Solar Cell and Solar Energy Materials

30 Nov 2017

8 (3,014 )

Introduction: One of the biggest challenges to mankind is highly depended on the decreasing fusil fuels such as oil, coal, natural gas. Fusil fuels are nonrenewable energy resource which usually takes million of years to form. As a result, their reserves are depleted much faster than it forms. Furthermore, the combustion of these fuels causes environmental degradation through air pollution and global warming. Combustion ...

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Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Food Analysis

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,766 )

The food is a highly complex nature which consisted organic and inorganic components. It is undeniable that Gas Chromatography (GC) has many usage and application. It is also noted that gas chromatography has a wide range of applications especially in the food aspect analysis which includes composition of food, components of aroma and flavor, food additives, natural products etc. The aim of this section is to ...

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Properties of Graphene Essay

30 Nov 2017

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Recently, graphene has much attention for researchers due to its interesting properties and advantanges to industries moreover in nanomaterials. Graphene is a polymer structure made of fused six membered sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. Graphene is pure carbon in the form of very thin, nearly transparent sheet, basically one atom thick. Graphene is the building block of graphite. Graphene sheets are composed of carbon atoms linked in ...

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Isolation of β-Amyrin from Plant Parts of M. barteri

30 Nov 2017

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ISOLATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE TRITERPENE Β-AMYRIN FROM THE AERIAL PLANT PARTS OF MAESOBOTRYABARTERI(BAILL). Abstract Maesobotrya barteri(Baill), belonging to the family EUPHORBIACEAE, is a medicinal plant growing widely in tropical Africa. The Aerial plant parts of Maesobotrya barteri (Bail) were collected fresh from Orokam, Ogbadibo local Government of Benue State, Nigeria in July, 2013. Taxonomical identification was done by Mallam Musa Abdullahi at the Herbarium unit ...

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Methods Used in the Bio-Medical Industry

30 Nov 2017

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Three methods used in the Bio-Medical Industry Mr. Luke Chang Yen Zhi In this essay we will be exploring three methods by which materials are either separated, analysed, or both and their relevance and application in the biomedical industry. We will be looking at Electrophoresis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Gas Liquid ...

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Risk of Lung Cancer Among Chromium Workers

30 Nov 2017

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2. Literature Review: For the pursuance of our study, we conducted an extensive literature review in order to gather related information so that it may be helpful for us to understand the various aspects of this subject. Moreover, this was done in hopes that it would provide us the evidences about the views and findings of other scientists who are divulging assiduously in this field of ...

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Characterizing Novel Methoxybenzene via Boron-ate Complex

30 Nov 2017

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Synthesis and Characterization of Novel (E)-1-(hexa-3,5-dien-1-yl)-4-methoxybenzene via Boron-ate Complex Habib Hussain[*], Syeda Rubina Gilani, Zulfiqar Ali, Imdad Hussain, Hajira Rehman  Abstract: Novel (E)-1-(hexa-3,5-dien-1-yl)-4-methoxybenzene was synthesized through boron-ate complex. 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl diisopropylcarbamate was reacted with allylboronic acid pinacol ester in the presence of N,N,N,N-tetramethylethyllenediamine (TMEDA) to give secondary boronic ester which was further reacted with (vinylsulfonyl)benzene by using Grubbs Hoveyda II. Resulting product (E)-2-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(phenylsulfonyl)hex-5-en-3-yl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane was then ...

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Preformulation Testing for Chemical Properties of Drug

30 Nov 2017

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PREFORMULATION STUDIES Preformulation testing involved investigation of physical and chemical properties of a drug substance alone and when combined with excipients. It was the first step in the rational development of dosage forms. These studies are categorised as under: 1. API characterization 2. Drug-Excipient Compatibility study API Characterization Organoleptic Evaluation These are preliminary characteristics of any substance which is useful in identification of specific ...

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Concentration Levels of Essential Metals

30 Nov 2017

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Comparative Distribution of Selected Essential Metals in Drinking Water by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Method Tanzeel ur Rehman and Misbah Zahid ABSTRACT This study reports the concentration levels of selected essential metals; Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and Zn in the drinking water collected from different areas of Islamabad. The levels of these metals present in the drinking ground water were compared with standards reported ...

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Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

30 Nov 2017

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Organic Nomenclature Oxford Dictionaries (n.d.) defines nomenclature as “the devising or choosing of names for things, especially in a science or other discipline”{Dictionaries, #[email protected]@author-year}. I believe the easiest way to understand the rules associated with the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is with examples and so the majority of this essay will be dealing with examples and their explanations. Simek (1999) introduces the systematic naming of ...

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Chemical Composition of Oil from Eremostachys Macrophylla

30 Nov 2017

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Chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch. from Northeast of Iran Akhlaghi H Abstract The essential oil obtained by hydrodisstillation of the aerial parts of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch., grown wild in Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The colorless oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus for three hours, from aerial parts in ...

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Components in Milk and Isolation of Milk Protein (Casein)

30 Nov 2017

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Contents 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objective 1.3 Materials used 1.4 Methodology 1.5 Result 1.6 Discussion 1.7 Conclution Referance 1.1Introduction Milk is a complex biological fluid with high amount of proteins, lipid and minerals. Milk plays a major role in a healthy, balanced diet throughout lifetime. Milk having Proteins, Vitamins, carbohydrates and other minerals.Caseins, lactalbumins, and lactoglobulins are some proteins in milk. Milk from domesticated ruminants, primarily cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo, are major ...

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Stoichiometry Calculations Essay

30 Nov 2017

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Regina Marin Chapter 12: Stoichiometry SECTION 1 – WHAT IS STOICHIOMETRY? Mole-Mass Relationships in chemical reactions The balance equations is the main basis of stoichiometry, and that is the first thing to do when you want to measure a chemical process. The information provided by the chemical equation is interpreted according to the needs. And the mole is associated with the molecular weight, the ...

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Chemistry of All-carbon Materials: Structure and Properties

30 Nov 2017

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All-carbon materials have received lots of attention in the past. Carbyne, a new allotrope of carbon, is still in controversy towards its synthesis and property. Combining with the Goroff group’s research, this project is to prepare the polymer PIDA (polydiiododiacetylene) as a polyrotaxane complex, encapsulated in a column of macrocyclic hosts. The polyrotaxane structure will prevent aggregation of the PIDA strands, allowing for the complete dehalogenation ...

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Unexpected Halide Transfer: Aluminium and the Lanthanoids

30 Nov 2017

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Unexpected Halide Transfer: Complex Reorganisation Between Aluminium and the Lanthanoids. Glen B. Deacon, David J. Evans and Peter C. Junk.* This submission was created using the RSC Communication Template (DO NOT DELETE THIS TEXT) (LINE INCLUDED FOR SPACING ONLY - DO NOT DELETE THIS TEXT) [Pr(MeCN)9][AlCl4]3.MeCN undergoes reorganisation upon the addition of an ether. In the case of recrystallisation from tetrahydrofuran, the ionic nature ...

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Constant Pressure Calorimeter for Heat Capacity

30 Nov 2017

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Kanwarpal Brar Purpose: To calibrate a constant pressure calorimeter and use it to determine the heats of the reaction and dissolution of different reactants and to use these heats of the reactions to find the enthalpy of a reaction by hess’s law. Analysis/ calculations: Determine the heat capacity of the coffee cup, Ccal in j*degC for all three trials and calculate the average ...

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Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol

30 Nov 2017

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Experiment #1: Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol Johanna Bernadette C. Halili Mr. John Ephraim Torres June 21, 2014 ABSTRACT The synthesis of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol is an example of elimination reaction. Cyclohexanol, a secondary unsaturated alcohol, undergoes dehydration reaction to form a good leaving group which is H20 because the OH group of an alcohol is a very ...

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Penicillin's Structure and Function

30 Nov 2017

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Rachael Sim Hwee Ling A Molecule that Shapes the World – C16H18N2O4S The discovery of penicillin has revolutionized the world of medicine and saved millions of lives. Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi [1]. Antibiotics are specific substances derived from living organisms that can inhibit the life processes of other organisms [2]. Penicillin is effective against a range of bacteria such as ...

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Silver-graphene Oxide Composite for Optical Sensor

30 Nov 2017

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KHOSRO ZANGENEH KAMALI ORIGINAL LITERARY WORK DECLARATION FORM ABSTRACT In this work, a [email protected] oxide ([email protected]) nanocomposite-based optical sensor was developed for the detection of biomolecules such as dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), and uric acid (UA). An aqueous solution of [email protected] was prepared using a simple chemical reduction method, and it showed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 402 nm. The ...

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Structure and Function of the M6P/IGF2R

30 Nov 2017

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Contents Part 1: A Review of the Structure and Function of the M6P/IGF2R and its Role in Trafficking M6P Labelled Proteins and Wider Set of Enzymes to the Lysosome. Abstract Overview of The Mannose-6-Phosphate / Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Receptor (CI-MPR ) The Structure of the Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptors The Itinerary of the MPR Trafficking The Cytoplasmic tail of the CI-MPR Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth ...

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Isomerism in Molybdenum Carbonyl Phosphine Complexes

30 Nov 2017

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Part A - Preparation and Identification of the Isomers of [Mo(CO)4(PPh3)2] Introduction Molybdenum carbonyl phosphine complexes with the general formula, [Mo(CO)4L2] where (L=PR3; R=Me, Ph etc) have an octahedral geometry. This means the complexes are able to display either cis or trans stereochemistry. Interconversion between the two isomeric forms is enabled through thermal Mo-P bond cleavage. Only the thermodynamically stable isomer of [Mo(CO)4(PPh3)2] is formed by ...

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Development of UPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method

30 Nov 2017

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In order to optimize the extraction conditions, the effect of different solvents and variation of time were investigated. It was found that pure methanol was more efficient solvent for extraction among the tested different concentrations of methanol and ethanol. In addition, the efficiency of extraction by ultrasonicator (Bandelin SONOREX, Berlin) were measured in different time intervals i.e., 20, 30, 40, and 50 min at room temperature. ...

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Synthesising Benzocaine via Reflux with a Condenser

30 Nov 2017

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Synthesis and characterisation of benzocaine experiment practical report Aim: The experiment was to synthesise benzocaine via reflux with a condenser and was characterised by examining at the infra-red spectrum and chemical shifts of NMR. Introduction: Benzocaine belongs to a collection of medication identified as local anaesthetics and generally consumed as a topical pain reliever. Its mechanism of action is to prevent nerve conduction when applied locally ...

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Standardized Ion Chromatograpy (IC) for Salivary Analysis

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,287 )

According to Darvell et. al. (2004), the research is about analysis of human saliva by using ion chromatography(IC). The aim of this research is to construct out a standardized IC protocol for future salivary analysis. The samples has go through several procedures such as centrifugation to remove particulates, filtration on supernatant, and the residual droplet was removed by a paper tissue without touching it to the ...

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Protective Role of Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Against CCL4

30 Nov 2017

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DISCUSSION CCl4, Paracetamol and Anti-tubercular drugs cause ROS mediated cellular damage especially in liver, the site of metabolism of these drugs. During the regular physiological functioning the cells/tissues/organs use oxygen and various nutrients to generate energy. The free radicals are also generated in this process as the reaction intermediates. These free radicals may be very useful because they may promote beneficial oxidative processes. However the higher ...

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Fire Triangle Science Essay

30 Nov 2017

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Chemistry of Fire Unit 36 - Forensic Fire Investigation 2/3/2015 Windows User Contents: Fire Tetrahedron………………………………………………………………………Page 2 Primary Sources of Ignition………………………………………………….....Page 3 Secondary Sources of Ignition…………………………………….................Page 4 Methods of Extinction………………………………………………………………Page 5 Heat Transfer………………………………………………………………………..…Page 6 Different Types of Fire.......................................................................Page7&8 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………Page 9 Reference List…………………………………………………………………………Page 10 Fire Tetrahedron Here is a diagram of the fire tetrahedron. This diagram shows the three elements that have to be present in order ...

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Frequency Response of Electrode Materials in EIS Measurement

30 Nov 2017

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Furthermore, complementary information about the frequency response of electrode materials is provided by EIS measurements and one can estimate the capacitance changes with the operating frequency.64-65 It is well know that the complex form of capacitance is dependent on frequency, which is defined as follow:66-67 (6) where C'(ω) is the real part of the complex capacitance and C"(ω) is the imaginary part of the complex ...

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Physicochemical Study of Palm Ester for Cosmetic Application

30 Nov 2017

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2.0 Introduction Palm oil is extracted from the fruit of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. Besides, Malaysia is one of the leading exporters and producers of palm oil in the world (Keng et al., 2005 Palm oil has been widely applied in various industrial sectors due to the uniqueness of its composition (Keng et al., 2009). It consists of triglycerides; the combination of glycerol and different ...

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Investigation of Oral Contraceptives

30 Nov 2017

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Oral Contraceptives Made by NAME: Ahmed Abdelgaber NAME: Ahmed Mohamed Yousef Hablass NAME: Baraa Emad Hussien NAME: Nagdat Magd Mahouk NAME: Sherif Maher Dahshan LAB GROUP: C2 Lab Instructors: A.L/ Ahmed Refaat Spring 2015 Oral Contraception: Contraception can be defined ...

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Effectiveness of Soap and Shampoo in Hard Water

30 Nov 2017

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Literature Review According to Soap and Detergent Association of Canada [SDAP] (n.d.), soap is an effective cleansing agent, but its effectiveness reduced when used in hard water which has contaminations like calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. These mineral salts will react with soap to form insoluble salt known as scum or soap film. For detergent, it is effective to cleanse in hard water and soft water ...

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Investigation of Flame Retardant Chemicals

30 Nov 2017

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1.0 Introduction Cotton has been used for textile fibre for a long time. It is cool and comfortable to wear. The air spaces within the fibres allow the fibre to absorb liquids. Cotton can be chemically treated to make it fire-resistant by soaking it into chemicals mixed with water. A fibre is a strand composed of polymer chains twisted around each other. All fabrics will burn ...

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Investigating Alykl Hydoxylation in P450-can Using EVB

30 Nov 2017

9 (3,349 )

Shen Ye Abstract Cytochrome P450s are a superfamily of haemoproteins1-3 which catalyse the oxidation of organic molecules4. One P450 enzyme studied for its hydroxylation mechanism is P450cam (CYP101) from the Pseudomonas putida bacteria, whose crystal structure (1DZ9) was solved by Schlichting et al.5. The active form of P450cam contains an oxyferryl species known as compound I(CPDI), where the iron has a formal oxidation state of Fe(V) ...

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Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

30 Nov 2017

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Modern biomedicine advances have impelled the demand of sensitive, accurate and fast analytical techniques for biodetection and biodiagnosis. Many tools ranging from fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry or immunoassays have been used to resolve analytical problems related with health. Although these techniques are well established, several drawbacks still limit their fully applicability, e.g. prior sample preparation, time consumption or relatively low detection limits[1]. Recent developments in laser ...

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Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study

30 Nov 2017

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Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy An EIS study was carried out at different dc potentials in order to study the mechanism of ORR in O2 saturated alkaline solutions on prepared GDEs. The Nyquist plots of GDEs under different polarization potentials are shown in Fig. 5. The impedance diagrams show two different behaviors which depend on the applied dc potentials. In the other words, the shape of plots changed ...

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Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Research

28 Nov 2017

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A) Effects of Ozone on the Lower Atmosphere The lower atmosphere (Troposphere) includes 75% by mass of the atmosphere (concentrated). Natural sources of Ozone in the troposphere includes lightning. Approximately 10% of all atmospheric ozone is present in the troposphere. If ozone levels reach 20ppm, they are very poisonous to humans, animals and plants. It oxidises organic tissue which disrupts the normal biochemical reactions ...

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Assessment of Plants for Anti Asthmatic Drugs

28 Nov 2017

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Introduction Asthma is a respiratory inflammatory disease characterized by narrowing of bronchial airway. There are changes in level of cytokines, eosinophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and other inflammatory cell products. As high level of IgE binds to mast cell receptors, it interacts with antigen, resulting in inflammatory reactions, like the release of mediators (prostaglandins, histamines, and leukotrienes). Hence, bronchoconstriction is triggered. Asthma affects 300 million people across ...

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Assessment of Cadmium levels in Chocolate

28 Nov 2017

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Research Proposal Assessment of Cadmium levels in chocolate commercialized in Lebanon Josiane Haddad   1- Background and significance Cadmium (Cd) as an element is a soft silver-white transition metal. It is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but is most often present in the form of oxides, sulfides, and carbonates. It does not have a taste or odor. Cadmium sulfate ...

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Properties of Iron: An Introduction

28 Nov 2017

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LIYI WEN Iron Physical properties Iron is a silvery-white or light gray metallic. It is ductile and malleable. Toughness is the ability to be involved in the thread. Scalability is the ability to be hammered into thin sheets. It is naturally present in only three of a magnetic element. The other two are nickel and cobalt Iron having high tensile strength. Stretching device, which can be ...

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Surface Modification of Titania Experiment

28 Nov 2017

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1.4 Surface Modification of Titania and its requirement: The chief active fields of research in non-homogeneous photocatalysis with semiconductor particles is development of a system that is capable of using the visible sunlight to degrade inorganic & organic contaminants. The total photocatalytic activity of a particular S/C system for the discussed purpose is measured by various factors.The major factors include semiconductor stability, photocatalytic efficiency, process, response of ...

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Putative S-Adenosyl Methionine Dependent Iron–Sulfur

28 Nov 2017

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Identification and Characterization of a Putative S-Adenosyl Methionine dependent Iron–Sulfur containing protein from Methanococcus Jannaschii Qi Liu Research Proposal Dr. MishtuDey Dr. M. Lei Geng Dr. Leonard R. MacGillivray Dr. Amnon Kohen Dr. Daniel Quinn Introduction Biological methane formation is a microbial process that is catalyzed by microbes called methanogens, which belong to the third kingdom of life, the Archaea. Methane is formed at ...

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Synthesis of IBT Scaffolds Experiment

28 Nov 2017

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Chapter III: Section A Present work PRESENT WORK Over the years, multi component reactions (MCRs) or three component coupling reactions have gained much attention in synthetic as well as medicinal chemistry to generate structural diversity for drug discovery programs.31 MCR is a process in which at least three simple building blocks are combined together in one pot to provide diversity oriented product with minimum ...

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Study of In-vivo Analgesic Activity in Animals

28 Nov 2017

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A) ANIMALS Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) and wistar rats (150-200 g) of either sex were used for study of in-vivo analgesic activity. Animals were kept under standard laboratory conditions i.e. temprature is 24 ± 2°C and relative humidity is 60-70%. The study protocol was approved by the institutional animal ethics committee (IAEC) before experiment (Approval No. 1452/PO/a/11/CPCSEA). Albino-Swiss mice were taken from Laboratory Animal House, ...

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Mixed-Ligands Complexes of L-Amino Acid and Ascorbic Acid

28 Nov 2017

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Electrochemical Studies of Mixed-Ligands Complexes of L-Amino acid and Ascorbic acid by Voltammetric Technique Meena* and O.D. Gupta   ABSTRACT Studies of Pb(II) with amino acid L-Serine and Ascorbic acid have been carried out polarographically at pH =7.30±0.01, µ=1.0M KNO3 at 25°C.Pb(II) formed 1:1:1, 1:1:2 and 1:2:1 complexes with L-Serine and used as primary ligands and L- Ascorbic acid used as secondary ligand.. The values of ...

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Determination of Alcohol Content Using Gas Chromatography

28 Nov 2017

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1.0 TITLE Determination of alcohol content in Tapai by using gas chromatography technique 2.0 INTRODUCTION Alcohol is an organic compound which contain hydroxyl functional group (-OH) that bonded to saturated carbon (C) atom. For centuries, alcohol has been used for many purposes for examples as fuels, to make drinks, as a solvent and as an industrial feedstock. Alcohol can give us many benefits if we use it in ...

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Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

28 Nov 2017

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Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Chemical kinetics Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry that deals with the rates or velocity, at which a chemical reaction occurs and also the factors affecting the rates. The word “kinetic” means the movement or change; here it refers to the velocity of a reaction, which is the change in the concentration of a reactant or a product with time. Kinetic ...

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Development of Hard Water Sensor using Fluorescence

28 Nov 2017

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Ph.D. Thesis: Dibyendu Dey Development of hard water sensor using fluorescence resonance energy transfer 7.1. Introduction “Hard water” has high mineral content in compare to “soft water”. Generally the hard water is not harmful to one’s health, but can cause serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness should be monitored to avoid breakdowns of the costly equipments that handle water. The hardness of ...

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Chemical composition of Ambrette Essential Oil

28 Nov 2017

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Chemical composition of the essential oil of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.) from subtropical region of north India Ram S. Verma*, Rajendra C. Padalia, Amit Chauhan ABSTRACT Abelmoschus moschatus (Family: Malvaceae), popularly known as ambrette or muskdana, is an important aromatic and medicinal plant of India. The plant is widely cultivated in tropical countries for their musk-scented seeds useful in perfumery and medicine. In this study, hydrodistilled ...

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Influence of Al3+ Addition on Activated Sludge

28 Nov 2017

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Influence of Al3+ addition on the flocculation and sedimentation of activated sludge: Comparison of single and multiple dosing patterns Mariam Touati Abstract In this research, single and multiple dosing of Al3+ were used to study the flocculation and sedimentation of activated sludge (AS). It was found that in the single Al3+ dosing condition; sludge flocculation is improved but sedimentation is declined. Adding the same ...

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Different Methods of Chromatography - Analysis

28 Nov 2017

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General Introduction Health is of prime importance to a human beings and wants to get cured in the least possible time whenever they falls ill. This desire and necessity has resulted in the use of a large number of synthetic organic compounds as medicines despite the fact that usually side effects are associated with the use of these drugs. In recent times, practice of ...

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Water Decontamination Methods - Advantages and Disadvantages

28 Nov 2017

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Outline Abstract In Malaysia, for the past many years, drinking water treatment was only limited to water disinfection by using chlorine; however it had been concluded that its use in potable water treatment can be harmful to human health.(Subedi, et al., 2012) Following the development in drinking water treatment, conventional methods in three different technologies are available to have more purified water. They are ...

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Bromination of (E)-Stilbene

28 Nov 2017

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Kaisha Butz   Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize the second intermediate (meso-stilbene dibromide) in the E-Stilbene reaction by Bromination. It was hypothesized that if the reaction was heated at 120°C for five minutes the reaction between E-stilbene and the pyridium bromide perbromide would occur, and meso-stilbene would be created. After the reaction occurred the results were analyzed by IR and ...

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Development of Alcohol Sensor for Pharmaceutical Products

28 Nov 2017

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1.0 Title Development of alcohol sensor for detection of alcohol content in pharmaceutical products 2.0 Introduction Over the years, alcohol is being used widely in various number of industries. Alcohol poisoning and inflammation may happen whenever the alcohol concentration exceeds the toxic level for the living creatures. Nowadays, alcohol abuse is one of the worldwide social problems and has become a public sanitation issue. Hence, the preventative pathways ...

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Production of PR-protein 1 in Mangroves Leaves | Experiment

28 Nov 2017

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1. Abstract One important trait of a plant is its ability to form natural barriers that keep harmful microorganisms away. For instance, mangrove leaves may produce a hormone called salicylic acid to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. Such a hormone may induce an antimicrobial substance known as Pathogenesis Related (PR) proteins. A lot of Pathogenesis related protein researches have been done with tobacco and tomatoes ...

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2D Colloidal Nanocrystal for Optoelectronic and Solar Cell

28 Nov 2017

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Novel 2D colloidal nanocrystal for optoelectronic and solar cell applications Recently, 2D material has attracted tremendous attention due to their fascinating physicochemical properties. Particularly, the discovery of graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice has ignited the research on this class of 2D materials due to extraordinary mechanical, electric and optical properties not observed in their bulk counterparts. Considering graphene ...

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Performance of Raspberry-Like Gold Nanoparticles (Au RLNPs)

28 Nov 2017

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Improvement of Stability and Catalytic Performance of Raspberry-Like Gold Nanoparticles by Silica Coating High Catalytic Performance of Raspberry-Like Gold Nanoparticles (Au RLNPs) and Enhancement of Stability by Silica Coating Kiouk Seo, Hien Mai Duy and Hyojong Yoo*   Abstract. The raspberry-like gold nanoparticles (Au RLNPs) synthesized through the reduction of HAuCl4 by the use of NaOH and Brij35 surfactant show high catalytic activities in ...

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Organopalladium Reagents and Intermediates

28 Nov 2017

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João T. V. Matos Table of contents Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. Organopalladium reagents and intermediates 2.1. The characteristic features for the use of palladium in organometallic chemistry 2.1.1. Oxidation States of Palladium 2.2. Preparation of organopalladium reagents and intermediates 2.2.1. π-Ally Palladium Complexes 2.2.2. Cyclic aryl palladium complexes 2.2.3. Palladium Olefin and Diene Complexes 2.2.4. Palladium-TV-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes 2.3. Methods for structural ...

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Superoxide Dismutase: Oxidative Stress

28 Nov 2017

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SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE: OXIDATIVE STRESS Sebastian, Jay Francine A. and Feliciano, Angel P. III   INTRODUCTION Superoxide Dismutase or SOD is an enzyme that has a metal-containing antioxidant. It reduces any harmful free radicals of Oxygen or O2 forming during a normal metabolic cell state that it will form oxygen or O2 and Hydrogen peroxide. Its name originated from dismutation which means simultaneous oxidation and reduction, with ...

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Analysis of of Quercetin in Camellia Sinensis Extracts

28 Nov 2017

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ABSTRACT A precise and feasible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the novel analysis of of Quercetin in aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Camellia sinensis extracts with internal standard has been developed. The analysis was carried out on a Phenomenax-C18 column (250 × 4.6mm, 5μm). reversed-phase column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid in water at 60:40 ratio as the mobile phase; ...

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Nanospheres of Ag–coated Fe3O4 Synthesis

28 Nov 2017

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Nanospheres of Ag–coated Fe3O4 were successfully synthesized and characterized. Photocatalytic properties of [email protected] composites have been investigated using steady state studies and laser pulse excitations. Accumulation of the electrons in the Ag shell was detected from the shift in the surface plasmon band from 430 to 405 nm, which was discharged when an electron acceptor such as O2, Thionine (TH), or C60 was introduced into the ...

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Porous Multishell Hollow Cu2O Microspheres Experiment

28 Nov 2017

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Preparation of Porous MultishellHollow Cu2O Microspheres and their catalytic activity in photodegradation of Rhodamine-B Lingling Sun, Deyan Han*, Ruirui Hao,Guohong Wang*   Abstract In this study, Porous Multishell Hollow Cu2O Microspheres were fabricated by One-Pot solvothermal method of copper(II) with glutamic acid under 160℃. The as-prepared monodisperse Cu2O hollow microspheres were characterized by Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), fourier transform ...

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Investigation of Single Chain Sugar-based Glycolipid

28 Nov 2017

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Review on Investigation of Single Chain Sugar-based Glycolipid Self-Assembly in Lyotropic Phase Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy M.Faisal Khyasudeen*   KEYWORDS (Word Style “BG_Keywords”). If you are submitting your paper to a journal that requires keywords, provide significant keywords to aid the reader in literature retrieval. ABSTRACT: Glycolipid in lyotropic phase has been widely study due to its nature similar to those in biological membrane. This ...

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Gravimetric Analysis of a Chloride Salt

28 Nov 2017

6 (2,373 )

Rania Williams Nour Wehbe   Purpose To discover the amount of chloride in a strange salt, in order to demonstrate regular methods used in gravimetric analysis Theory This equation describes the reaction between silver ion and chloride which results in the product silver chloride. Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) → AgCl (s) Silver nitrate is used to precipitate chloride because it gives ...

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Uses of Herbal Medicine: An Overview

28 Nov 2017

7 (2,664 )

1 Folk medicine According to WHO- ‘Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness.’ (Qi, 2014) Generally traditional medicines, alternative medicine, indigenous medicine, complementary medicine, or ...

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Fluoroquinolones for Infectious Diseases Treatment

28 Nov 2017

10 (3,617 )

1.10 Pharmaceuticals 1.10.2 Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones are extensively used for treatment of various infectious diseases. [[1]]. Because of their extensive Gram negative treatment, quinolone antibiotics were initially used for the treatment urinary tract related diseases. Higher drug concentrations promote their effectiveness in the treatment of urinary infections. lomefloxacin, levofloxacin ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gatifloxacin have higher renal clearance to analyze the activity of the kidney and urine ...

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Shellac for Film Formation and its Modification

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,936 )

Shellac for film formation and its modification for enhancement of properties Abstract With the growing environmental concerns associated with synthetic polymers, the need for biopolymers has strongly emerged which can have applications ranging from packaging to electrical applications. Shellac, which is a naturally occurring product resin obtained from insects (female lac bug), is one such component which can be used for production of biopolymeric film. However, ...

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The Design of Molecular Magnets

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,998 )

Ashlea Hughes 1. Polyoxometalates Polyoxometalates (POMs) are clusters consisting of linked metal oxide polyhedral. They are commonly anionic, although some cationic species have been reported.1 Due to this charge, counter ions are often associated with POMs. The metal ions which form the POMs often belong to group 5 or group 6 in the periodic table and possess a high oxidation state causing an electron ...

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Introduction to Buffer Solutions

28 Nov 2017

6 (2,237 )

  Name of Candidate mayurathan Introduction Buffer solution is a solution consisting a mixture of weak acid and its conjugate base . Furthermore they declare that buffer solutions are very essential to keep the pH value nearly constant in variety of chemical application. ( Crowe and Bradshaw 2010) Many life forms thrives only in ...

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Synthesis of a Potential Enzyme Inhibitor

28 Nov 2017

6 (2,271 )

Delaram Salehifard Aim Synthesis and characterisation of Benzocaine. Introduction The Fischer esterification of 4-amino benzoic acid is catalysed by an acid is fully reversible. Method: 3g of 4-aminobenzoic acid was weighed out and placed into a dry 100cm3 round bottom flask (ensuring no residues are left inside the joint). 20 cm3 of methylated spirits was measured out and added to the 4-aminobenzoic acid ...

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Inhibition Effectiveness of Au Compounds

28 Nov 2017

7 (2,766 )

Function of the “Guiding Bar” on Inhibition Effectiveness of Au Compounds on Thioredoxin Reductase 3 Qi Liu   Introduction Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TR) is an Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) dependent flavoprotein oxidoreductase, which is involved in reducing the disulfide of thioredoxin (Trx) using NADPH (Figure 1). Trx can reduce many important proteins, such as ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which produces deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis1, ...

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Modelling Programmes for Industrial Scale Drug Production

28 Nov 2017

6 (2,159 )

Different modelling programs of the production of a drug on an industrial scale Crystallisation: Crystallisation is usually used for the split-up, purification and the creation stage in the chemical industries. It is one of the oldest and most crucial unit operations. Crystallisation is a practical method of gaining a chemical substance that is concentrated. This concentrated chemical substance is in a form that is ...

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Riboflavin biosynthesis in Bacillus Subtilis

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,998 )

Motivation: Many important problems in cell biology require the dense nonlinear interactions between functional modules to be considered. The importance of computer simulation in understanding cellular processes is now widely accepted, and a variety of simulations algorithms useful for studying certain subsystems have been designed. 1 introduction Human and animal needs vitamins and minerals to help in the growth of the body and prevent disease, obtained ...

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A review of Bioactivation and Tissue Toxicity

28 Nov 2017

5 (1,869 )

  Kong Wei En (BP0711031415) Raymond Koh Chee How (BP0711031287) Jennie Lee Sheah Lin (BP0711031372) Prashanthini A/P Janardanan (BP0711031156) Hong Wei Siong (BP0711031194) Shalini A/P Shanmugavelu (BP0711031145) Introduction Xenobiotics are foreign chemicals in the body [1]. The human body has adapted processes collectively termed ...

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Effect of Voltage on the Rate of Electroplating a Metal

28 Nov 2017

5 (1,727 )

Akinlabi Boluwarinde Oluwatosin BACKGROUND Electroplating is the process of plating one metal onto another by hydrolysis, most commonly for decorative purposes or to prevent corrosion of a metal. There are also specific types of electroplating such as copper plating, silver plating, and chromium plating. Electroplating allows manufacturers to use inexpensive metals such as steel or zinc for the majority of the product and then ...

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Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) Hormone Levels in Males

28 Nov 2017

7 (2,410 )

Introduction Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of phthalate ester and endocrine- disrupting chemical. It is used as plasticizer in Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics tubing to make PVC plastic tubing more soft and flexible. Animal data show that target organs of exposure to DEHP are the liver, kidneys, lungs, and reproductive system. DEHP may cause adverse effects of animal’s reproductive system such as reduced fertility, decreased ...

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Identification of Plant Material: Corallocarpus Epigaeus L

28 Nov 2017

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6. MATERIALS AND METHODS 6.1 Collection The plant material was collected from the Tirupati, Andhra pradesh, India in the month of February 2014. The plant taxonomical authenticated by Prof; Dr. K. Madhava chetty, Department of Botany, SV University, Tirupati. The voucher specimen of Corallocarpus epigaeus L has been preserved in our laboratory for further collection and reference. Chemicals Various reagents like Mayer’s reagent, Wagner’s reagent, Hager’s ...

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Estimation of Tranexamic Acid Andethamsylate Using RP-HPLC

28 Nov 2017

12 (4,640 )

Chapter-3 Experimental work 3. EXPERIMENTAL WORK 3.1 MATERIALS AND METHODS Table 2. List of Chemical and standers used S.No Chemicals Manufacturer Name Grade 1 Water Processed in Bright Labs HPLC grade 2 Acetonitrile Fisher scientific HPLC ...

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Synthesis and Optical Characteristics of AgO Thin Films

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,995 )

Synthesis and Optical Characteristics of AgO thin films Fabricated by Chemical Bath Deposition Method 1EZENWA I. A., 2OBIAGAUZO P. O. 3EBEH L. N. ABSTRACT Binary thin films of silver oxide using chemical Bath method (CBD) have been grown and characterized. Absorbance spectral data of the films were obtained using a Shimadzu 1800 UV- VIS spectrophotometer. An Olympus optical microscope at 100X magnification was used to ...

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Identification of Prednisolone Acetate

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,887 )

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUG The procured prednisolone acetate was identified and characterized based on the following parameters. ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES For the selected samples (drug + excipients) the following organoleptic properties were studied using descriptive terminology. Those were nature, odour and colour PARTITIONING BEHAVIOR OF PA IN DISTINCT LIPIDS: The percent partition coefficient of Prednisolone acetate in selected lipids was analyzed as ...

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Development of Dental Adhesive

28 Nov 2017

3 (1,099 )

Dr. Muhammad Zakir, PhD Student Faculty of Dentistry Introduction Dental adhesive are considered as an important products in dentistry not only to provide a good adhesion between dental materials and the tooth structure but also for a good bonding between dental prosthesis and resin cements. The presence of a good dental adhesive between the two dissimilar surface not only increases the longevity of the ...

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PKR-eIF2α Signaling Mediated Spatial Memory Impairment

28 Nov 2017

8 (3,124 )

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Activated PKR-eIF2α signaling mediated spatial memory impairment, tau phosphorylation, Aβ pathology, oxidative stress, selectively synaptic protein loss in mice caused by low levels of Cu Mouse behavior analysis. Morris water maze test: MWM was performed as previously described (PMID:23402899) with minor modifications and the test was performed double blinded according to the standard operation protocol. The MWM consisted of a circular pool (120 cm ...

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The Chemistry of Swimming Pools

23 Mar 2015 11 Oct 2017

7 (2,604 )

Keywords: swimming pool buffer chemistry Pool chemistry is the application of chemistry to maintain safe and clean water (Hann, 1997). This is achieved by regulating numerous factors which include: the pH, the quantity of disinfectant and the buffers used to resist pH changes. The normal pH range of a swimming pool needs to be between 7.2 and 8.0, although a range between 7.2 and 7.8 is more ...

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Techniques for Evaluation of Evidences in Forensic Casework

03 Oct 2016 26 Sep 2017

10 (3,701 )

Modern Techniques Used For the Evaluation of Evidences Collected In Forensic Casework: A Review Abstract In the modern era, many technological developments have been made in the field of science as well as forensic science which stand powerful and strong to overcome the issues involved in forensic casework. In this review, three emerging techniques have been discussed that proved helpful for the forensic analysis. One of ...

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Heavy Metal Analysis on Babylonia Areolata

03 Oct 2016 26 Sep 2017

9 (3,462 )

Heavy Metal Analysis on Babylonia areolata CONTENTS PAGES 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of study 1.2 Problem statements 1.3 Objectives of study 1.4 Hypothesis 1.5 Scope of study 1.6 Significant of study 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Study area 3.2 Research instrument 3.3 Sampling and sampling material 3.4 Research procedure EXPECTED RESULTS 5.0 GANTT CHART 6.0 REFERENCES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF ...

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Lipase Catalysed Synthesis of Bio-based Reactive Polyester

03 Oct 2016 26 Sep 2017

7 (2,649 )

TITLE OF THE RESEARCH PAPER: Green polymer chemistry: lipase catalysed synthesis of bio-based reactive polyester employing itaconic anhydride as renewable monomer. JOURNAL: Polymer Journal (2014) 46, 2–13 INTRODUCTION SUMMARY This paper is about the lipase catalysed synthesis of reactive polyester. In this synthesis lipase used as natural catalyst. The synthesis of reactive polyester was done by ring opening addition condensation polymerization (ROACP) ...

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Oxidation States of Tin. Preparation of Tin (IV) Iodide

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

10 (3,632 )

The Oxidation States of Tin. Preparation of Tin (IV) iodide and Tin (II) iodide.  Introduction: Alfred Werner, a Swedish chemist, determined the octahedral coordination of Werner complexes and gave rise to the field of coordination chemistry. The complexes contained a central transition metal bonded surrounded by a number of negatively or positively charged molecules. The coordination of the structures where unknown until Werner discovered the ...

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Graphene Oxide (GO) as Antimicrobial Property

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

9 (3,583 )

Over the past several years scientists have studied graphene materials (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) for its antimicrobial properties and its future application in the biomedical field. To date, the exact mechanism for why graphene and its derivatives have antibacterial properties has not been fully understood due to experimental design variables. Scientists have agreed that oxidative stress, phospholipid extraction, and nanoknives all play ...

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Novel Dihydroquinoline Derivatives Facile Synthesis

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

8 (2,858 )

Facile synthesis of novel dihydroquinoline-3,3-dicarbonitriles in the presence of glacial aceticacid as catalyst under solvent-free conditions Masoud Nasr-Esfahani* and Elham Kanaani Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran Abstract A series of novel dihydroquinoline derivatives were synthesized using malononitrile, 2-aminobenzoic acid and benzaldehydes in the presence of a catalytic amount of acetic acid, without the use of any additional co-catalyst, under solvent-free conditions. The reaction ...

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Microwave-assisted Extraction Technique for Oil Extraction

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

6 (2,360 )

Result and discussion Optimization by central composite design An experimental procedure based on the CCD was adopted for three independent variables (extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content), which resulted in 20 experimental runs. Table 1 shows the responses obtained in the CCD experiments and the overall design. The results indicated considerable variations in the extraction efficiency of essential oil and TQ amount. These variations ...

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Liquid Liquid Equilibrium of Pold (Ethylene Glycol)

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

18 (6,888 )

Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Poly (ethylene glycol) 1500 + di-Potassium Tartrate +Water at different pH (6.41, 7.74 and 9.05) Alireza Barani Chemical Engineering Department,Faculty of Engineering, Shomal University, Amol, PO Box 731, Iran Mohsen Pirdashti[1] Chemical Engineering Department,Faculty of Engineering, Shomal University, Amol, PO Box 731, Iran Abbas Ali Rostami Chemical Engineering Department,Faculty of Engineering, Shomal University, Amol, PO Box 731, Iran Abstract: Liquid - liquid ...

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Reaction Rate of Hydrochloric Concentration

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

8 (2,990 )

Hydrochloric Intensity The purpose of the experiment was to gather an understanding for the chemical reactions, depending on the concentration. The rate of reaction is the speed of the chemical reaction. This experiment was to justify if the concentration is high or low will it affect the chemical reaction. 'Hydrochloric acid constitutes the majority of gastric acid, the human digestive fluid. In a complex process ...

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Multifunctional Porous Organics Synthesis

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

19 (7,219 )

TITLE OF WORK The synthesis and characterisation of functionalized porous organics Abstract Lophine based radicals have been studied for many years due to their photochromic nature, recent literature has seen attempts to connect two radicals to carbon based backbones. In this report we will discuss attaching six lophine molecules to a single backbone which is ...

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Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Bilharziasis

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

9 (3,413 )

Abstract Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) gained a great attention in biomedical researches and become more applicable in nanomedicine in recent years because they have distinctive physicochemical properties. The current study was planned to assess the effect of the AuNPs with three doses levels on genes expressions, histology and oxidative stress status of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice liver. Inoculation of mice with 100 μl AuNPs at different ...

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Reactions of Copper and Percent Yield

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

6 (2,167 )

Purpose-The purpose of this experiment is to examine the chemistry of copper and with the concept of percent yield. /2 Procedure- CHEM16882, Applied Chemistry1 Laboratory Manual Experiment no.6 posted on slate/Sheridan college, Brampton (accessed on 20.feb.2017) (1). /2 Observations Create your own data table for quantitative data. The table must include all the measurements you recorded in the laboratory; it must have a table ...

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Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle (MNS) Properties

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

16 (6,220 )

  INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Study Large amount of solid remnant from agriculture industries waste can create disposal problem to environment such as generation of odour and can attract pests that can endangered human health. Due to this problem the application of this waste is widely explored to control the disposal problem. According to Norsuraya, Fazlena and Norshasyimi (2016), primary fuel source and additive in construction ...

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Carbon Mesoporous Material Hybrid Catalyst

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

12 (4,640 )

Facile and clean transformation for synthesizing secondary arylamines through one-pot reductive amination of aniline, using aldehyde catalyzed by the supported nickel and poly(vinyl sulfonic acid) on mesoporous carbon CMK-3 (Ni/PVSA/CMK-3) as a novel acid-metal bi-functional heterogeneous catalyst. Sodium borohydride was used as the source of hydrogen for the reduction of imine. The reaction was performed at room temperature, in a short reaction time, without any ...

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Effect of Buffers on pH Levels

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

5 (1,786 )

 Abstract A buffer is a solution that helps keep the pH of other solutions at a steady level with the addition of limited acids or bases. The purpose if this experiment was to figure out how to create an optimal buffer and to determine how effective buffers are at stabilizing the pH of different solutions. An optimal buffer was made after calculating the [H+] levels ...

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Polycystic Kidney Disease Causes and Treatment

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

10 (3,658 )

 Introduction: Polycystic kidney disease effects roughly 10 million people worldwide. Even though this disease is so prominent it lacks research in the field of therapeutics from biopharmaceutical companies as they invest their resources into fields which are seen to be more profitable i.e. cancer research. This lack of research is what enticed us to carry out our project on polycystic kidney disease. This project will ...

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Bio-based Polymers and Their Future Trends: Article Review

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

5 (1,671 )

The selected article, 'Current progress on bio-based polymers and their future trends'[1], provides insight into the present tendencies, technological advancements, and the prospective utilisation of bio-based polymers obtained with renewable means. A wide domain of bio-based polymers are analysed in this article specifically focusing on its production, its characteristics and its potential in commercialisation. The review also measures the subsequent challenges whilst introducing these polymers ...

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Limiting Reactant Effect on Lab

16 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

6 (2,234 )

The Limiting Reactant Lab ABSTRACT The purpose of is lab is to see how the limiting reactant effects the whole lab. To determine what the other limiting reactant was and how much of reactant was there. INTRODUCTION A[CS4] limiting reactant limits the reaction and controls the amount of product formed when balancing an equation and making calculations. When calculating a limiting reactant, two reactant masses ...

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Application of Carbon Nanotubes

02 Aug 2017 18 Aug 2017

5 (1,964 )

I will be examining and discussing carbon nanotubes and the application within industry, I will look at the History and manufacture of carbon nanotubes. I will Examine and discuss their chemical and physical properties and how these properties make them useful in a wide range of applications.   The history of carbon nanotubes is not entirely clear even for those in the science therefore giving ...

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