Gender Differences in Crime

23 Mar 2015 10 Jul 2017

5 (1,764 )

Keywords: gender and crime, gender criminology theory Criminal patterns by women and by men have both similarities and differences. Women and men are more prone to committing minor substance abuse and property crimes, rather than serious ones like murder or robbery. The main gender disparity in criminal activity is that men commit offenses at a higher rate than women do, except for prostitution (Heidensohn). Gender difference is ...

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Homicide Investigation

03 Oct 2016 04 Jul 2017

5 (1,982 )

Homicide Investigation Outline the five specific steps involved in the complete medicolegal autopsy (postmortem examination) and provide the purposes for doing it. Evaluate the differences between: 1) the cause of death, 2) the manner of death, and 3) the mode of death. Science keeps on shaping the universe of equity, filling wrongdoing examinations and meaning the advancement of current innovation. While measurable science incorporates ...

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Police Use of Force Essay

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

8 (3,098 )

Keywords: use of force essay, police deadly force There have been several issues concerning the policies that underline the use of force within the field of law enforcement. Favorable opinions, negative objections, and indecisive feelings about the use of force have varied throughout the public as well as within the criminal justice system when it comes to this policy. For a number of years, it has been ...

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Ways to Prevent Human Trafficking Essay

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

8 (3,044 )

Keywords: how to prevent human trafficking essay Throughout the world today, a silent plague has been sweeping the nations. Although it may be more prevalent in third world countries, its presence also roams the streets of more progressive nations (Kelly, 2001). According to the Bureau of Public Affairs of the United States Department of State (2004), human trafficking is "modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded ...

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Models of Policing

23 Mar 2015 30 Jun 2017

6 (2,320 )

Keywords: policing models evaluation, policing models uk The first police force was created in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel; he created 17 metropolitan police divisions in London. By 1856 the rest of the country was required to establish a police force. Since then, many different models of policing have been developed and experimented with, developments in policing and crime control were fairly rapid during the 1990s, this ...

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US Criminal Justice System Analysis

23 Mar 2015 28 Jun 2017

8 (3,075 )

Keywords: us cjs, usa cjs, usa justice system The Criminal Justice System (CJS) consists of three elements, the Police, Courts and Corrections. It is no secret that the CJS has been heavily criticized over the years about its overall effectiveness, some skeptics have gone as far as to say the criminal justice system is not a system at all based on "its current operation and fragmentation, it ...

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Sociological and Psychological Theories of Crime

23 Mar 2015 27 Jun 2017

13 (4,829 )

Keywords: biological crime, psychology crime, sociology crime In this task I am going to be looking at different theories which involve criminology, once I have completed that I am going to research one sociological and one psychological theory. At the same time I am going to look at the normal factors that might influence crime. I am also going to be looking at what criminology is and ...

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Limitations of Forensic Science

23 Mar 2015 23 Jun 2017

4 (1,427 )

Keywords: forensic science limitations, forensic science strengths Over the past decades, Forensic science has evolved and has been embraced by most states as a vital constituent of modern legal practice. It is widely used in courts as a major source for the outcome of a verdict. Forensic science has attained a merit of its own although it is relatively new in the jurisprudence world. As technology and ...

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Durkheim and Marxist Theories of Punishment

23 Mar 2015 16 Jun 2017

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Compare and contrast a Durkheim and a Marxist analysis of punishment in modern society. Emile Durkheim is well known for his work on suicide related issues. However, Durkheim is not exclusive to the area of suicide, he had ample experience and expertise in other areas of sociological interest and one prominent field is crime and punishment. Why do societies punish offenders? This is a question that has ...

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Freud and Eysenck's Theories of Crime

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

8 (2,815 )

Keywords: freud theory of crime, eysenck theory of crime, feud and crime, eysenck and crime Freud Eysenck Crime Introduction By studying the work of criminologist’s Freud and Eysenck, this essay will consist of me looking at key psychological factors, I will look at the strengths and limitations of their personality theories of crime. I will put forward a wide range of explanations, by studying the work ...

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Comparing Criminal Justice Systems

23 Mar 2015 05 Jun 2017

6 (2,115 )

Keywords: us and china cjs, us criminal justice, china criminal justice The two criminal justice systems that shall be discussed in this paper are those of the United States and that of the People's Republic of China. When comparing and contrasting these two systems one should start with the premise that both are instituted in their countries in the attempt to curb the proliferation of crime, apprehend ...

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The Relationship Between Mental Illness and Crime

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

6 (2,312 )

Keywords: mental illness and criminality, mental illness and crime The relationship between mental illness and violence has long been a subject of debate and a general course of concern within the mental health profession, the public, correctional systems, and the criminal justice systems. As a result this has led to an increase in research being focused on the reasons why mentally ill people commit crimes. Debate about ...

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The Influence of Police Culture

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

6 (2,294 )

Keywords: police culture essay, police culture effects In order to appropriately address the topic of discussion, firstly, it is important to understand what is meant by the concept 'police culture'. After establishing its definition, it then becomes a task to assess whether 'police culture' does indeed have a negative influence on the way the police work as an institution or whether it merely ensures that a certain ...

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Criminology Theories - Strengths And Weaknesses

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

5 (1,709 )

Keywords: strengths of positivist criminology, positivist criminology weaknesses The classical school of criminology was developed in the eighteenth century, where classical thinking emerged in response to the cruel forms of punishment that dominated at the time. It is considered that writers such as Montesquieu and Voltaire encouraged perhaps the emergence of this new 'classical' thinking, by becoming involved in campaigns for more enlightened approaches to be taken ...

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Strain Theory, Robert Merton - An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

6 (2,332 )

Keywords: strain theory essay, strain theory criminology, merton strain theory, strain theory aker In criminology, the strain theory describes social structures inside society that may support people to carry out crime. Following the work of Emile Durkheim, Strain Theories have been supported by Robert King Merton, Albert K. Cohen, Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, Robert Agnew, and Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld. Strain may be either: Structural: ...

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The Effect of Gangs in the Community

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

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Keywords: effects of gangsterism in our communities, community policing effects "How to define a gang has always been a matter of controversy. The relationship of the gang to its local community and the salience of race have been at the heart of academic and popular differences on the nature of gangs.", according to the Gang Research. In the current essay I would like to describe the effects ...

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The Age Of Criminal Responsibility

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

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Keywords: criminal responsibility age, youth offending age, young offender responsibility In recent years the attitude and mood towards young offenders is more server, due to a wide spread public perception of mounting youth crime, and the killing of toddler James Bulger by Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, who were only 10 years old at the time. Over the past years we are seeing more and more youths ...

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Introduction To Forensic Science

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

4 (1,327 )

Keywords: essay on forensic science, forensic science issues, dna crime issues Over the past decades, Forensic science has evolved and has been embraced by most states as a vital constituent of modern legal practice. It is widely used in courts as a major source for the outcome of a verdict. Forensic science has attained a merit of its own although it is relatively new in the jurisprudence ...

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Mental Health Issues in Criminal Justice System

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

9 (3,554 )

Keywords: cjs mental health, uk cjs mental health Mental Health illness is a problem that the criminal justice system faces daily. "In 1992, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) and the Public Citizen's Health Research Group released a report that described alarmingly high numbers of people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other serious mental illnesses incarcerated in jails across the country" (Erickson & Erickson, 2008, ...

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Howard Becker Criminology | A Theory Analysis

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

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Keywords: becker criminology, howard becker, becker labelling theory criminology With close reference to a selection from your research/reading (minimum 3 references by or about your criminologist), critically assess the contribution made by your author to criminological knowledge. You should focus closely on how he /she developed critiqued or applied theory. INTRODUCTION Howard Becker is hailed as the founder of modern labeling theory. He also developed the term ...

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Stop And Search Controversy

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

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Keywords: police powers stop and search, stop and search racism, stop and search effects The power to stop and search has been a prominent policing tool since the Vagrancy Act of 1824. The briefing, Series 2, Edition 3 - March 2012 , it has come under regular legal, political and societal scrutiny because of its broad and discretionary use by its police officers. However has also been ...

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Self Control Theory of Crime

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

4 (1,515 )

Keywords: gottfredson and hirschi, gottfredson and hirschi general theory of crime, general theory of crime Self control theory, also known as General theory of crime is a criminological theory about the lack of an individuals self-control, which is the main factor behind criminal behavior or conformity. Self control theory places much of its emphasis on parental upbringing it suggests that individuals who were ineffectually parented before the ...

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Objectives Of Criminology

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

4 (1,375 )

Keywords: female crime theories, female criminology theories, theories of female criminality A key aspect of criminology is the study of criminals and individuals who partake in criminal activities. However, what has remained extraordinary is the lack of interest that has been placed upon studying crime in relation to social demographic profiles, especially those regarding gender within traditional criminology. It was not until the 1970's that such issues ...

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The Media Influence on Public Perceptions of Crime

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

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Keywords: media influence public, media crime stories, media public fear, media fear of crime Introduction "The public's knowledge of crime is primarily derived from its depiction in the media. The media affects the public's opinion of crime and punishment, and its perception of the police. If the media is responsible for the headlines, the conclusion is that it influences the public's attitude regarding crime incidents." (Muraskin and ...

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Rachel Nickell - The Investigation of Colin Stagg

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

7 (2,506 )

Keywords: rachell nickell, colin stagg, police powers abuse In July 1992, Rachel Nickell was attacked and murdered, her throat was cut, and she was stabbed 49 times then sexually assaulted. The sensitivity and cruelty of this case from the beginning, police faced pressure from the public and media to solve it. The investigation was carried out by Scotland Yard officers of the Metropolitan Police. After collecting evidence ...

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Prison: Impact And Effects

23 Mar 2015 30 May 2017

8 (3,019 )

Keywords: effects of prison, foucault social control, social control theory prison, new punitiveness theory Jump to: Theories of New Punitiveness | The Effect of Prison on the Family | The Effect of Prison on the Community | Conclusion Currently, the impact and effects of imprisonment, which is a means of social control, are increasingly becoming various and noticeable. This essay will first focus on the concept and the different models ...

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Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance

23 Mar 2015 26 May 2017

5 (1,672 )

Keywords: sociology crime, crime and deviance sociology, crime norms and values Sociologists investigate the effects of society on criminal and deviant behaviour and seek to understand individuals and their situations. They do this by gathering and utilizing information on age, gender, social class, race and ethnicity. Crime is specifically associated with behaviors that break the formal written laws of any given society; for example, British law states ...

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Social Disorganization Theory

23 Mar 2015 24 May 2017

3 (1,019 )

Keywords: poverty criminology theory, racial heterogeneity and crime, family attachment and crime The social disorganisation theory was one of the most important criminological theories developed from the Chicago School of thought, namely research conducted by Shaw and Mckay (1942). Shaw and McKay (1942) used spatial maps to study the residential locations of juveniles referred to Chicago courts, they discovered that rates of crime were not equally dispersed. ...

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A Freedom Fighter, or Terrorist?

23 Mar 2015 22 May 2017

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The recent surge in "Terrorism" as a phenomenon has been unparallel in modern history. It now features as one of the top priorities in government agendas for most of the countries around the world. It is debatable whether it has been hyped up to some extent but unarguably has been one of the most unfortunate trends that have made considerable impact on the way of life for ...

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Causes of Stalking and Experiences

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Stalking is an issue that affects 1.5 million people each year. While women are commonly the general target, men can become victims of stalkers as well. Stalkers share similar traits, each of which fuel what they do. Oftentimes a stalker's motives are as easily profiled as their traits. Stalkers commonly share similar personality characteristics as well as reasons for doing what they do (Michele, 2002). Stalking has ...

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Theories Of Juvenile Delinquency

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Juvenile delinquency for a long time has remained a debatable topic among psychologists, criminologists, and even sociologists. Many opposing and concurring arguments have been experienced with many researchers concentrating on real cause, which can be explained using different theories ranging from the classical to contemporary ones. Agnew (2005, p. 16) states that there is need to have different and flexible theoretical views on causes of these crimes ...

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Does Punishment Deter Crime?

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

3 (1,053 )

Does punishment really deter crime? One could say no since the rate of crime is stable instead of declining. "The interaction between crime and punishment is certainly a complex one. In simple terms, one might anticipate that, if crime rates increase, there should be a corresponding increase on prison population…On the other hand, if punishment levels increase, crime control theory suggests that deterrence and incapacitation should show ...

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Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Since Marchese Beccaria who, as one of the first mentioned that the real purpose of punishment is "is no other than to prevent the criminal from doing further injury to society, and prevent others from committing the like offense" (Baccaria 1764), many researchers as well as general community have begun to concentrate on the notion of personal choice when explaining what pushes offenders to commit crimes. Rational ...

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Crime Control Model: Philosophy of criminal justice

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Crime control model refers to a philosophy of criminal justice which focuses on decreasing crime in the community through increased police and prosecutorial abilities. Crime control places emphasis on the power of the government to protect society, with less attention on individual rights. Those who take a strong stance favoring tough ways to approach crime and criminals may be characterized as supporters of crime control. The prevention ...

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Media Representation Of Violent Crimes | Race

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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The thesis of the paper is, "the media representation of violent crimes by African Americans." It has indeed been proven that the media portrays a very negative image on violent crimes as perpetrated by black Americans and this to a large extent impacts on the law, regulations, and public perceptions on the violent crimes. For instance, a violent crime such as rape has been painted as a ...

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The Effect Of Police Misconduct

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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What is police misconduct and how does it affect police and community relations? Police misconduct includes a comprehensive range, reflecting the high standards we expect of police officers. Police misconduct can apply to off-duty behavior as well as conduct on the job. Any conduct that is disgraceful, improper or unbecoming a police officer, or shows unfitness to be or continue as a police officer, or does not ...

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Theories Of Cesare Lombros

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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In this report I will be exploring the theories developed by Italian criminologist, Cesare Lombroso and the ethical implications of his work. He was the founder of the Italian school of Criminology, and is also considered to be one of the pioneers of the field due to his world wide appeal and notorious studies and ideas. Cesare Lombroso was born in Verona, Italy in November 1835 and ...

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Media And Public Perceptions of crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Crime stories and representations are, and have always been, a popular focus of the mass media. The percentage of media content that is constituted by crime images and stories obviously will depend on the definitions of 'crime' used. A glimpse at the television guide, the movies listings in the cinema, or press headlines, will highlight both the interest the general population has in crime and criminals, and ...

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Theories of Crime | Introduction

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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There are many theories of crime which fit into four different models each explaining crime through varied approaches, in this essay I will be discussing the weakest of these theoretical explanations of crime and the strongest. The weakest theory of crime is Biological Positivism which is part of the Predestined Actor Model which is a positivist model explaining criminal behaviour based on scientific factors beyond a person's ...

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Controlling Organized Crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Crime is a part of society. It would be naïve to believe that a society could completely rid itself of crime. Crime is based on the perception and the actions of individuals. Some see their actions as good and some see them as bad. The problem with this is that sometimes the perception of those committing negative acts that society views as crimes do not see their ...

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Age and Gender Differences on Fear of Crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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The current study aimed to investigate age and gender effects on fear of crime and their relationships with attitude towards prisoner and crime, life satisfaction, living arrangement and religion in a Chinese sample. 170 undergraduate and postgraduate students, with a mean age of 21.9 years, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire on fear of crime. In general, women reported significantly greater fear ...

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Impact Of Drug And Substance Abuse

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Drug and substance abuse continues to be a major problem worldwide, and in particular, Malawi. It is estimated that there are over 12 million abusers in United Stated of America and 500,000 cocaine users in South Africa (Fabiano &Maganga,2002, pp124-127). It is a common knowledge that most of the drug and substance abusers are youth and young adults, i.e. the most productive age groups. Most teenagers begin ...

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Theories of Female Victimisation

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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In today's society crime is a constant. People that are well know, to people that no one has ever heard of fall victim to criminal activity on a daily basis. There has to be a reason why these things happen so often. Victim precipitation theory holds that the victim is the contributing fact of their victimization. Women, especially, can make themselves available to criminals and can effortlessly ...

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Should Cannabis Be Legalised In Australia?

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Cannabis is a plant that is grown using organic fertiliser, other names includes marijuana, marihuana, hashish, hemp and ganja which is made from dried leaves and small green flowers from the cannabis plant itself, it contains narcotics and tough fibres that are used to make ropes, medicine, furniture and many others. Cannabis is known as a soft illicit drug that is commonly used. It is usually smoked ...

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Abuse and Juvenile Delinquency | Correllation

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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From 2000 to 2005, thirty-one South Carolina counties showed an increase in the number of juveniles placed in secure detention. A total of 5,330 juveniles were detained during the fiscal year 2004-2005 (Children's Law Office: Juvenile Detention in South Carolina, 2006, p. 6) Delinquency is an increasing issue in South Carolina, and there is much speculation that delinquency is increasing due to early or current experiences with ...

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The Social Construction Of Female Gangs

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Introduction In the UK, there has been very little research on female gang problem which has led to the vast amount of research from the USA being applied to the UK situation. Female gangs have been in existence throughout history although very little has been said about its members beyond their role as sexual objects. Hallsworth and Young (2008):176) following a home office report in 2008 state ...

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Why Do People Wrongfully Confess To Crimes?

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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False confession and self-incriminating admittance made to the police by innocent suspects which is clearly against their self- interest is usually a combination of factors which are associated with various circumstances and nature of the custodial interrogation, the suspects' personality factors and psychological vulnerabilities. What is more there are serious consequence that follow from confession and this also applies to the case of false confession. The study ...

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Case Study: Harold Shipman

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Shipman began practicing as a doctor in 1974, at the Abraham Ormerod Medical Practice in Todmorden. He was there until 1975 when his partners discovered that he had been obtaining drugs dishonestly for his own use. In 1976 he pleaded guilty to three offences of obtaining pethidine by deception, three offences of unlawful possession of pethidine and two further offences of forging a prescription he was sentenced ...

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Anti-Social Behaviour Orders | Analysis

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Our society gives us the right to live in a safe and secure community. But along with these rights, we have some responsibilities. We all have a responsibility towards our neighboursand we must treat them respectfully in the community. Also for the security and betterment of the society, the antisocialists should know that their behaviour will not be accepted and action will be taken against them if ...

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Prisons: Punishment and Rehabilitation

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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In order to understand the nature of imprisonment, this chapter will briefly look at the historical origins of prison, and then it will move onto justify their theoretical legitimacy: punishment/retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. These theories/ideologies will re-occur through the thesis like themes- what we refer to them as 'meta-concepts'. The final section of this chapter will examine the strategies employed by the Prison Service to reach ...

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Organized Crime: The Social Perspective

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Regardless of which form of organized crime takes place, abundantly clear organized crime is showing no signs of slowing down or even being remotely under control. The continued growth and diversification of organized crimes continues to be a major problem for law enforcement and for law abiding citizens as a whole. Organized crime existed even before there was any real understanding of it as something distinctive. After ...

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Agencies in the Criminal Justice System

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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The common thread binding the agencies of the criminal justice system is centred upon crime and the control of crime. (Garland 2001; 5-8). It can be argued that the agencies of criminal justice including, the police, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), the courts, the prison service and the probation service all have separate and distinctive functions but operate towards a common overarching goal - crime control. (Maguire ...

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An Analysis Of Female Foeticide In India

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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India is a country of incredible ironies. It is a land where people worship myriad forms of female Shakti in quest of wealth, wisdom and power. In this country it is a common sight to see thousands of couples making arduous journeys every year to shrines of goddesses in order to be blessed with a child. But strangely enough, in this country, a couple is said to ...

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Criminal Justice Organizations And Challenges Faced

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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In the world of criminal justice organizations, leaders are facing challenges that have become a part of the daily routine. Criminal justice organizations consist of corrections, courts, and the police. These organizations each have an important role in the criminal justice system that results in the leadership of each organization. This paper will explain some of these challenges of the leaders and steps that can be taken ...

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The Rates Of African American Male Incarceration

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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This paper is going to provide an understanding about how and why African American males are incarcerated at higher rates than any other race and how it is growing. It will also show racial disparities on sentencing, crimes and overall treatment. You will have a better understanding of how the family structure has been destroyed as a result of incarceration creating segregation within the African American race. ...

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Criminal Profiling: Peter Sutcliffe

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Criminal Profiling: Peter Sutcliff One other aspect we can all discuss which is relatively new, is the work of psychologists in helping the police in catching a killer, it is known as criminal profiling or offender profiling, which can be traced back to 1888 when ‘Thomas Bond gave a detailed description on Jack the Ripper’ (Cross) it was later used by the FBI in America. Following the ...

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Terrorism And Mass Media

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The United States of America law defines terrorism as "predominated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents" (U.S. Code Title 22, Ch.38, Para 2656f (d). Hoffman has defined a terrorist act as an act of violence vested upon a given people so as to attract the attention of the opponents and the general public which is followed by communication of a ...

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Organizational Decoupling

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The field of organizational decoupling is a field that has not been researched very much. Meyer and Rowan (1977) were some of the first authors who wrote about this subject and define organizational decoupling as separating formal structure from actual organizational practice. In short, this means that organizations say that they do one thing, but actually do something else. For instance, an organization can announce that it ...

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Socio-Cultural Theories Of Crime

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The sociological or socio-cultural model provides a macro-level analysis of criminal violence. This model examines criminal violence in terms of socially structured inequality, and social and cultural attitudes and norms regarding anti-social behaviour and inter-personal relations. Besides the two well-known theories, viz. the Structural-Functional Theory and the Theory of Sub-culture of Violence, the Learning Theory, the Exchange Theory, the Anomie Theory, and the Resource Theory also come ...

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Extra Judicial Killing in Bangladesh

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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How interesting it is that in Bangladesh the elite force named as Rapid Action Battalion [RAB] kills the arrested persons by the name of cross-fire and name them the criminals. "Extra-judicial", thus the term is used to state the killings. It is called extra judicial because of its type, which works as a process outside the judiciary system of Bangladesh. Farid Ahmed in a non periodical web ...

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Analysis Of The Concept Of Crime

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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It is postulated that the phenomenon crime does not exist, although we can study its negative consequences of it upon society through acts. Many definitions of crime have been developed, the most simplistic definition of a criminal act being; acts that break legislation outlined in law however this differs from that of a normative perspective; crimes are acts which can offend against a set of norms similar ...

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Theories of Cultural Criminology

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Criminology Cultural Crime Contemporary Issues in Criminology Cultural Criminology Critically discuss its theoretical underpinnings and evaluate whether this theoretical approach serves as a useful explanation of criminal behavior in modern Britain. Introduction Cultural criminology is the approach to the investigation of crime that its criminality and its control are based in the context of culture. This means, that institutions of crime control, and crime by it self ...

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Investigative Tools And Equipment

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Homicides are punishable criminal acts that involve the killing of an individual by another person. Homicide cases can be either intentional or unintentional. Voluntary homicides are premeditated with the intent to kill such as murders, whilst unintentional homicides occur by mistake or negligence as in cases of fatal traffic accidents. However, these are tackled using the same investigative approach which comprises in using the correct apparatus and ...

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How Important And Relevant Is Merton's Strain Theory?

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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In this essay I will analyse the importance and relevance of a structional functionalist view of deviance seen through the lens of strain theory and a symbolic interactionalist perspective through the use of labelling theory. Strain Theory attempts to explain why crime is resolute amongst the lower classes who are subjected to the least opportunities for economic achievement (O' Connor 2007). It focuses on the positions that ...

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Human Rights and Prisoner Rights

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Abdullah Bin Omar, a former prisoner in Guantanamo Bay prison was said to be one of the worst criminals regarding terrorism. Bin Omar was captured by the United States army in Pakistan after he had spent twenty three years in an unknown prison in Tunisia. The unfairness that Abdullah faced was the fact that he wasn't told nor convicted of any real or specific crime. Cliff Stafford ...

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Strengths Of Developmental Theories

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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The life course theory is one of the developmental theories that is interesting. The life course theory incorporates the idea from the social learning theory that "crime is a learned behavior" (Siegel, 2011). This occurs when the individual experiences a transition during their life course. According to the life course theory we start behaviors at a very young age that can have a significant impact on our ...

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Contemporary Issues in Criminology

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Contemporary Issues in Criminology Critically discuss its theoretical underpinnings and evaluate whether this theoretical approach serves as a useful explanation of criminal behavior in modern Britain. Introduction: The idea of cultural criminology indicates both exact viewpoints and extensive orientations that have come forward in criminology, sociology, and criminal justice over the past few years. More distinctively, cultural criminology stands for a perception performed by Ferrell & Sanders ...

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The Green River Killer

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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I killed the 48 women listed in the states second amended information. In most cases when I killed these women I did not know their names. Most of the time I killed them the first time I met them and I do not have a good memory of their faces. (Seattle - From statement of Green River killer Gary Ridgway, read in court in November 2003 by ...

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Pros And Cons Of Criminal Profiling

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

4 (1,534 )

Many people who hear someone say they are a criminal profiler they are inclined to think of T.V. depicted shows such as Profilers, Criminal Minds and movies like Silence of the Lambs. Unfortunately, these examples portray a glamorous classification of capturing criminals (Fulero and Wrightsman, pg.79). Criminal profiling is considered to be the process of analyzing a crime scene and using the information found to determine the ...

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Can Torture Of Terrorist Suspects Be Justified?

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

12 (4,592 )

In advancing into this essay, I shall discuss the history of prohibition of torture, the Utilitarian approach to torture which would include arguments and debates in favour of justification of torture by taking account of the ticking bomb hypothetical, a case study of Guantanamo Bay and the result of torturing terrorist suspects in recent times. This essay would also examine the deontology approach to torture and make ...

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Counter Terrorism Measures For Global Safety

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

3 (967 )

Terrorism has inflicted fear and panic on almost every corner of the globe. Due to the pain that it inflicts on people indiscriminately, the United Nations has taken the threat of terrorism seriously and is actively engaging all member nations to participate in counterterrorism efforts (United Nations [UN], 2008). The counterterrorism agenda is a priority one for the UN for many years now. Countering terrorism has been ...

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Women Victims Of Violence

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

5 (1,754 )

Throughout most of the world, more often that not, women are usually the victims of violence. In America violence against women is becoming one of the most prevalent problems. Domestic violence occurs in many homes all over the world. As a crime against women, rape is uniquely horrible in its long-term effects. Many claim that victims of violence deserve what they get. According to the book Gender ...

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literature Review of Hate Crimes

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

6 (2,023 )

Abstract Hate crime is a term that was born in the 1980's from journalists and policy advocates who were trying to describe crimes of bias against African Americans, Asians, and Jews. From there, the term hate crime expanded and an act was passed that required the tracking of hate crime statistics. These statistics can often be misleading due to the underreporting of hate crimes and the strict ...

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Does race affect treatment within CJS?

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

5 (1,882 )

For this assignment I am going to explain how differences in race can affect the treatment and experience a person can receive within the criminal justice system. I will use research, legislation, policy and statistics to help answer the question. I will look into the different Criminal Justice Systems and analyse how race affects a person's treatment, I will also backup my findings through case studies which ...

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Death Penalty For Drug Trafficking

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

5 (1,768 )

I have chosen to focus on the death penalty for drug trafficking for the following reasons: Some governments will sentence those who are convicted for just the possession of drugs to the death penalty, while other countries are more lenient and do not do so. From this study, I want to know if the enforcement of the death penalty may affect drug trafficking through its deterrence effect. ...

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Intelligence Led Policing Models

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

9 (3,405 )

The objective of this syndicate research work is to find out that. "Has police ordinance 2002 fulfilled its objectives? What are the missing and gaps in its conceptual framework and implementation process? Why community policing system has been left out of the ordinance? And will it contribute negatively or positively?This is basically aimed at analyzing the success or failure if the ordinance with special reference to its ...

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The Investigation Of Police Corruption

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

5 (1,754 )

One cannot separate police corruption from police abuse of force. Whenever an officer uses force, that officer needs to be able to justify the use of force. Law enforcement ethics go far beyond an officer choice to accept a cup of coffee, or a free car wash. The fact remains that whenever an officer lowers the ethical, and morals standards it affects every area of police operations ...

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Black And Minority Ethnic People In Prison

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

14 (5,214 )

"For every Afro-Caribbean male on campus there are two in jail." (Phillips, 2004). Sir Trevor Phillips' memorable claim is interesting on two levels. First, in how it highlights the strong evidence that Black or Minority Ethnic (BME) persons form a disproportionately high section of the prison population in England and Wales. Secondly, as an example of the polemical terms in which this question is often debated. In ...

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The Crime Scene Manager

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

12 (4,404 )

According to the lecture on crime scene management SAPS 2006 the process of crime scene management is as follows. The different role players within the SAPS respond to the crime scene with due consideration personal safety, while at same time looking for potential evidence and possible suspects. The researcher wants to determine whether the role players from the components such as the visible policing, detectives and the ...

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Subcultural Theories Of Youth Offending

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

15 (5,647 )

Introduction The essay will look at historical subcultural theories and explanations which play a role in explaining youth offending behaviour. It will in particular focus on deviant and radical subcultural theories including theories from Merton and Cohen and look at ways in which these theories are still prevalent amongst contemporary society and continue to be relevant. The essay will consist of an in dept critical analysis of ...

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Theories of criminology | What causes crime?

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

3 (824 )

This paper focuses on the information about the crimes. Different theories about the criminology are described. Main focus will be on the criminology and its two theories. Criminology is the study of factors about the crimes that lead to its phenomena. This crime may be of individual or social nature. It includes making laws, breaking laws and attempts to break the laws. Criminology focuses on the social, ...

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Is prostitution a victimless crime?

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

7 (2,450 )

Prostitution, as described by the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary (1997), is the selling of sexual favors for money or the devoting of oneself or one's talent to an unworthy cause (p. 589). In another frame of reference, prostitution has been called a "victimless crime." What exactly is a "victimless crime"? West's Encyclopedia of American defines it as: …crime where there is no apparent victim and no apparent pain or ...

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Does The Hip Hop Culture Influence Youth Gangs?

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

26 (10,025 )

Gang violence and the use of violent weapons have been highlighted by the media recently. The government have initiated aims in order to curb and deal with gang violence in the United Kingdom. In order deal with this issue, influencing factors have been acknowledged. This research explores the supposed influence that the hip hop culture has on young males engaged in gangs, and their willingness to use ...

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Routine Activites Theory And Reaction To Crime

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

3 (1,032 )

The RAT also known as the routine activities theory was founded in 1979 by two theorists name Marcus Felson and Lawrence Cohen (Miller, Mitchell, & Richard, 2006). It was a reaction to crime rate in the US during the years of 1947-1974 states (Cohen & Marcus, 1979). This was a time where both crime rate and economic conditions were increasing which made this a very popular theory ...

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Transnational Organized Crime

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

9 (3,510 )

1) Describe the role and function of the Transnational Organized Crime Convention and the Convention’s relationship to its Protocols. The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime (also known as the ‘Palermo Convention’) has attached to it the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air 2000, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and the Protocol ...

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Police And The Use Of Force Shakoya

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

9 (3,518 )

There have been several issues concerning the policies that underline the use of force within the field of law enforcement. Favorable opinions, negative objections, and indecisive feelings about the use of force have varied throughout the public as well as within the criminal justice system when it comes to this policy. For a number of years, it has been extremely difficult in determining the proper definition of ...

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Women And The Criminal Justice System

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

3 (1,065 )

The aim of this work is to define the role factors such as gender, class, familial structure and prior victimization have in the awarding of justice to the female offender. It was found that the criminal justice system has traditionally been more lenient to the female offender based on two factors: gender and class and family structure. However, the criminal justice system finds itself in a legal ...

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Evidence Between Offending And Social Class

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

4 (1,460 )

This essay will outline and critically evaluate the main evidence supporting an association between offending, victimisation and social class, using criminological theories such as Strain Theory and Labelling theory to demonstrate this. Social class in relation to offending and victimisation is an extremely broad area, taking this and the words limit into account this essay will specifically focus on offending and Victimisation of the lower classes in ...

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Crime And The Impact On Modern Society

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

4 (1,481 )

The threat and fear of crime are constant concerns that impact many people in modern society. The safety of schools and communities are usually indicated by crime rates, and are justifiably major factors in choosing where to reside. Research denotes that juveniles are involved in numerous crimes each year, as perpetrators who are subjected to legal intervention for status offenses such as running away, school truancy and ...

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The White Collar Crime

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

5 (1,899 )

In 1986, Kenneth Lay merged Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth to form Enron and then in the early 1990s he helped initiate the selling of electricity at market prices. By doing so, it later led to the US Congress to pass legislation deregulating the sale of natural gas. Consequently this made it possible for traders to sell energy at higher prices, allowing companies to significantly increase their ...

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Effectiveness Of Sex Offender Treatment

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

7 (2,465 )

In previous years, the fear of sex offenders has led the public to believe a fallacy regarding sex offender treatments. The public often start to view anyone who commits a sexual offence to be a high risk sex offender. Society need to understand that some sex offenders are low risk offenders who are very unlikely to re-offend again. The public believe sex offenders should be sent to ...

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Organised Crime and the Criminal Justice Process

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

8 (3,139 )

This essay will begin with a brief outline of the historical work of organised crime. Then the definition of organised crime will be given with examples of areas associated with organised crime. The Criminal Justice Process will then be explained and the role of the Serious Organised Crime Agency including the Assets Recovery Agency with statistics showing the economic and social impact of organised crime. Finally ...

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How hooliganism in football has changed

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

14 (5,313 )

This report will look at Football hooliganism and how it has changed through the years. It will look at the early years of hooliganism and compare the hooliganism to today's hooligan firms. It will identify the way in which the hooligan has changed through the years from being easily identified, to the casual years in which the hooligan was more accustomed to the casual lifestyle of designer ...

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Ethics in Psychology and Criminal Justice

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

8 (3,135 )

Ethical behavior is important within any discipline whether it be automobile mechanics or brain surgeons. Two disciplines in which ethical behavior is especially important are the disciplines of criminal justice and psychology due to the vulnerable state of the individuals which are encountered on a daily basis. Straying from compliance of ethical guidelines in either of these disciplines could result in mental damage in psychology, false arrests ...

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White Collar Crime: The Influences of the Social Class

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

4 (1,340 )

Introduction When it comes to talk about crime, a lot of people will relate to the street crimes including burglary, robbery, and assault. However, more and more people complain that an increasing number of white-collar crimes exits in our society nowadays, such as false advertising, tax evasion, and insider stock trading. Write-collar crimes are very complicated issues which "can harm victims both directly and indirectly without the ...

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Ethical Theories and Criminology

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

4 (1,508 )

Four Ethical Theories and How They Relate to Criminology This paper will cover four ethical theories and how they relate or don't relate to the field of criminology today. The four theories deal with ethically making the right decisions and what influences the actions. Every action has a reaction and the reaction is the consequences of every action. The outcome of the consequences can dictate whether or ...

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Importance Of Geographic Profiling

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

8 (2,884 )

This paper shall give a comprehensive discussion about the importance of geographic profiling to aid in investigative methods employed by government agents and police officers in pinpointing predatory criminals. The sophistication of the techniques in crime scene investigation have kept pace with the rapid development in the tools and technologies used in the field, and this has enabled police authorities to employ a variety of methods to ...

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Understandings And Responses To Paedophilia

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

22 (8,778 )

The concept of paedophilia started to formulate as an object of scientific study in the mid - ninetieth century, as a part of the broader context of sexual deviations. It was first noticed as a phenomenon in the sex "industry" of the time that provided young children to satisfy certain appetites. Later on, child prostitution took place in post - war big cities also as a means ...

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Programs to rehabilitate young offenders

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

15 (5,651 )

The intent of this dissertation is to explore the current shaping of the youth justice system and also to explore the programs that are in place to help rehabilitate young offenders who have been placed in young offender institutes. This research will discuss and examine the effectiveness of these programs put in place for young people who are in custody to help prevent them from re-offending once ...

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Race. Ethnicity And Criminal Justice History

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

7 (2,739 )

UK has been a multi-culture country historically whereby people from various origins, nations, races, religions, beliefs, etc. migrated to UK in the last two centuries. Largely, these migrants have been from Africa and Asia that form the ethnic minority communities within the UK. In the past 30 years, these ethnic minorities progressed very well in the UK and have been the victims of hate and racial crimes. ...

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