Drawing development

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,133 )

Explain and critically analyse stages of drawing development as described by Luquet and Piaget. Luquet was one of the first to start researching into the development of drawing using a cognitive development theory and releasing a book in French during 1927. He described differing stages of drawing development which a child will pass through; this became known as the stage account. Luquet thought that after a period ...

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Introduction to personality

23 Mar 2015

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The manner in which a person acts and interacts is a reflection of his personality. Personality is influenced by hereditary, cultural and social factors. Regardless of how it's defined, however, psychologists generally accept certain principles: Personality is an organized whole; otherwise, the individual would have no meaning. Personality appears to be organized into patterns that are to some degree observable and measurable. Although personality has a ...

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Mechanisms of stress and our responses

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,689 )

Our bodies are an amazing community of cells that function and communicate through the brain via the nervous system in a mechanistic system that is integrated with the mind. For centuries science has directed health towards a mechanistic model of health due to Descartes' separation of mind and body. Today more and more research with the help of the discipline of Psychology now accepts an integrated system ...

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Psychological Manipulation Different Techniques Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,389 )

Psychological manipulation is like brain washing in that it wears away the victim's self-confidence, sense of self-worth, trust in their own perceptions, and self-concept. Whichever way it is done, the results will be fairly similar. Eventually, the recipient of the abuse loses all sense of self and the final remaining vestiges of personal value. Psychological manipulation cuts through to the very core of a person. It cuts scars ...

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Case Study: Therapeutic Modalities

23 Mar 2015

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Three types of counselling approaches and intervention techniques are described and evaluated. The three approaches are, person centred approach, cognitive behavioural approach and the feminist approach. The person-centred approach was developed by the American psychologist Carl Rogers in the 1940-1950's (Rogers 1942, Rogers 1951) and this approach, also known as the client-centered or non-directive approach, continues to be used widely to this day. As the name of ...

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Symptoms of schizoaffective disorder

23 Mar 2015

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Background: In the film Shine, protagonist David Helfgott is an authentic example of someone who suffers from schizoaffective disorder. From the start of the film we are able to see the accuracy of this diagnosis through David's childhood upbringing and his relationship with his abusive father. This will further be addressed throughout this paper and adequate examples will be mentioned to further show the precision of the ...

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Background knowledge on the phenomenon of false memory

23 Mar 2015

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Semantic type - word based false memories, are a type of false memory that are normally elicited by the commonly known DRM paradigm. The classical procedure of the DRM paradigm involves participants studying a selection of lists, in which each list is composed of associates of one non-studied critical word (critical lure). After presentations of each list the participants are asked to recall each list, and then ...

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The Nature Of Prejudice Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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In the multi cultural setting, prejudice has become normalized and has synchronized into our daily lives due to the efforts of authorities to harmonized people together. However, given that everyone comes from a very different and diverse background and family situations, there are bound to be misinterpretation and assumptions that we make on a daily basis that is somewhat skewed towards or against a different group. And ...

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Piagets theory underestimated childrens cognitive abilities

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,493 )

Piaget believed in cognitive development and that there are three principles involved. Accommodation, which is the process of adapting cognitive schemes (a structured or organized way of understanding experiences, this changes as you get older) for viewing the world. The second assimilation, is the process of interpreting experiences when we use current schemes to create new ones. The last is equilibration. This is when you go through ...

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Validity is important to the research process

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,972 )

Sim and Wright, (2000:125) stated that, Validity relates to the truthfulness of data and requires independent knowledge of the true nature or magnitude of the entity. Clinical research scientists are much aware of the need for validity in their research. Validating the treatment is important to determine the efficacy of a treatment as well as effectiveness and the treatment provided and its outcome. It is learnt that ...

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder/ Separation Anxiety Disorder

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,482 )

I have chosen this topic to better understand my stepson who was abandoned by his mother at the age of four. Now that he is nine years old, I, who have been his primary caregiver for the last five years, am also abandoning him due to divorce. The significance of the research is to seek a better understanding of what causes Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and if we ...

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A Study On Reactive Attachment Disorder In Children

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,037 )

Reactive attachment disorder can be defined as a disorder caused by absence of attachment to any care giver at an early age and results in inability of a child to establish an affectionate relationship with others. It was first discussed in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and due to its newness there are a variety of stereotypes and misjudgments of ...

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Human Growth and Development Case Study: Chris

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,925 )

This report will focus on the case study of Chris (appendix I) in which I shall apply my understanding of psychological perspectives of human growth and development, concentrating on my understanding of psychological theories of human behaviour. Erik Erikson Psychosocial Stages (1902 - 1994) Erik Erikson developed eight stages in personality development spanning birth to later years. Erikson believed that a individual's inner instincts interact with outside ...

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Study on Social Identity Theory

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,500 )

The purpose of this lab was to determine cohesion in and between groups. A sample of respondents filled questionnaires rating their perception of relations both within and between their in-groups and out-groups. The questionnaires rated their perception on a scale of 1-7 representing their level of agreement or disagreement with the matter question. The answers were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS and results analyzed and interpreted. ...

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General Strain Theory

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,511 )

Agnew (2001) produced three different categories of strain that have the potential to induce a negative reaction. These categories include: being in the presence of negative stimuli, not being able to get past goal blockages, and the loss of positive stimuli. In context of the category of strain related to being in the presence of a negative stimulus, a negative stimulus can be described as any stimulus ...

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The difference between human growth and human development

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,977 )

In an attempt to comprehend the factors that influence the evolution of human-beings, it is first important to recognize the subtle difference separating the terms human growth and human development. While these terms are often used interchangeably to discuss human functioning, it should be clarified that these terms are not measured through the same scientific processes. When associated with human-beings, the two dynamic processes are measured differently, ...

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The feminist therapy

23 Mar 2015

2 (725 )

The main concept of the Feminist Theory discusses all of society, not just women, with the goal of creating a fair and equal society free from sexism, racism, and heterosexism. Feminist Therapists believe in the need to account for a person's social, cultural and political standings in order to understand that individual. In society unfortunately there are many gender related expectations and it is important to be ...

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Influence Of The Peer Group On The Adolescent Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The adolescent is a stage in which the individuals are more concerned about how they appear to other people. According to Erikson, during successful early adolescent development, the young people acquire the self-confidence as opposed to self- disbelief and self-consciousness (Susman, et al., 1992). As the adolescent develops, they start to experiment on both constructive and negative identity behaviors. It is during the adolescent stage where peer ...

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Psychology Concerns

23 Mar 2015

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Psychology concerns itself with the understanding of human behavior. In order to do this effectively, psychologists use a diverse range of perspectives, even when researching a single theme.  This assignment intends to discuss the claim that ‘there is a lot to be gained by studying a topic in psychology from more than one perspective'. In order to discuss this claim, it will be necessary to provide definition ...

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The Influence Of Diversity On Major Concepts Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The diverse nature of psychology is evident in its 54 divisions of the American Psychological Association, each addressing a different perspective of psychology and a unique aspect of human interaction (Plante, 2011). Psychology permeates and has broad implications for human interaction as well as for the sciences and other disciplines. Psychological diversity influences the major concepts and contributes to a unique perspective of human behavior. In sum, ...

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Critically Analyse The Social Penetration Theory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Social penetration theory was first proposed by Altman and Taylor in 1973. There after it was further developed by Altman. This theory is a general approach to interpersonal attraction that looks at the development of an interpersonal relationship from acquaintanceship to close friendship as a gradual and systematic process. It also looks at how friendship moves from peripheral and superficial levels of exchange to intimate friends (Green ...

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Sexual Sadism And Sex Offenders Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,148 )

Sexual Sadism is a type of paraphilia that may involve making a person suffer in some way that may or may not lead to death. It varies from extreme forms of torture to mild. It can be with a consensual partner who is a masochist and also the injuring of a non consensual person. Sexual sadists usually have mental disorders such as psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder ...

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Smokers and non smokers attitudes toward one another

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,432 )

Thirty three University of Limerick students were asked to participate in a research concerning implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking-related social identities, for example smokers and non-smokers. Implicit Relational Assessement Procedure (IRAP) was enlisted in this research to understand an individual's implicit attitudes. Past research has indicated that we are often unaware of these attitudes as self presentation strategies mediate implicit attitudes if they are socially undesirable. ...

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Background and Personal theory of Counselling

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,605 )

Counselling is defined as a relatively short-term, inter- and intrapersonal, theory-based process in which persons who are considered to function within a 'normal range' are helped by counsellors to resolve developmental and situational problems related to school, mental health, marriage, family issues, employment, aging, rehabilitation, to mention a few, in a structured setting. These persons, who are considered 'stuck' and not 'sick', are looking for a means ...

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Brain Plasticity In Early Childhood Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Childhood is said to be a period of bliss, innocence, wonder, curiosity, enthusiasm, awe, freedom and is a relatively happier part of one's life. It is a period of immense opportunity. The pace of growth, both mental and physical is highly accelerated during this phase of life. Within a span of about two to three years, children go from babbling to using formal language for communication. And ...

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Three Theories Of Language Acquisition Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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One of the most important things to know as a student of speech and language therapy is the history of language acquisition theories. These theories form the foundation of common practice and have informed the development of the therapies that we will use as speech and language therapists. This essay will discuss and present arguments for three theories of acquisition: the behaviourist model, the social interactionist model, ...

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Consumer Choice Primacy Effects in decision making

23 Mar 2015

8 (2,938 )

When people make choices, attention is focused on one option at a time and this is most evident in consumer choice. When people enter a store, their first choice is always a familiar brand they have sampled, assessed and evaluated among many other products. Even when presented with many choices in a sequence, options will be evaluated, and a choice will be made aimed at choosing the ...

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Definitions Of Aggressive Behavior Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

15 (5,636 )

The discussion in this chapter focused on the theory underlying the conceptual framework and studies related to the variables being studied in the current study. The discussion in this chapter covered the following elements: definition of aggression, theoretical approaches to the study of the development of aggressive behavior, emotion and emotional regulation, media violence and General Aggressive Model (GAM); and previous studies on the relationship between emotional ...

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Personal Stress Management Plan Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,774 )

Stress is a part of everybodys life. At some point we have all experienced a very stressful situation, and most of us experience stress on some level every day. The things that stress us out - called stressors - are different for everybody. But in the end, there are a select few that seem to have an impact on us all: school, work, relationships, money, and the ...

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Body Image And Eating Behaviour Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

21 (8,110 )

The complex relationship between body image and eating behaviour have become a major research. Eating practices vary around the world .There is a rapid change in culture due to fastest means of communication. This swing of culture has created affects in developing cultures of Asia, including Pakistan.An ideal figure of extra skinny and underweight model is causing stress and psychological disruption in eating behaviour of both genders. ...

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What Is A Learning Journal Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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A learning journal is a way of capturing and recording your thoughts, impressions, concerns, questions and reflections. This provides an informal yet focused place to express whatever comes to mind. Its purpose is to enhance further insights on how you learn experiences through the process of writing and thinking about how you learn. Your learning journal is personal and will reflect your experiences, preferences and personality. Why ...

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mental disorder; DSM-IV

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,040 )

DSM-IV "DSM-IV is a classification of mental disorders that was developed for use in clinical, educational, and research settings." What the DSM attempts to do is have specific criteria for specific disorders, but at the same time, not have the manual be used in a "cookbook" fashion. Meaning that the specific diagnostic criteria in the DSM are meant to serve as guidelines concurrently with clinical judgment. As ...

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Raymond Cattells Theories Of Intelligence Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,789 )

Raymond Bernard Cattell was a British and American psychologist known for his exploration of areas like the basic dimensions of personality and temperament, a range of cognitive abilities, the clinical dimensions of personality, patterns of group and social behavior and many more. He was born in 1905 in Hilltop, a small town near Birmingham, England. His family was involved in inventing new parts of engines, automobiles and ...

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Milgrams And Gamsons Studies Of Obedience Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Milgram and Gamson studies have been widely acclaimed as they were one of the first few to find astonishing results. Milgram's experiments demonstrate obedience of authority whereas Gamson's study, referred to as MHRC Encounter (with MHRC standing for Manufacturer's Human Relations Consultants) shows disobedience of authority. The findings of the two studies have been useful in terms of indicating the extent to which individuals obey authority and ...

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The Principles And Misconceptions In Effective Interpersonal Communications Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,417 )

Good interpersonal skills, with the aid of communication skills and emotional intelligence, are a weapon that can work for or against the future of newly married couples. Learning one's behavior depends, solely, on the level of interaction between the parties, guided by principles of communication. The latter influences the unfolding of future events basing on perceived trust. In the modern society, family unions, especially marriages, are facing ...

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Role of amygdala in the experience of fear

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,454 )

The amygdalae (from the Greek for 'almond') are two groups of almond-shaped nuclei located deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans, (see Fig 1 below). Research has shown that the amygdalae perform a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions, and are considered to be part of the limbic system. [pic] Fig 1: Location of Amygdala. (Image ...

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Family and Juvenile Delinquency

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,929 )

The family is the foundation of humanity. Children who are rejected by their parents, who grow up in homes with considerable conflict, or who are inadequately supervised are at the greatest risk of becoming delinquent. Adolescence is a time of expanding vulnerabilities and opportunities that go along with it, widens social and geographic exposure to life beyond school or family. Family is one of the most influential ...

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The core assumptions of the biological and psychoanalytic

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,641 )

The psychoanalytic perspective grew out of subsequent psychoanalytic theories (1901, 1924, and 1940) following decades of interactions with clients with the use of an innovative procedure developed by Sigmund Freud that required lengthy verbal interactions with patients during which Freud probed deep into their lives. In a nutshell, the psychoanalytic perspective looked too explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focussing on the influence of early childhood ...

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Sex Differences In The Brain Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,843 )

There has been ongoing debate and research on the differences between the male and female brain by endless amounts of researches. According to a few researches (Leonard et al., 2009), not much has been researched to show a sex difference in terms of behavioural. While many or some still believe that women and men think and act the same, there are actually some differences in each other's ...

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Features of a cognitive behavioural approach to counselling

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,110 )

In order to answer this question effectively I will first discuss what cognitive behaviour therapy is and its key features. Then I will elaborate on a couple of other approaches to counselling and explain why it is different. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can help you to change how you think ("Cognitive") and what you do ("Behaviour)". These changes can help you to feel better. Unlike some of ...

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Trait theory and personal construct

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,181 )

The psychological study of individual differences traditionally has roots in the clinical, psychometric and experimental traditions (Butt,2007). Trait theory is based in the experimental approach. More recently the phenomenological perspective has made headway into the study of individual differences, as demonstrated by personal construct theory (PCT). This essay will start by describing trait theory and PCT, highlighting the important differences between the two approaches. An evaluation of ...

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Memory Research And Cognitive Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The area that's been studied in this experiment is cognitive psychology; it's how people acquire process and store information. Cognitive researches have numerous practical applications, such as how to increase decision-making accuracy, and ways to improve memory, and how to structure educational curricula to enhance learning. The major topic cognitive psychology study is Perception, Language, Attention, Memory, Problem Solving, Intelligent, Decision Making and Judgment (Robert, L. S. ...

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Treatment Of Alzheimers Disease And Dementia Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,035 )

Music therapy has been a widely used source of treatment for many patients suffering from mental, physical or communicational disorders as well as learning difficulties and eating disorders. This type of therapy uses various methods to develop verbal interaction, offers opportunities to create positive changes in mood, emotional states and increase self-confidence and awareness. Outcomes such as these are vital in the treatment of mental disorders such ...

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Alcoholism from a social learning theory perspective

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,126 )

Alcohol can be traced as far back as 8000 B. C. when the people of the Middle East created a drink from honey and wild yeast (Alcohol Facts, n.d.). Since then, it has been used in religious ceremonies such as communion, for medicinal purposes as well as during social events. When a person begins to abuse alcohol by drinking large quantities and/or daily consumption, it can lead ...

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Motivation In Sport: Relationships With Peers And Parents

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,025 )

Parents, friends, and the peer group are the fundamental contributors to motivational outcomes of the young athletes, providing unique influences on their psychological development (Brustad & Partridge, 2002; Sullivan, 1953).Weinberg and Gould (2007) also emphasize the importance of friends and peer group and the effects they have on child's motivation. According to them, with affiliation being a main motive of child's sport participation, positive peer relationships leads ...

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Examining the theory of mind hypothesis for autism

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,584 )

The Theory of Mind (TofM) hypothesis for autism has been investigated extensively in the last 30 years. This essay will review the literature which examines this theory, considering a wide range of methodological and theoretical approaches. It will be argued that whilst there are several strengths of the theory, the TofM hypothesis cannot account for the non-social symptoms of ASD, and therefore cannot be considered to provide ...

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Attitudes Towards Help Seeking Behaviour In Individuals Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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A questionnaire survey was conducted among the participants the Victoria University Students chose to determine whether attitudes towards seeking professional help changed when focusing upon certain situational variables. The 697 participants in this study each completed a questionnaire which evaluated on a 3 point scale their current attitude towards seeking professional counselling services, whether help had been obtained and their future intentions in seeking help. The study ...

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Research report on substance related disorders

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,773 )

Substance use is a common factor world-wide throughout our social society. Substance related disorders are also on the rise due to its abusers. In today's world we witness thousands of people who pass away due to substance related disorders. Ask anybody in today's society if they know someone who has died, or has suffered severely due to any substance related use or abuse. Then ask them if ...

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Attitudes Towards Tourism And Hospitality Career Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

8 (3,115 )

To explain human behavior is a very difficult and complex task. But approaching it from different levels such as the person's attitude and perception factors and so on, sheds light to this complexity. Concepts referring to behavioral dispositions, such as social attitude, and personality trait, have played an important role in these attempts to predict and explain human behavior (Ajzen, 1998; Campbell, 1963; Sherman & Fazio, 1983). ...

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Piagets And Vygotskys Theories Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are regarded as two of the most influential contributors in developmental psychology. Both theorists presented their own constructivist view on childhood development; constructivism is a theory which explains that people organize information based on their previous experiences (Powell & Kalina, 2009). However, while Piaget emphasized the importance of children learning by interacting with their environment, Vygotsky believed that children learn through their ...

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Pros And Cons Of Rehabilitation Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,510 )

The proposed literary review establishes a frame of reference for this particular study and examines a synthesis for solution and possible alternatives to address factors and other specific issues regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation. This research review accommodates many concepts in regards to assessing behavior modification including an individual's social, psychological, and biological development which determines a need for treatment. Moreover, the review exhibits a combination of ...

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Two Approaches To Counselling Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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In this essay, I will attempt in brief to compare the chosen approaches, psychodynamic and the personal centred in terms of the basic concepts, goals, element of relationship in therapy, techniques and application. The greater part will be left to the examination of the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. Finally a conclusion will be given at the end summarising the whole discussion. As stated, the psychodynamic ...

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When do children develop a theory of mind

23 Mar 2015

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Interest into the understanding of mind in children can be recorded back to Piaget's early research (Piaget, 1928). The term theory of mind was first introduced to psychology in 1978 by Premack and Woodruff when they studied whether chimpanzees had a theory of mind. Theory of mind is used to describe how we take into account the feelings, pretence, desires and beliefs of others when we interact ...

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Effects of the recession on students well being

23 Mar 2015

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During an economic downturn, many people are negatively affected by the financial strain that ensues. The primary intention of this research was to identify if a relationship existed between financial insecurity and students reported mental well being. A second objective was to find out if students who work part time during college score higher on the GHQ than those who do not. The sample consisted of 100 ...

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Culture challenge in defining abnormality

23 Mar 2015

2 (558 )

Psychologists are usually faced with the challenge of universally defining what abnormality is. The aspect of cultural relativism is of the argument that, beliefs on abnormality differ across cultures and sub-cultures. A perfectly acceptable behavior as perceived in one cultural set up may be regarded abnormal in another. Any attempt to define abnormality faces a certain degree of limitation from cultural variations. As such, psychologists may never ...

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What The Dsm Attempts To Do Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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DSM-IV is a classification of mental disorders that was developed for use in clinical, educational, and research settings. American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV-TR, 2000 What the DSM attempts to do is have specific criteria for specific disorders, but at the same time, not have the manual be used in a cookbook fashion. Meaning that the specific diagnostic criteria in the DSM are meant to serve as guidelines concurrently ...

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Link between obesity and mental health

23 Mar 2015

18 (7,119 )

Obesity may seem like it's a choice--a lifestyle option that many have chosen. Many believe that obesity is really about overeating due to greed and lack of discipline, but this is often not the case. Obesity can be a side effect of a mental health problem which can even occasionally be the main source of all the fat to begin with. Let's dig deeper into the various ...

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The Need For Affiliation And Henry Murrays Theory

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,660 )

Henry Murray's educational training was anything but typical for that of a psychology professor; he attained a bachelor's degree in History, a master's degree in biology from Columbia University, and a doctorate in Biochemistry. It was after reading several of Carl Jung's published work and establishing a meeting with the legendary Swiss psychiatrist that he was persuaded into studying psychoanalysis. He completed his training in Harvard University ...

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Effectiveness Of Self Monitoring Technique Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

10 (3,918 )

The term self-esteem comes from a Greek word meaning reverence for self. The self part of self-esteem pertains to the values, beliefs and attitudes that are held about one's own self. Self-esteem refers to the degree of regard or respect that individuals have for themselves and is a measure of worth that they place in their abilities and judgments. No one is born with a self-image. Self-esteem ...

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The Respective Theories Of Motivation Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The term motivation derived from the Latin word movere, meaning to move. Motivation represents those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal oriented (Mitchell, 1982). Motivation as defined by Robbins (1993) is the "willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need. A need in this context is ...

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Basic philosophy of the skilled helper model

23 Mar 2015

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In the first edition of "The Skilled Helper",published in 1975, Egan expounded a model of the helping process with the goal "to establish a training technology that applies to helper training and to the helping process itself". The subtitle of "The Skilled Helper" is " A Problem Management and Opportunity Development Approach to Helping", and this reflects Egan's focus on problem solving and goal setting rather than ...

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Comparing and Contrasting Freuds and Eriksons Theories

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,730 )

This paper explores the first three stages of Sigmund Freud's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Erik Erickson's Psychosocial Development side by side. At each comparative stage, a brief description of Erickson's version then a brief description of Freud's version is given. After describing both perspectives on each stage of development, comparisons are drawn and connections shown to any common traits between the two theories. A description explains ...

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Sigmund freuds influenced in the field on psychology

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,381 )

Sigmund Freud was born on May 6th, 1856 in Frieberg, Moravia. Today the present area is Czech Republic. The parents of Sigmund Freud are Jacob and Amalia Freud. Sigmund grew up in a Jewish family. Sigmund Freud has made an amazing influence in pshche. Sigmund advanced the study of the mind and how it works. With the studies, people where aware of how the brain influenced our ...

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Self perception inventory

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,413 )

The Belbin Self Perception Inventory (SPI), developed by Dr Meredith Belbin, is a self-assessment that is designed to help people understand their role and behaviour in a team setting. This makes it a behavioural test and not a personality one. The SPI has several statements about a person's behaviour in a team, to which you distribute points according to how well they describe you. By transposing these ...

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The Effects Of Distractions Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,342 )

To maintain individuals short-term memory one must be able to discern and ignore distractions. Referring to some elements of previous studies and approaching a different perspective, this report aimed to investigate memory recall under different levels of distraction and t if the relevance of words has an effect on number of items to be recalled. 40 participants, 20 males and 20 female were tested and what was ...

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The Effectiveness of Pictures and Words on Memory Recall

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,488 )

Abstract This experiment was designed to investigate whether people would be able to recall pictures or words more after seeing them for a brief period of time. To carry out this study, 52 subjects with the same age were divided into two groups, Group A and Group B. During the test, group A was asked to see a list of 20 pictures, while the other group was ...

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Self Awareness Among Patients With Schizophrenia Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

3 (927 )

Bailey et.al., conducted a study to explore the relation exist between lack of awareness of illness and the result of a cognitive deficit involving prefrontal cerebral dysfunction. This study also reveals the relationship exist with miscellaneous domains of self awareness in patients with schizophrenia and other participants with serious mental disorders. The samples were one hundred and eight patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 patients with bipolar ...

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Extraversion on Academic Achievement in University Students

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,276 )

University fosters an environment encouraging both academic achievements and personal developments. Each individual's experience differs due to their choice of engagement in academic and social events. As academic events are still more important in an academic institution, achieving excellence in academics should be the priority for every student. The choice of participation and degree of academic involvement may depend upon an individual's personality. Thus, the relationship between ...

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Theories Regarding Attitude Formation And Function Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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As far back as Allport, attitudes have frequently featured in psychology research and literature, emerging from which are differing theories with regards their formation and function (Katz, 1960). Despite the differing ideas of their origins and formation mechanisms, many theories are similar in their emphasis on likes and dislikes, or preferences towards forming a definition of attitudes (Bem, 1970; Fishbein & Azjen, 1975). To the degree that ...

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Case Study on the nature vs nurture debate

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,684 )

Is a child's development influenced by genetics or could the majority of influence be found in the child's environment? The nature vs. nurture debate has been at the forefront of psychology for many decades. The purpose of this essay is to try and answer this question using the case study of Genie. The essay shall also look at some of the roles that a multidisciplinary team would ...

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Several Stages Of Individual Development Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,305 )

The development of an individual undergoes several stages of development, which change and replace one another respectively to the cognitive development of the individual. At the same time, the development of individual psychology and personality has been a subject to heat debates between specialists for a long time. In this regard, Piaget's developmental theory played an extremely important role in the formation of views of scientists and ...

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Effects of multitasking on human physiological

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,474 )

It is believed by scientists that rather than simultaneous attending to all tasks at once, what really happens during multitasking is a rapid change of focus between tasks. While research supports the fact that "highly practiced skills can be easily performed while one is thinking about something else, but the addition of a task that requires decision making switches ones attention to that task. When people perform ...

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Efficacy of cognative behavioural therapy for depression

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,187 )

World Health Organisation estimated that by the year 2020 depression will be the leading cause of illness in developed countries. Furthermore, clinical depression at present = 3% to 16% of the total population (as cited in Grant et al., 2010). Symptoms of depression found in the DSM-IV. According to the Dictionary of Psychology, depression can be defined as a "mood state characterised by a sense of inadequacy, ...

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Facial feedback theory

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,808 )

Abstract Facial feedback theory testing was the main question of this study. Administering water drops to the cheek will result in reduction in the perceived humour of funny statements. One individual tested four people; in total there were 1128 subjects with half of them having water droplets dropped on their cheek and half on their temple. The results in funniness rating of the experimental group (tears) were ...

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The Hypothetico Deductive Method Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

19 (7,421 )

Research method is a process whereby issues in a scientific study are systematically resolved. This method involves the identification of the steps required in the performance of a scientific study and how they are to be applied. The selection of a research method has to be done with a specific purpose in mind and the researcher has to identify the reason(s) why a particular method is preferred, ...

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Literature review on the effectiveness of group therapy

23 Mar 2015

11 (4,076 )

This chapter presents a review of some of the major theoretical approaches, which attempt to examine the effectiveness of therapy of group and family contribution in the treatment process. Thus we will look at, existing studies and support on group therapy as an effective method of treatment, and, family contribution to a substance addict individual, and family therapy. Effectiveness of Group therapy "By the crowd they have ...

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Neuroplasticity Refers To The Ability Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

12 (4,619 )

Attempts to improve visual acuity and quality of vision have included advances in visual outcomes evaluation, optical imaging and surgical techniques. However, even if we had the perfect method to correct the optics of the eye, our vision would still be determined by the retina-brain interaction. Vision is also a perception and not only an optically perfect image. Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to ...

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Effect of Colour on Recall Memory of Images

23 Mar 2015

11 (4,141 )

This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of colour on memory recall. 30 subjects were shown 15 slides. Each slide has one coloured images and one black and white images. After 3 minute-long filler task, the subjects were given two minutes to recall as many images they could remember. Statistical test was carried out on the data collected using a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test and the results ...

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Language Tests Reliability and Validity

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,677 )

A test is reliable to the extent that whatever it measures, it measures it consistently. If I were to stand on a scale and the scale read 15 pounds, I might wonder. Suppose I were to step off the scale and stand on it again, and again it read 15 pounds. The scale is producing consistent results. From a research point of view, the scale seems to ...

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Obsessions and compulsions in pakistani community of adults

23 Mar 2015

8 (2,814 )

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an Anxiety Disorder, the core features of OCD are obsessions and compulsions. According to DSM-IV-TR, obsessions are recurrent and persistent intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses that enter the mind of individual for no apparent reason, and are experienced as disturbing and inappropriate (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). People who have such obsessions try to resist or suppress them, or to neutralize them with ...

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Anger Is An Emotion Characterized Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,663 )

Anger is an emotion characterized by a strong feeling of annoyance, displeasure, or hostility toward someone or something you feel has deliberately done wrong. According to Berger "Anger is an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage". Sometime anger can be a good thing because it gives us a way to express negative feelings until it get worst. Intensity of anger depends ...

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Facial expressions of emotion of sighted and blind

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,803 )

Facial expressions of emotion are very common in the humane world. Every individual expresses different kinds of facial emotions for diverse situations. Emotions evolved as a rapid and synchronized response system and facial expressions are part of this response system, which allows humans to quickly and expertly respond to events that affect their welfare. The fabrication of spontaneous facial expressions of emotion is not dependent on observational ...

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Comparing Research Methods Qualitative Versus Quantitative Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,935 )

The debate of qualitative versus quantitative research is one of the oldest in social research and particularly in psychological investigations. Simply put, the quantitative approach is differentiated by its emphasis on structured, pre-planned design and a categorization of possible research outcomes. It focuses on numbers: events are counted, classified and interpreted through statistical models and tools (Neill, 2007). Options are discrete, and results are directly comparable to ...

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Emotional Intelligence And Team Performance Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

16 (6,307 )

Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work team performance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. In this study, EI was assessed using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS). Paper examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and performance of 15 teams selected from telecom organizations of Islamabad/ Rawalpindi. A single questionnaire was used to gather data from the teams, ...

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Study on theories of motivation

23 Mar 2015

12 (4,403 )

There a number of theories been developed as an attempt to identify and explain what motivates employees within the organization. Ivancevich and Matteson (1999) mention that motivation is a tough concept to measure and thus it illicited manipulating by certain conditions and observing how behavior changes with those conditions. There are two groups of motivational theories is can be seen, they are: Early motivation theories and Contemporary ...

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Case study: Aging Mind and Memory

23 Mar 2015

10 (3,899 )

abstract Hearing loss is one of the most common problems of aging affecting older adults. Hearing loss, in particular happens for many reasons. The purpose of this research is to find the age related causes of decline in cognitive functions and hearing abilities of older adults Research indicates that loss of hearing is a serious condition faced by almost one third of aging adults. Hearing loss also ...

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From a social psychological point of view

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,287 )

Group behaviour (how the individual affects a group and vice-versa) has been widely studied in social psychology but has been hard to theorise (Brown, 2007). Within social psychology there are many social psychological perspectives that have used different theoretical frameworks to study group behaviour. Although each perspective is in agreement that social categorisation (the way an individual and others are classified part of the same or different ...

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Key Concepts In The Psychoanalytic Theory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,414 )

There are several key concepts in the psychoanalytic theory; Freuds view of human nature being deterministic is one of them. The term deterministic or determinism in short means to be born with it, Corey (2009) stated that "according to Freud, our behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological and instinctual drives" (p.58). So Sigmund Freud notion that there is no such thing as human ...

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Gender Language Acquisition And Language Use Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,740 )

INTRODUCTION Over the last thirty years there has been a sharp increase of research on the differences between men and women, in particular the extent to which men and women use language differently. The purpose of this project is to identify the differences between male and female speech and how society's attitude towards gender has an impact on language acquisition and language use. Firstly this project will ...

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Relationship importance and Factors of Marital Adjustment

23 Mar 2015

12 (4,430 )

Over the course of life, people learn to establish different relationships, with different values, expectations and commitments. One of those relationships is the marital relationship. For A good marital relationship marital adjustment is essential. Sinha & Mukerjee (1990) defines marital adjustment as "The state in which there is an overall feeling in husband and wife of happiness and satisfaction with their marriage and with each other". Locke ...

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Negative Schizotypy Reflect A Continuously Deficit Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,200 )

The DSM-IV: APA, diagnosiss schizophrenia based on reoccurring symptoms, including hallucinations delusions, disorganised speech, disorganised or catatonic behaviour and negative. One reason for cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia is the processing of context. Cohen (1999) states 'context processing' is used in general to mean the functioning of mental effort or cognitive control. It is referred to actively holding information to be used to mediate task appropriate behaviour. ...

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Five factor model of personality and work performance

23 Mar 2015

8 (3,137 )

Researchers have long been absorbed in relationships between personality and work performance. With the development of personality in the field of psychology, organizations realize that employee characteristics that influence how people think, feel and behave on and off the job are arduous to change. They select suitability of job applicants for positions and evaluate employees' work performance through personality measures, for example: psychological test. In this essay, ...

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Comparison Of Erikson And Bandura Theories Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,647 )

Albert Bandura was born on 4th December 1925 in Mundare which is a small town in Alberta, Canada. His parents were of polish descent. His theory was developed based on his belief that previous and earlier theorists had not dealt completely with the most important psychological issues and processes. Thus, his new view was referred to as observational learning. This is a theory that discussed human learning ...

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Freuds psychodynamic approach and rogers humanistic approach

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,774 )

For this essay I will be comparing and contrasting the psychodynamic approach concentrating on Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and humanistic approach looking at Carl Rogers theory (1902-1987) focussing on mainly the middle adult stage of human development. "The Psychodynamic approach emphasises unconscious dynamics within the individual such as inner forces, conflict or the movement of instinctual energy" The founding father of the psychodynamic approach was Sigmund Freud, he ...

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Efficacy Of Binocular Vision Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

11 (4,199 )

This research will be conducted in order to identify Binocular Vision techniques that commonly used at various regions of the world and then find the most reliable and efficient among all the binocular vision techniques used in clinical practice. The comparison will present the status of reliability, efficiency, strength and weakness of the each techniques in binocular vision measurement assessment. The research also stress on suitability of ...

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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Case Study Research

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,114 )

Introduction This work is to present the case study as a research approach, showing that its characterization is not an easy task, due mainly to its many different approaches and applications. It highlights its increasing importance as a research tool, exploring its origins, meanings and delineation as an investigation methodology. In order to demonstrate its application, it indicates its most common advantages and constraints, stressing the important ...

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Does flanker orientation (radial and tangential) affect visual crowding

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,747 )

Crowding is defined as a breakdown of object recognition and occurs when objects are too close together so that features from several objects are combined. As an illustration of crowding, one can try and identify a letter (target) to the right of another (fixation point) without looking at it directly. The distance between the target and flanking letters at which crowding occurs is called the 'critical spacing', ...

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The developmental stages of adolescence and adulthood

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,685 )

As a growth stage, adolescence is characterized by exponential and dramatic physical milestones which enable an individual develop from childhood to adulthood. It is during this stage that secondary sexual characteristics emerge due to a surge in production of testosterone in boys as well as estrogen in case of girls (Slee, 2002). These hormones continue being produced until total maturation is achieved. Onset of adolescence and puberty ...

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Strategies For Improving Working Memory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,749 )

Research has indicated that working memory is not only associated with academic achievement, but also behaviour in class and at home (Alloway et al., 2009; Aronen, Vuontela, Steenari, Salmi, & Carlson, 2005; Gathercole et al., 2008). Some have found that working memory underlies that ability to control attention and resist distraction from irrelevant stimuli (Kane et al., 2007), which are both important determinants for behaviour. In fact, ...

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The History Of The Inhibition Control Theory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

8 (2,999 )

As far back as the 1800's William James came up with the notion of a primary memory with limited capacity a distinction from long term memory. Today working memory is defined as a limited capacity work space, a processing form of memory distinguished from short term memory which has been depicted as a short term store rather than a processor. Whilst driving the car you are also ...

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