both proven to be successful methods in clinical psychology. Each approach has its pros and cons depending on the type of situation that is being dealt with. Clinical judgment can be a complex process because it requires a patient’s data which are composed of samples, observations, signs of underlying states and the clinician’s responses. According to ...

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Gender Differences in Perceptions of Gender

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,897 )

Student: 3222650 Perceptions of IQ. Abstract This study examined individual estimations of their own, their mothers and their fathers IQ. Fifteen males and fifteen females participated. It was hypothesized that participants would estimate their IQ to be higher than both mother and father. They would estimate their fathers IQ to be higher than their mothers and their mothers IQ lower than their fathers. The male participants estimations of ...

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Effects of Stress on the Reconsolidation of Memory

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,942 )

Grace Harvie Question 1 What is the general problem or research question being addressed by the paper? When memories are formed, they undergo a process of memory consolidation. Equally, when memories are reactivated, they undergo reconsolidation, and it is during this time they are susceptible to change. Following on from studies in rodents that demonstrate that memory reconsolidation is adversely impacted by stress, Schwabe ...

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Interviews on the Experiences of Marriage

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,911 )

Marriage Interview Paper First Interview The first woman I chose for the interview about reliving the experience of their marriage was Emily Greene, 45, who lived on 13, Maple Street. Emily is currently a single mom and works freelance apart from being a full time house wife. She has been divorced for six months from her husband Mathew Greene, who is ironically a marriage counselor. As ...

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Developing Emotional Intelligence

28 Mar 2018

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Brenda J. Bentley Essay Title: What is emotional resilience and how does it develop? What might the consequences be for someone for who the process is disturbed? Emotional resilience is defined as an individual's ability to cope with adversity and stress. The ability to respond and overcome life's difficulties embodies belief, capabilities, abilities, characteristics, attitude and traits of a person that is developed or ...

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Effect of Neutralizing Activity on Discomfort

28 Mar 2018

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NEUTRALIZING INCREASES DISCOMFORT 1 Forrester,E., Salkovskis,P.M., Thorpe,S.J., Wahl,K., & Wroe,A.L (2003). Neutralizing Increases Discomfort Associated with Obsessional Thought. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(4), 709-715. Theories associated with the present study Obsession is an invasive thought which has many forms namely; images, doubts, ideas, wishes, and impulses. Repetitiveness of a particular activity can be defined as compulsion. Although it has many forms of action, cleaning compulsion is ...

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Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory

28 Mar 2018

4 (1,216 )

Howard Gardner: On Education During the course of an average life, millions of different learning experiences present themselves. Some stick. Some do not. The level of impact that an individual's experiential learning event has can be attributed to each person's different learning style. Learning is the source of intelligence. Various articles and books have been published on the creation by Howard Gardner of his ‘multiple intelligence” ...

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Effect of Technology and Social Media on Conflict

28 Mar 2018

7 (2,731 )

Jasmeen Lorna Laurence Sarvapriya Rajamanickam Tan Khang Le Wong Paik Yen Chow Jen Ni Joshua Low Wai Peng INTRODUCTION Interpersonal conflict occurs when an expressed struggle between two or more individuals who perceive incompatible goals, scare resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals. Interpersonal conflict may take place on love relationships, family relationships and friend relationships, also, in the workplace. Nowadays, social ...

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Cognitive and Social Processes for Language Development

27 Mar 2018

5 (1,988 )

Discuss the cognitive and social processes that lay the foundations for the early stages of language development. Early category representations and concepts have been a great interest to developmental psychologists. Developmental psychology looks at the relationship between language and thought. Adults have procured and utilise a significant number of categories for the things in their general surroundings. Every noun that an adult uses platforms for a ...

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Chronic Stress: Causes, Effects and Treatments

27 Mar 2018

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Report on Chronic Stress Introduction Stress is an unavoidable part of life. Be it at home or the workplace, different challenges arise which ultimately lead to stress. There are various types of stress related issues, one of which is chronic stress (American Psychological Association, 2015). Chronic stress is that branch of stress when there is an overwhelming response emotionally to any situation which an individual deems ...

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Development of the Depression in Chronic Illnesses Scale

27 Mar 2018

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Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ) is an eighty-two items measure, divided into five clinical components (Kroenke, Spitzer & Williams, 2001). PHQ is used to assess mood, anxiety, somatoform inclination, alcoholism and disorders related to eating habits. PHQ is found to be beneficial in primary care settings because of the early screening and detection the disorder. Responses ranging from “not at all to nearly every day” ...

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Self-Assessments for Career Counselling

27 Mar 2018

5 (1,840 )

The purpose of a self-assessment helps clients to clarify their values, skills, personality and interests that can identify options for client’s future career. Assessments are also important for assessing talents, interests, skills and values and identify potential careers that match personal profiles. Exploring careers with a client is essential as it helps to develop ideas and offer advices on researching careers and job search. The objectives ...

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Operant Conditioning and Reinforcement Theories

27 Mar 2018

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Table of Contents (Jump to) Operant condition Reinforcement Effective reinforcement Shaping Punishment Extinction Stimuli generalization and learning of discrimination Qualities and Confinements of Operant conditioning in Identity brain research Conclusion References   Theory of Operant conditioning Operant conditioning could be depicted as the perceptible impacts it has on nature's turf. Operant conditioning in tends to change the conduct by the utilization of fortification which is given ...

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Runner's High Experiment: Exercise and Rewards

27 Mar 2018

4 (1,255 )

STUDENT NAME: Anastasiya Boutko   For this assignment I chose the article “Wired to run: exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling in humans and cursorial mammals with implications for the ‘runner’s high” by David A. Raichlen and company. I have been aware of the term “runner’s high” and the generally known positive post exercise effects such as better mood and decreased anxiety. I even experienced some of them myself. ...

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Low Ball Technique in Psychology

27 Mar 2018

5 (1,801 )

Introduction You walk into a car dealership and find the perfect car to impress your friends with. A salesperson tells you it’s going to cost $5,000. You agree to buy it right then and there because after all, the textbooks for your psychology courses cost about the same. However, after you commit to buying the car, the salesperson points out that adding a stereo, air conditioner ...

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Validity and Reliability in Forensic Research

27 Mar 2018

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Michele A. DeVasto   Assessment Instruments and Procedures Reliability Instruments of assessments must be reliable. Forensic psychologists need to be certain that the measuring tools or tests that they are using are consistent. The instruments must yield the same numerical measurement every time it measures the same thing under the same conditions. Assessment instruments are reliable to a varying degree, yet reliability ...

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MDMA/Ecstasy Association with Cognitive Impairment

27 Mar 2018

4 (1,568 )

Literature Review MDMA/Ecstasy is a recreational substance that is similar to amphetamines and cause hallucinogenic effects along with feelings of euphoria, emotional warmth and increased energy. Abuse of MDMA could lead to severe genitive disabilities. Many researches have studied the different bases of this drug’s effects and have found correlational relationships with the drug and cognitive functions. Discussed below are researches done specifically on the drug ...

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Vicarious Trauma: Causes, Treatment and Prevention

27 Mar 2018

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Frances Roulet   Proposed Resolution Researchers, such as, Dunkley and Whelan (2006), Newell and MacNeil (2010) and Pearlman and Mac Ian (1995) have suggested that there are others factors that can also influence the development of a vicarious trauma. These factors can also contribute to the increase in the severity of the impact on trauma workers and other professional practitioners. These other factors are ...

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Psychological Explanations for Schizophrenia

27 Mar 2018

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ATHYNEA BURCHALL   Assignment 6 Outline and evaluate one or more psychological explanations for schizophrenia. In your evaluation you should refer to research evidence. Many people perceive Schzophenia (sz) as a personality disorder relating to a split personality. This interepratation could be because in Greek the name translates as skhizen (to split) and phren (mind). Sz “is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown in thinking and poor emotional responses., ...

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Cognitive Skills in Sports Performance

27 Mar 2018

4 (1,585 )

1. Introduction Performance in any sports is primarily a result of physical, physiological and psychological training. However, locus of sports training continues to gravitate around physical, biomechanical and physiological factors. In addition to aptitude and capability, mental strength or commonly known as “sportsmanship” is an important yet unexplored facet of performance in sports. According to Young & Pain, mental strength is associated with motivation, concentration, stress ...

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Concepts of Moral Psychology

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction In today’s scientific research there are countless accounts of the applicability of one seemingly discipline-specific theory across other disciplines; and research in moral psychology is no exception in this regard. Nowadays with the growing body of research on morality, scientists and scholars across different disciplines have started binding biology, linguistics, and psychology in studying morality and human moral behavior. As one of the outcomes of ...

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Situational Effects on Human Behaviour

27 Mar 2018

4 (1,409 )

Wong Shu En “He is usually quiet, but when he is around his friends, he becomes exceptionally talkative.” Statements like this are actually very common. Behaviour is defined as the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others (Oxford University Press, 2014). So what exactly determines behaviour? Is it an individual’s attitude, or the situation that the individual is in? This ...

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Measuring Procrastination Using Behavioural Modification

27 Mar 2018

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Shicong Zhao Measuring Procrastination Using Behavioural Modification by Controlling Environmental Factors Abstract Many students engage in procrastination and procrastination behaviours are found to have negative impacts these students. The study uses behavioural modification focusing on changing environmental factors for each individual to be able to measure the amount of procrastination or study and hence change this behaviour. The sample studied consisted of 302 second ...

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Racism and Aggression Relationship to Depression and Stress

27 Mar 2018

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Racism and Aggression: The mediator of depression and stress Racial discrimination had been a pervasive phenomenon across the globe. Although racial discrimination is more likely to be experienced by the racial minorities (Sellers & Shelton, 2003), racial majorities are not excluded from experiencing racial discrimination (Borrell,et al., 2007). Racial discrimination can be defined as unequal treatment towards certain people or group due to their race and ...

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Case Study

27 Mar 2018

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Question 1 i. In Victor’s case, he is likely to be experiencing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Panic Disorder. PTSD is defined as a persistent maladaptive reaction that lasts longer than one month after experiencing traumatic events. PTSD may develops by months, years or even prolonged for decades, but in some cases, PTSD may only start developing after many months or years of traumatic ...

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Contribution in a Study Examining Social Well-Being.

27 Mar 2018

5 (1,687 )

Andrew Sarnadsky   Abstract The purpose of this study was to implement a Critique on a study by Julie Godden on Social Well-Being as part of a requirement for a fourth year Bachelor of Psychology student at CQ University. On review, the study of social well-being also leads to gender-role schema and negative emotions. This survey group consisted of 140 Australian participants from the ...

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Theory of Systemic Integrative Psychotherapy

27 Mar 2018

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Petruska Clarkson was born October 31st in South Africa, and died on May 21st 2006 at age 56 in Amsterdam. Her fields of study were Integrative/ Psychotherapy/ Gestalt her influences were Fritz and Laura Perls. Her key idea was systemic integrative psychotherapy. Her legacy was that she contributed to the philosophy of psychotherapy she was also a professor who presented lectures and role papers on gestalt ...

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Emotional Intelligence and Burnout of Police Officers

27 Mar 2018

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  CHAPTER III Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data obtained through a survey using questionnaires designed to find out the levels and correlation of emotional intelligence and burnout, and their relationship to the profile of the police officers of Camp Crame, Quezon City. Question No. 1.What is the profile of the respondents according to: age gender ...

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Effects of Optimism on Health

27 Mar 2018

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Optimism and Health According to Carver, Scheier and Segerstrom (2010), optimism is a trait that determines the extent to which favorable outcomes are to happen to people in the future (p. 1). It is further stated that the difference between optimists and pessimists determine how they cope with adversities and confront the problems that face them in life (Carver, Scheier, & Segerstrom, 2010). This essay will ...

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Therapeutic Alliance and Transference

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction This essay will provide an evidence based discussion surrounding some methodological issues and dilemmas that psychotherapy researchers encounter. The writer will begin by giving an overview of process research followed with a discussion surrounding two specific process issues. These issues will be correlated with two journal articles and will determine how the researcher either conceded or did not mitigate the research according to the process ...

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Andrew Solomon’s Far from the Tree: Schizophrenia

27 Mar 2018

4 (1,342 )

Olivia Stahl David Brown     Mental illness affects 20% of the United States population; approximately 11 million adults are suffering from some sort of mental disorder. (ABC News) Despite the large number of Americans affected by mental disease, the information available to the general public and the understanding the extent to which people affected by mental illness suffer is weak at best. This ...

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Personality, Culture and Gender in Negotiation

27 Mar 2018

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Khoo Ling In   Negotiation is what we likely to do when we trying to get someone or a group of people to say yes to us. According to Corvette B.A.B (2007), negotiation is a process where people interact to reach a desired goal. Negotiation happens in everyday life. No matter which profession we are in or in our personal daily life, we use ...

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Comparison of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung

27 Mar 2018

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FREUD AND JUNG 1   Introduction: This paper is an analysis of the differences and the similarities between the various teachings of dreams that was propagated by Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud shared a personal relationship for many years, and Jung was the junior partner in these relationships. This is because he concentrated too much of his time to learn on ...

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Relationship Between Attention and Consciousness

27 Mar 2018

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What is the relationship between attention and consciousness? There is a close relationship between the focus of attention and consciousness (Velmans, 1995). It is very obvious that they are related but there are many different views of how they are related (Blackmore, 2010). Velmans (2000) said that it is whatever our attention is focussed on that enters into our consciousness. Mack and Rock (1998) argued that ...

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Differences between Type A and B Personalities

27 Mar 2018

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Practical Skills Angela Adroni An investigation to see if there is a difference between Type A and B personalities and their Physiological response to a mildly stressful activity.   1.0 Abstract(150) The investigation has examined the causes of stress among the armed forces personnel toward mild stress activity. Furthermore, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress ...

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Interview Tips and Techniques for Social Research

27 Mar 2018

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Beth Boardley   An interview guide can greatly assist in gathering adequate information. This guide will allow you to ensure your steps are in order and that you have everything written down that needs to be covered. This helps ensure that you conduct a quality interview. The interview guides contains things such as a summary for the purpose of the interview, the structure and ...

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Concepts of Perceptions and Behaviour

27 Mar 2018

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Perception It has long been said that perception is reality, and in many ways it is. Perception is about what we take in and what we make out of it. The study of Perception is concerned with describing the way people see, organize and interpret sensory information. Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. People’s perceptions influence ...

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Research on Pseudo Psychology Beliefs

27 Mar 2018

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  NAME ALAN TAN CHEONG WAI YEE CHOONG CHIA YEE IMBERT NARUMANAN SEBASTIAN JEREMY PHILIP MONTEIRO LIM JIT SHEN INTRODUCTION Pseudo psychology is branch under the studies of psychology. Pseudo psychology however it isn’t ...

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Social Context in Social Development

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction Human Development or a more common term used “Developmental Psychology” is the study of gradual psychological growth which takes place as the human beings become mature. Developmental Psychology is dominated by four core themes. The first term is associated with the qualitative difference present in children from adults or in simple the lack of experience which adults have. The second one is concerned whether the ...

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Article Analysis: Race and Addiction

27 Mar 2018

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Article Review: Race Case Study “The Life Narrative of a Mixed-Race Man in Recovery from Addiction: A Case-Based Psychosocial Approach to Researching Drugs, ‘Race’ and Ethnicity.” Journal of Social Work Practice: Psychotherapeutic Approaches in Health, Welfare and the Community, 27:4, 375-392, DOI: 10.1080/02650533.2012.745841. Published 2013. Author: Alistair Roy. The main purpose of the article is to explore the psychosocial approach of the research into drugs, and ...

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Professional Issues in Clinical Psychology

27 Mar 2018

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With one in four people in the UK experiencing mental health problems at some point in their lives (Mental Health Statistics, n.d.), how easily people can access treatment in the NHS becomes a very important subject, with serious socio and economic implications. In his recent article in The Guarding, Rob Greig (“Why are personal budgets not used more in mental health?", January 2015) raised a very ...

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Analysis of the Ecological Systems Theory

27 Mar 2018

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The ecological systems theory was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917- 2005) to explain the role the environment plays on the child at different stages of development. It examined the interrelationship between nature and nurture taking into account that heredity, as well as environmental factors play a role in child development. In Bronfenbrenner’s earliest years of research, he defined this theory as “the study of progressive, mutual ...

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Consumptive Personality Traits

27 Mar 2018

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A Study of Consumptive Behaviour, Personality Traits and Gender Differences Joanne Jacob   Abstract A general population survey of 1193 people was conducted to ascertain if there was a common core personality or behavioural trait of “consumptiveness” in participants. Consumptiveness refers to the acquisition or consumption of items in an excessive amount. This study examined if excessive consumption of one variable, such as alcohol, ...

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Autism Intervention Therapies

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction Autism is a neural development disorder exemplified by weakened social communication and interaction, and by restricted and repetitive limited behavior (Ardnt, 2005). These signs all initiate to ensue prior to a child grows to be three years old. Autism influence and affects processing of information in the brain by varying how nerve cells and their synapses organize and connect (Levitt, 2005). Autism is an invisible ...

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Learning and Everyday Memory: Racial Bias

27 Mar 2018

8 (3,137 )

Emma J. Barnes   Even though Memory biases may either enhance or impair the recall of memory, or they may alter the content of what and individual report remembering. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the factors of own racial bias and cross-race effect on learning memory in everyday life. additionally, the paper will explore primary and secondary sources from peer-reviewed ...

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Types of Group Counselling

27 Mar 2018

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Group Counselling Introduction Gestalt therapy is a contemporary system of psychotherapy emphasizing organismic self-regulation by encouraging awareness. According to this approach, simply speaking of an emotion is not enough; one must also experience it in order to achieve the gestalt goals. By dwelling on consciousness, client can choose and experience his own behaviour (Blom, 2006). Gestalt therapy focuses on creating a therapeutic environment for the client ...

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Impact of Living Condition on Depression and Happiness

27 Mar 2018

4 (1,365 )

Sharmin Akter Summary Now-a-days Bangladesh is witnessing a rapid increase of old people. This increase is the result of many factors such as increase in age, longevity and decreased death rates due to advancement in the field of medicine, improvement of life expectancy and enhancement in the average span of life. As a result of increasing number of nuclear families it has become a ...

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Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance in Smokers

27 Mar 2018

5 (1,821 )

Yeshara Devendra   Kneer, J., Glock, S., & Rieger, D (2012). Fast and not furious? Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance in smokers. Peer reviewed Journal, Vol 43(2), 81-91 Introduction Smokers do not wish to injure their wellbeing on purpose or presume a pessimistic self-concept due to irrational behavior. A health-related self-concept and smoking behavior are incoherent with each other. When confronted with individual detrimental behavior, ...

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Effect of Positive Reinforcement on Children

27 Mar 2018

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Positive reinforcement leads to better performance in children Christeen Perera   Abstract The purpose of this research is to learn whether positive reinforcement leads to better performance in children. Positive reinforcement is a consequence that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future. The reason that led me to conduct this research is the fact how we as children used ...

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Effect of Stress on Pregnancy

27 Mar 2018

8 (3,019 )

Efstratios Boumpouras   Abstract Stress is a compound term that includes a large number of emotional states such as mild stress, anxiety and depression. During gestation, it can be experienced by pregnant women as prenatal stress, anxiety and antenatal depression. and it may have negative effects on the development of the fetus and child. In this paper, maternal stress identified and evaluated through animal ...

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ABEL Assessment of Sexual Interest

27 Mar 2018

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Brandi Thomas-Scott   Working in a child center environment daily and being a part of organizations that bring service to children and their families in academic and personal setting make proper and thorough screening of individual’s looking to be a part of and/or work for our organization and/or school very important. In today’s society there are constant reminders of why this is so important with ...

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Using Technology Within the Treatment of Eating Disorders

27 Mar 2018

4 (1,524 )

Technological developments are made at a rapid rate nowadays. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developments have provided the basis for the formation of a new term known as telemental health. Telemental health extends beyond psychological disorders, living problems, self-development, and preventive care. ICT has a strong impact on the ecosystem of mental health. The main purpose of the selected article is to review different technologies used ...

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Psychosis in Children

27 Mar 2018

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Psychotic disorders in children are not common, however it is generally agreed that its prevalence increases during adolescence. The prevalence of psychosis in 13 to 19-year-olds was reported to be 0.54%, increasing from 0.9 per 10 000 at age 13 years to 17.6 per 10 000 at 18 years.8 Among adults with schizophrenia, 5% of them report onset of psychosis before the age of 15 years ...

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Strategies for Remembering and Better Memory

12 Mar 2018

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Memory 1. Introduction Memory is the key to live a meaningful and normal life. If a person cannot remember anything about his past how can he understand the present, or even plan for the future? Psychologically, memory is defined as “the structures and processes involved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information” (McLeod 2007). Therefore, memory is naturally important to the act of learning, and ...

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Evaluation of Jane Elliott’s “Blue-Eyed Brown-Eyes”

31 Jan 2018

4 (1,523 )

Zohrah Miakheyl   Article 1 Critical Review Stewart,l., Laduka,R., Bracht,C., Sweet, B and Gamarel,E.. (2003). Do the “Eyes” Have It? A Program Evaluation of Jane Elliott’s “Blue-EyedBrown-Eyes” DiversityTrainingExercise1.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 33 (9), pp. 1898-1921. Introduction In this paper, I will discuss L.Stewart’s article ‘ Do the “Eyes” Have It? A Program Evaluation of Jane Elliott’s “Blue-EyedBrown-Eyes” DiversityTrainingExercise. Stewart’s article is about the ...

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Phenylketonuria: Effects, Treatment and Screening Methods

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

4 (1,434 )

Phenylketonuria is a single-gene recessive genetic disorder that causes mental retardation along with other physical and behavioral effects. PKU can be screened for shortly after birth and can be treated with diet. There could potentially be drug therapies and/or gene therapies to help treat PKU with more research. Phenylketonuria is not something new to the field of biology or medicine. This disorder was discovered in the 1930's ...

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Treatment Plan for Valid DSM-IV-TR Mental Disorder

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

6 (2,112 )

Severe mood disorders along with delusions are diagnosed as a form of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The symptoms are extremely hard to detect as people often display emotional stressors that creates mental insecurities, on how they relate to others and on how they behave. These conditions if not treated can lead to illnesses that will develop into serious health and mental conditions. Many BPD clients experience images ...

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Effectiveness of Visual and Auditory Learning on Memory

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT This experiment was performed to compare the effectiveness between visual learning and auditory learning on short-term memory. Forty subjects were required to read a passage while another forty subjects were asked to listen to a recording of the same passage. After a three-minute filler task, the subjects were required to answer a set of ten questions relating to the passage. Most subjects had higher score for ...

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Psychoanalytic Therapy and Cognitive-behavioral Therapy

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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In recent years, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic therapy have been two of the most common types of therapy used the United States. While most agree that the issue of counseling ethics in with the two type of therapy appears. This literature review examines the two types of therapy approach to relate the ethical issues that a therapist might face. The paper compares the effectiveness for adolescents of ...

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Analysis of Ainsworth’s "Strange Situation"

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Outline the procedure used in Ainsworth’s "Strange Situation" and the classifications of attachment that result. In the original study, 10-to-24 month old infants were subjected to a strange setting – which involved the parent briefly leaving the child alone in a room and then returning, then a unfamiliar female entered the room, and the parent leaves the child for a second time, but this time the child ...

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Evolution of Psychology From Greek Philosophy

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Abstract Noting that psychology has its roots from past philosophy, this paper examines how psychology evolved within these three dimensions: The Early Greek Philosophers, After Aristotle and the Modern Science Philosophy acquiring these discoveries to seek for answers towards psychology. Generally, this paper was cited with a call of scholars, researchers, philosophers to tap the potentially rich contributions of some famous Great Philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, ...

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Validity and Reliability of Systematic Review

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Abstract Systematic review with meta-analysis are considered more objective than other types of reviews such as traditional reviews because it involve the application of scientific strategies in ways that limit the bias but the interpretation of the systematic process like any other type of research is subject to bias and this articles will illustrate the sources of bias in every step of conducting a systematic review and ...

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Theories of Unconscious Motivation

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Motivation is the desire to achieve a goal, psychological motivation can be defined as the process which initiates, guides, and maintains goal adjusted behaviour (). There are four basic principles of motivation according to (). The first is that our motives are obtained through learning, motives can change, motives come from within and without (e.g. motives for hunger come from within and motives for desire are from ...

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Contribution of Experimental Methods to Social Cognition

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

5 (1,875 )

Option A In this report I will analysis the depth in which the contribution of experimental methods have informed us too understand about social cognition, Social cognition is the study of how people process social information, its encoding, storage, retrieval, and processing, in relation to social situations. It is an aspect of social psychology concerned with how we perceive ourselves and judge people around us in the ...

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Elements of the Person-centred Approach

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Part 1 Considering the value of the person-centred approach compared with a psychodynamic approach to counselling, although they originate from different theoretical and philosophical structures and at first they seem to offer differing methods of treatment, there are similar features, which are common to all effective counselling therapies, particularly ingrained in the beneficial relationship itself and in the merits and expertise of the counsellor. Focusing on how ...

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Effectiveness of Brief Therapy: An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Brief Therapy – Promising or Abusive? Brief and time-limited therapy experienced much controversy about its usefulness before it has finally established itself as a valid form of therapy for certain patient populations while being accepted by most professionals in the field. Some therapists have even hailed brief therapy as having already filled the place of longer-term psychotherapy and having emerged as the 21st century’s preferred treatment (Carlson ...

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Distinguishing Fear From Anxiety

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental diseases in European countries {Andlin-Sobocki et al., 2005, Eur J Neurol, 12 Suppl 1, 1-27}. Human anxiety disorders can be categorized into generalized anxiety disorders, panic attacks, Posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and special phobias, are amongst the most prevalent with a 28% lifetime prevalence and an incidence of 18% {Kessler et al., 2005, Arch Gen ...

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Critical Evaluation of Allports

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Allports claim that "The individual in the crowd behaves just as he [sic] would behave alone, only more so" (Allport, 1924) is an interesting and influential part of social psychology and has lead to numerous pieces of research trying to either support or disprove this claim. How people and their behaviour is affected by social context is a huge part of social psychology. Understanding this allows us ...

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Dynamics of the Psyche: Jung's Theory Analysis

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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This essay will discuss Jung's theories including conscious, personal unconscious and collective unconscious, archetypes, complexes, universal influences, the principal of equivalence, the principle of entropy, the principal of polarity and how they relate or not relate to people in the latter stages of life. The Conscious, Personal Unconscious and Collective Unconscious Jung believed the psyche was made up of three parts, the conscious, which he described as ...

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Differences in Counselling Skills

23 Feb 2017 10 Jan 2018

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People working within the caring profession such as nurses, doctors, teachers, befrienders, fire and ambulance services, may incorporate counselling skills & techniques within their work places. However there is a difference between incorporating counselling skills within a work place & being a qualified counsellor. The main difference between someone using counselling skills and a qualified and trained counsellor is that 'the counsellor is bound by a code ...

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Impacts on Resilient Capacity of Child

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a child to deal effectively with stress and pressure, to cope with everyday challenges, to rebound from disappointments, mistakes, trauma, and adversity, to develop clear and realistic oneself and others with respect and dignity. (P. 297) This paper focuses on the risks and adversities which affect the resilient capacities of the child as familial adversities and exosystemic and sociodemographic ...

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Analysis of Child Rearing Styles

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Child rearing is a generic term for raising children which is the basic provision of food, shelter and clothing it also encompasses the socialisation of the child, shaping of their personality, character, talents, cultural and moral values aswell and the emotional and physical well-being of the child into adult life. There are many contributing factors that have an impact on what methods or styles of child rearing ...

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Psychodynamic Approach in Psychology

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Psychodynamic approaches are those that assume that the human personality development and disturbances is rooted in the interplay or dynamics of psychosocial energies that is the drives, needs and instincts within the individual or between the individual and society. Greenberg, J et al (1983:12) postulates that the ways in which the individual expresses these drives in childhood determines or patterns his personality. The psychodynamic approach was developed ...

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Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: Research Method

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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This chapter discusses the methodology of the research. The research questions and objectives mentioned in Chapter 1 will be identified and analyzed via appropriate research instruments to accomplish the main purpose of the research, which is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among individual employees in the workplace. The elements which will be elaborated throughout this chapter are respondents of the study, research ...

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Weiner's Attribution Theory: Analysis

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Critically analyse Weiner's attribution theory Weiner's (1979, 1985, 1986, as cited in Hogg & Vaughan, 2008) attribution theory was built upon the attributional dimensions of task achievement, primarily focusing on the causes and consequences of the types of attribution made depending on whether the task in question was seen as a success or a failure. Weiner (1979) believed that when a task is completed, emotions are elicited ...

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Hans Eysenck's Trait Theory of Personality: Analysis

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction Essentially physiology and genetics where mainly relevant in, Eysenck's theory Even though he was a behaviourist he considered that learned habits where of great importance, he also believed personality differences grew out of our genetic inheritance. Working within these areas of personality Eysenck discovered that there were two disciplines within psychology regarding personality. The first consisted of theorist who studied personality, interested in just developing theories ...

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Impact of Parental Behaviour on Children's Food Intake

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Critically evaluate the impact that parental behaviour can have upon children's food intake With the current obesity epidemic being widely publicised of late, the childhood obesity scourge has been at the forefront as it has become increasingly omnipresent, with the pervasiveness rates doubling during the past two decades (Troiano & Flegal, 1998). Ways to combat the problem have been very prominent within news headlines, this is due ...

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Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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In human anatomy, the nervous system is a whole network of specialised cells which coordinate actions by sending signals from one part of the body to another. The signals can either be in form of electrochemical waves or chemical releases. This system is divided into two parts: the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Central Nervous System The CNS is comprised of the ...

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Neural Mechanisms in Aggression and Aggressive Behaviour

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Agressive behaviour is that kind of behaviour when a person is very angry and has the intention to destroy, hurt something or someone. Sometimes the person's intention would actually come into practice and so they would do it. There are studies which tell that behaviour is somewhat related to biochemical activities while others have insisted that environmental and social factors are the main source of this behaviour. ...

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Strategies of Counselling Interventions

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Counselling Interventions Counselling interventions have been defined in professional literature as a unique interrelationship between a client and a counsellor, which aims to create a change and a growth in three main areas: Personal development, social adjustment, and professional development. During the counselling process, the counsellor has the responsibility to contribute to the process of change, concerning to his or her client's personal development (Bordin, 1968). The ...

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Concepts and Theories of Phobias

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction A phobia can be defined as an intense uncontrolled and irrational fear of specific items, activities, animals or individuals. People suffering from phobias usually suffer from anxiety attacks when they find themselves in or close to the situations, objects or the individuals they have fear of. Phobias are more often acquired through traumatic experiences though some of them are inherent to the victims. If left untreated, ...

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Effect of Auditory and Visual Stimulus on Short-term Memory

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Abstract: The experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness between auditory and visual stimuli on short-term memory for learning purposes. 50 subjects were assigned to receive auditory stimulus while another 50 were assigned to receive visual stimulus. After a 4-minute filler task, 1 minute was given to the subjects to recall the passage given. The subjects were tested on their abilities to answer the memory quiz given ...

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How Does Lack Of Motivation Affect The Workplace?

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Top decision makers and managers will benefit from awareness of motivational factors that influence workers' decisions to remain in their current workplace. Workers' career decisions are dependent upon many factors with intrinsic work motivation as one of the core components; therefore, examining intrinsic work motivation factors or dynamics serves as a pivotal point for the study of workers' decisions to remain in the job. ...

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Causes and Types of Synaesthesia

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Synaesthesia is a hereditary and neurological condition (Roberston & Sagiv, 2005, pp.12) whereby senses that are normally experienced separately, such as taste, smell, sound and so on, become 'fused' together and are experienced at the same time. For example, someone may experience a taste in their mouth whilst saying certain words (lexical-gustatory synaesthesia) (Ward & Simner, 2003), or experience seeing colour when looking at different letters and ...

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Role of Schedules of Reinforcement

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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To what extent are schedules of reinforcement more than just rules governing which responses will be reinforced? Illustrate your answer with basic and applied research examples. I am writing this essay in order to illustrate the role of schedules of reinforcement; basic and applied research examples provide evidence that schedules of reinforcement are more than just rules governing which responses will be reinforced. A schedule of reinforcement ...

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Promoting Positive Behaviour in the Classroom

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Improving Classroom Behaviour. This paper will address three questions based around the general topic of improving class room behaviour. The three questions to be discussed are how can teachers promote positive behaviour? How can teachers pre-empt misbehaviour? The final question is how can teachers deal with misbehaviour? As well as answering these questions, connections will be drawn to the behaviour management notes (appendix). At the conclusion of ...

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Types and Theories of Motivation

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction: The former CEO of General Electric Jack Welch, one of the finest entrepreneur worldwide quotes: "No company, large or small, can succeed over the long run without energized employees who believe in the mission and understand how to achieve it."(Motivate your employees like Jack Welch, 2009) Motivation: Every individual has their own purpose to motivate themselves which is not necessarily because of the money that is ...

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Impact of Stress on Employees Performance

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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World, the tense situation in any action or person who physically or psychologically, whatever the balance individual can not rest on the particular application space. Although physical demand answers to such strange clothes, and pressure are countless forms. Unconscious tension, but also the city or the sound of driving a daily chore. Perhaps a statement like that about stress can be businessmen and university professors that it ...

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Impact of Pay Satisfaction in the Workplace

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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2.2 Pay satisfaction Pay satisfaction is one of the most important factors in Human Resource Management and Organizational metrics. Pay satisfaction can be defined as the amount of overall positive or negative affect (or feelings) that individuals have toward their pay (ML Williams, 2006). For having a complete understand of Pay satisfaction, reviewing of its construct is necessary. Pay as an important reward for motivating employees has ...

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Supervision in Counselling

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Supervision is the practice where a counsellor can talk to a professional who is trained to identify any psychological or behavioural changes in the counsellor that could be due to an inability to cope with issues presented by clients. A supervisor is also responsible for challenging practices and procedures, developing improved or different techniques, and informing clients of alternative theories and/or new practices, as well as industry ...

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Muscle Dysmorphia: Causes and Impacts

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Muscle Dysmorphia “70 eggs, 14 tins of tuna, 10.5 pounds of beef, I 0 pounds of chicken, 9 gallons of non-fat milk, 4 loaves of bread, and as many sacks of brown rice, whole wheat pasta, baking potatoes, and fruits as I could load into my shopping carts” (Fussell, 1991) may seem like a extra ordinary list of food to buy, considering its just for one person! ...

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Paradigms in the Field of Cognitive Psychology

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Cognition Cognition refers to the mental processes that are involved in the acquisition of knowledge and how it is used. This includes aspects such as sensation, perception, judging, learning, attention, memory, thinking, and problem solving. It is thus involved with how people acquire knowledge, use it in their lives, and change their preferences accordingly with the passage of time. Cognition has been closely associated with the mind ...

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Fallacy on Slippery Slope

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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What is Slippery Slope (Ruscio, Chapter 3)? Define, explain and provide one or two real-life examples. Definition According to Ruscio (2006), Slippery slope is based on logical-thinking either in one agreement or the initial arguments which results into logical fallacy, leading to an inevitable conclusion which nevertheless was not adopted. Explanation Michael (2009) stated that The Slippery Slope is a fallacy in which ...

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Facets of Emotional Intelligence by Salovey and Mayer

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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The 10 original facets of Emotional Intelligence proposed by Salovey and Mayer. Introduction: Emotion is a relatively difficult concept to clearly delineate but it is generally accepted that it is an organised mental response that includes physiological, experiential and cognitive aspects (Mayer et al. 2001).  Emotions are largely, but not exclusively, related to interpersonal relationships and specific emotions are relatively resistant to cultural and individual differences, although ...

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Influence of Peer Pressure on Teenage Sexual Behaviour

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Research Proposal Introduction: The budding of a child from the innocence of childhood to the maturity of an adult can be a complicated phase for many. An important factor that plays a very significant role throughout a person's life is their sexual behavior. After the mass commercialization of every product imaginable and available to consumers through print advertisements or TV advertisements, the idea of sex is being ...

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Negative Priming Experiment

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Negative Priming: The effect of inhibitory mechanisms on the probe of a pair of trials in a Stroop style ink identification task. Abstract The investigation was based on the work of Dalrymple-Alford and Budayr (1966), who investigated the phenomenon of negative priming in relation to the Stroop task. In the original experiment by Dalrymple-Alford and Budayr (1966), it was discovered that if in a trial, the ink ...

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