Microphase Separation of Miktoarm Star Copolymers

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,976 )

Abstract: Miktoarm star shaped copolymers have attracted much attention due to their unique shape and intriguing properties compared to the linear block copolymers, including compact structure, higher critical micelle concentration, lower viscosity, efficient synthetic routes and wide range of morphologies. The different synthetic routes such as anionic polymerization and controlled radical polymerization have made it possible to synthesis diverse molecular architecture of copolymer and these diverse ...

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Determination of the pKas for Glycine

24 Jan 2018

8 (3,137 )

Name: Aleksandra Redlinska Lab Partner: Adrianna Czerlonko Lab Instructor: Jenq-Kuen Huang Lab TA: Chandra K.Ailneni Objectives: The purpose of this experiment is to titrate glycine and determine its pKa values. This is done to show that glycine is a dipolar ion. This experiment will help explain how pKa values and pH are closely related and will help show the importance of pH in amino acids. Background: ...

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Synthesis of Substituted Quinazolinones

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,249 )

6. DISCUSSION Heterocyclic compounds, widely distributed in nature are very essential to life. They play a vital role in the metabolism of all living cells. With their high degree of structural diversities and broad spectrum activities, they have proven to be one of the most economically useful chemotherapeutic agents. Synthesis of novel heterocyclic compounds with more potent activities, better efficacy and lower toxicity is the need ...

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Mechanism and Optimization of Melphalan

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,522 )

Melphalan Introduction Cancer in general is referred to body cells that grows rapidly and over the limit of normal cells (Hayflick limit). There’s over 200 different types of cancer, where some cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body leading to further complications. It’s one of the biggest leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore interest in finding treatment and prevention for this disease has ...

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Density and Salinity of Seawater – Comparison of Methods

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,257 )

Sergian Murtanu, Lab partner: Sammy Chaaban Abstract: The goal of this experiment was to compare the salinity of seawater from different methods. The average salinity in seawater is around 35 parts per thousand. 3 The BOD bottles were used to find the density of seawater, the equation to state was then applied, using density to determine the salinity. The salinity of seawater from the ...

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Quantum Mechanics in Commerce

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,523 )

Alec Bolme Tobi Odeleye In today’s world, there are general rules that everything seems to follow. This can include simple things like how putting force on an object or pushing it will result in the object moving in the direction of the force. Also things such as how gravity will affect an object make it fall. If someone were to let go of an ...

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Chemical Analysis of Water Supply

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,564 )

Introductions This EEI’s purposed is to identify and make justified conclusions to three unlabelled water supply that have been taken from different locations within the Kedron Brook area. Using several tests to find which water supply came from, measuring its pH, turbidity, conductivity and etc. There are other task such as systematic analysis (comparing and contrasting previous year student’s results) and how to make water drinkable. ...

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Quantification of Bioactive Compounds in Mentat Tablet (MT)

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,950 )

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of twenty-eight major bioactive compounds in Mentat tablet (MT), a complex Indian herbal medicine used in the treatment of neurological disorder and improvement of mental health. Multiple-reaction monitoring scanning was employed for quantification in positive and negative mode. The analysis was accomplished on Waters AQUITY UPLC BEH C18 ...

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Organotin (IV) Compounds: Chemistry, Properties and Uses

22 Jan 2018

10 (3,638 )

Introduction 1.1 Tin Element It is undeniably that many research and studies had been done in the field of organotin chemistry for the past half century. Sn which is symbol bared by tin which is called as stannum in Latin. It is placed on group 14 and period 5 in the periodic table with atomic number of 50. It has an electronic configuration of [Kr] 4d10 ...

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Screening of Non Target Compounds in Wastewater Samples

22 Jan 2018

4 (1,600 )

Report Since October 2012, I have worked in a special project about Elimination of pharmaceuticals and organic compounds: Development of concepts and novel, cheap cleaning procedures – Formation of metabolites by ozonoation. It was a kind of training for me and a special key for my PhD work. We are interested in screening of non target compounds in wastewater samples. Wastewater samples are collected from different ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Chromium Complexes

22 Jan 2018

6 (2,042 )

Chromium is one of the transition metal in periodic table that is known for its ability in improving one’s health condition by preventing diseases and gives treatment. However in human body, only very small amounts of chromium are required and they are often regarded as the essential trace element in human body. Back in 1950s, the uses of chromium as nutritional and medical enhancement to glucose ...

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Dipole Moment of 5- Fluorouracil Molecule

22 Jan 2018

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Computational Term Paper: Theoretical studies on 5- fluorouracil to calculate its dipole moment, and how the values compare with other pyrimidine analog (namely uracil and thymine) and that of literature. Name: Farzana Nushin Rezvi   Abstract: In this experiment, the dipole moment of 5- Fluorouracil molecule was determined using the Gaussian software, and compared with literature values. The dipole moments of other pyrimidine analogs, namely Thymine ...

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Quantitative Determination of Sulphate

22 Jan 2018

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Quantitative Determination of Sulphate by Gravimetric Analysis Yeo Yi Joshua Gravimetric analysis is a quantitative method to determine the amount of a substance, sulphate, by selective precipitation of the substance from an aqueous solution. In this experiment, the amount of sulphate is determined quantitatively as barium sulphate, BaSO4 by gravimetric analysis. This experiment will allow one to determine the amount of sulphate SO42- ...

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Determination of Substance through Density

22 Jan 2018

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DExperiment #1 DENSITY OF SUBSTANCES Prepared by Paul Okweye and Malinda Gilmore   Purpose of the Experiment To learn about the properties of matter such as density that are used as a method of physical identification. In this experiment the objectives are: To teach the correct use of a balance and graduated cylinders, To determine the densities of solids, pure liquids and solutions, To determine ...

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Effect of Temperature and Cu2+ on Abscorbic Acid Stability

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,840 )

Effects of Temperature, pH and Cu2+ on Abscorbic Acid Stability NAME: Sophia Chai Lai Jin   Objectives: To perform a selected redox titrimetric procedure. To measure the stability of ascorbic acid under various conditions. Introduction L-ascorbic acid as known as Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for humans. L-ascorbic acid is one of the most potent compounds acting as an antioxidant in biological systems ...

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Cytotoxic Activities and Synthesis of Plumbagin

22 Jan 2018

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3.1 Introduction Plants produce a large number of diverse natural products or secondary metabolites which are involved in the normal cell growth, development or reproduction of organisms. Some of these compounds offer protection against herbivores and microbial pathogens, while others are involved in defense against abiotic stress, such as UV-B exposure Many of the secondary metabolites have interesting biological properties, which make them desirable candidates for optimization ...

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Role of Organic Geochemistry in Petroleum

22 Jan 2018

8 (2,906 )

A review on role of organic geochemistry in petroleum; characterization and applications of different basins Harish Chandra Joshi   Abstract Petroleum is a mixture dominantly of hydrocarbons with varying proportions of non-hydrocarbon constituents and traces of organometallic compounds. Generally Petroleum has an average composition of 85% carbon, 13% hydrogen, and 2% of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. The aim of study is to find out the physicochemical and ...

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Identifying Macromolecules by Means of Colour Change

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,646 )

By Marike Coetzee B Dietetics II 1. Introduction 1.1 Aim The purpose of this lab was to observe the colour changes (due to chemical reactions) indicators had on different macromolecules in food;1 such as starch, proteins and lipids; and then to identify the macromolecules found in an Unknown solution. These known solutions contained different types of macromolecules which each reacted with at least one indicator solution ...

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Ammonium Perchlorate Decomposition in Nano-titania

22 Jan 2018

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Thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate in the presence of commercial nano-titania Mostafa Mahinroosta*   Abstract Addition of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (especially transition metal oxides) to ammonium perchlorate improves its thermal decomposition via decreasing the high temperature of decomposition. Two mechanisms including electron-transfer and proton-transfer have been proposed for thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. In this research field, nanometer transition metal oxides have attracted a ...

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Synthesis of Aquasomes With Different Compositions

22 Jan 2018

6 (2,286 )

Executive Summary of Research Proposal (maximum 300 words) (Please include the problem statement, objectives, research methodology, expected output/outcomes/implication, and significance of output from the research project) The last three decades have witnessed remarkable and breathtaking advances in the field of biotechnology, biochemistry, molecular biology and peptide synthesis. These developments have facilitated the pharmaceutical industry to make remarkable progress in the development of peptide and proteins as ...

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Assessment of Naproxen and Paracetamol in Mixed Tablet

22 Jan 2018

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METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ASSESSMENT OF NAPROXEN AND PARACETAMOL IN MIXED TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-UPLC K.KANAKAPARVATHI*, Vijay Nagarjan, Santha Arcot and CH Hemanth Kumar.   ABSTRACT An advancement design and corroboration for simultaneous assessment of Naproxen (NAP) and Paracetamol (PAR) in merged tablet dosage form by UPLC. The column used in determination was C18 thermo fisher (50cm x 4.6 mm x 3µm), mobile ...

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Synthesis and Properties of Liquid Crystals for VAN

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,910 )

Synthesis and properties of liquid crystals for vertically aligned nematic (VAN) displays Introduction Liquid crystals where first observed in 1853 and 1855 by Rudolph Virchow and C. Mettenheimer respectively, both observed a flowing fluid like compound which was birefringent (brightly coloured) between cross-polarisers much like a crystalline solid, hence the compound was both liquid and crystal thus liquid crystal. [3, 4]. It was not until the ...

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Copper: Structure, Functions and Chemistry

22 Jan 2018

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COPPER (I) Copper has played a significant role in the history of human civilization, he was the first metal produced on a larger scale and used for practical purposes. Copper has been used by humans since ancient times, in the oldest antiquity and almost certainly soon after gold and argint. Archeologists discovered objects of this metal dating from 8700 BC, the occurrence of copper, much ...

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Biflavone and a Plant Sterol Isolated from Antidesma bunius

22 Jan 2018

4 (1,228 )

A Biflavone and a Plant Sterol Isolated from Antidesma bunius (Linn.) Spreng. Ivan L. Lawagai,* Suad Naheedb, Mohammed Mosihuzzamanc, Allan, Patrick G. Macabeoadeg, Erickson Paragasefk, Peter Prokschh, Alicia M. Aguinaldoaeg   Keywords: Antidesma, Antidesma bunius, Amentoflavone, Betasitosterol, biflavone, sterols 1. Subject and source Antidesma bunius (Linn.) Spreng. (Euphrbiaceae) ‘‘bignay” is a common plant found throughout the Philippines. The bark is poisonous as it contains an alkaloid ...

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Free Surface Energy of Polymers

22 Jan 2018

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Free surface energy of polymers. Poly(itaconate)s and poly(methacrylate)s Ligia Gargallo1, Claudia Aguirre2, Angel Leiva2, Deodato Radic Abstract: The free surface energy (SE) for a series of mono and diesters derived from poly(itaconic) acid, was determined by wettability measurements and estimated by theoretical calculations from Sugden’s Parachor. For these polymers it was observed a decreaseing in the free surface energy as the size of the chain of ...

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Enhancing Paracetamol with Silver Metal Ions

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,708 )

1- Introduction The paracetamol (Fig. 1) is one of the famous analgesic drugs which is commonly named as N-acetyl-4-amino-phenol. Paracetamol has an antipyretic medication with little toxicological side effect [1-7]. The fluorometry [8], luminescence [9], electrochemical [10], nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy [11] and liquid chromatography [12] are different analyses techniques used to determination of paracetamol drug in pure and pharmaceutical fashions. Paracetamol has a side ...

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Sulfur Dioxide and Oxides of Nitrogen

22 Jan 2018

6 (2,395 )

Alan Chan Since the Industrial revolution, there were great increases in emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates, deteriorating air qualities more dominantly in industrial cities but also suburban areas and environments close by. Two of the very evident and dominant gases which cause much damage to our Earth include both sulfur dioxides and oxides of nitrogen which when reacted with water turn acidic through ...

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Vapour Pressure as a Function of Temperature of Ether

22 Jan 2018

14 (5,586 )

Xin Wang Title To measure the enthalpy of vaporization and the boiling point of diethyl ether by cooling the ether down and continuously recording a series of different temperature readings and their corresponding vapour pressure values. Abstract Vapour pressure p of ether under a series of different temperatures T were measured and three repeats were done. The three graphs of ln(p) against 1/T were ...

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Acid Leaching for Metallic Impurities

22 Jan 2018

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Acid Leaching for Metallic Impurities Evaluation of Some Mineral Ores in Nigeria *R.L. Tyohemba1& S. K. Emgba2   Abstract There is every need to access the impurity ratio of mineral ores in order to furnish investors and industrialists with information required to weigh the gains of venturing into their exploration. Metallic ores including; Zinc ore (Sphalerite), Iron ore (Magnetite), Iron ore (Heamatite), Copper ore (chalcocite), Lead ...

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Quantitation by Extraction

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,672 )

Syed Masood Hassan Akbari INTRODUCTION A liquid-liquid extraction phase consists of a component (a) which is to be removed from the feed phase. The addition of a second phase (b) a solvent phase which is immiscible with the feed phase but the component (a) is soluble in both the feed phase and the solvent phase. As it happens the solute (a) is transferred from ...

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Selective Oestrogen Receptor Molecules (SERM)

22 Jan 2018

10 (3,603 )

Lucy Perry Perry Pharma Development Pipeline Introduction: Perry Pharma Research & Development (PP-R&D) has been investigating Selective Oestrogen Receptor Molecules (SERM) for potential development that will be effective in both breast and uterine cancer as part of its drug pipeline. Early clinical testing of PKWT and PKWX, for which PP holds Australian patents (66633 –PKWT and 44455 – PKWX) for, indicates significant improvement in ...

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Synthesis and Characterization of a New Aromatic Diamine

18 Jan 2018

8 (3,005 )

The synthesis and characterization of a new aromatic diamine, 2,5-bis-(aminopyridine-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (BAPO), containing pyridine and 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties has been reported. An organophilic clay has been obtained via cation exchange reaction between the hydrochloride salt of BAPO and sodium montmorillonite (Na+-Mt‎). Basal space and thermal stability of this new modified organoclay were studied by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. High thermal stability of ...

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Identification of Unknown Macromolecule

18 Jan 2018

8 (2,884 )

Heike Behr Aim The purpose of this lab was to use the scientific method to identify an unknown solution, based on the reactions (i.e. color changes) of known solutions with indicator solutions. These known solutions contained different types of macromolecules. Each type of macromolecule reacted with at least one indicator solution in a unique way, which allowed us to identify the macromolecule based ...

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3t-Alkyl-2r,6c-diarylpiperidin-4-ones: Synthesis

18 Jan 2018

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3t-Alkyl-2r,6c-diarylpiperidin-4-ones Synthesis A very convenient and non-laborious one-pot synthesis method developed by Noller and Baliah [50] has been used successfully for the synthesis of 3t-alkyl-2r, 6c-diarylpiperidin-4-ones 32 by the condensation of methyl ketones, aromatic aldehydes and ammonium acetate in 1:2:1 molar ratio (Scheme 13). It’s a non-laborious one-pot synthesis of 3t-alkyl-2r, 6c-diarylpiperidin-4-ones 32. Various substituted piperidin-4-ones were also synthesized by adapting the above method [53-,57]. Often ...

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Rare Earth Doped Upconverting Nanoparticles

18 Jan 2018

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Rare Earth Doped Upconverting Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Application in Bio-Imaging Nidhi Malviya1, Vinita Rajput Chouhan1, Sudeshna Ray2   ABSTRACT Upconversion luminescence, a nonlinear process, which re-emits a photon at a shorter wavelength by the absorption of more than one photon, successively at longer wavelengths via long-lived intermediate energy states, is useful for important applications in various fields like fluorescence bio-imaging and lasers. This NIR-to-NIR up-conversion process ...

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Determination of the End Point of the Acid Base Titration

18 Jan 2018

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Marwan Mohsen Mohamed Table of Contents (Jump to) Introduction Acids and Bases Properties of acid Strengths of Acids and Bases How to detect acid and Bases? pKa and Dissociation Equilibrium Equipment Procedure Results and conclusion Bibliography Introduction Acids and Bases Every liquid we see will probably have either basic or acidic properties. Water can be a base and ...

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Structure, Physical Properties and Uses of Metals

18 Jan 2018

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Jason Thien FS Introduction Metals account for about two thirds of all the elements and about 24% of the mass of the planet. Metals have useful properties including strength, ductility, high melting points, thermal and electrical conductivity, and toughness. From the periodic table, it can be seen that a large number of the elements are classified as being a metal. Iron (Fe) ...

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Effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

18 Jan 2018

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Lynnette Chan Do Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Negatively Affect Memory? Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most common antidepressants prescribed to treat moderate to severe depression. SSRIs increase serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels in the brain by blocking serotonin reuptake. Compared to other antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), SSRIs are more selective and have fewer side effects. In addition to affecting emotional moods, SSRIs ...

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Structure of Water and Its Dynamic Hydrogen Bond Network

18 Jan 2018

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Introduction Water is essential to life as it is main constituent of cell in living organism. All biological macromolecules are almost inactive in its structural stability and functioning in absence of water. Water-Role in Life Water is key compound for our existence on this planet due to its ubiquitous presence on the earth and in living organisms. It is involved in all ...

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Factors Effecting Voltage of Electrochemical Cells

18 Jan 2018

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Electrochemical Cells Simon Luu Electrochemistry is the science that studies this union of chemistry and electricity. Batteries and fuel cells utilize spontaneous redox processes to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Introduction Oxidation reactions (or redox reactions) are an important part of chemical reactions. ...

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Hazard Identification in a Combined Cycle Power Plant

18 Jan 2018

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Fire and Explosion Hazard Identification in a Combined Cycle Power Plant ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Fire and Explosion are the most prevalent accidents at chemical and process industries which can cause serious damage to properties and loss of productions. Fire and explosion hazards are considered as the first and second major hazards in chemical industries [1]. Besides that, release of toxic materials are prevalent accidents in process industries ...

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Use of Reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC)

18 Jan 2018

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Introduction Reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) is one of the commonly used techniques in separation of a wide ranging of analyte based on differences in their structures. In RP-HPLC, the polar mobile phase and nonpolar stationary phase was practised. In this mode of HPLC, the analyte retains into stationary phase by hydrophobic interaction (Hanai, 1999; Swadesh, 2001). The surface area of nonpolar part of analyte molecules is more ...

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Detection of Vanadium Using Immobilizing 4-(2-pyridylazo)

18 Jan 2018

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"Naked eye detection of vanadium using immobilizing 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol on functionalized HMS" Mohamad taghi Samadi1, Abas Afkhami2, Kadijeh Shamsi 1, *and Abdolmotaleb Said mohamadi1   abstract In this work, inexpensive optical sensor for the naked eye detection of vanadium by immobilizing 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol on the functionalized hexagonal mesoporous silica via N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride in aqueous mediae has been used. The effects of several factors such as pH, reaction time, ...

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Determination of Uranium Concentration in Uranium Ore

18 Jan 2018

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Investigation of effective Parameters on determination of uranium concentration in uranium ore by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy A. AliValiOllahi*, Gh. Alahyarizadeh, S. A. Ahmadi, A. Minuchehr, A. Zolfaghari   Abstract Uranium concentration in four different sample solutions (A, B, C and D) of uranium ore was determined by X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The effect of several different parameters on the ...

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Experiment on Size, Shape and Structures of Aggregates

18 Jan 2018

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Introduction Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have made considerable attention because of their unique features for conversion of free, unlimited solar energy into electricity by utilizing environmental friendly, inexpensive raw materials for low production cost1,2. DSSC composed of nanostructured, mesoporous semiconductors with wide-bandgap materials, to which the dye molecules (sensitizers) are adsorbed, a counter electrode and an electrolyte. In DSSC the dye molecule absorb visible light, ...

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Experiments in Quantum Mechanics

18 Jan 2018

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The theory of quantum mechanics developed when the classical theories of mechanics and electromagnetism were unable to provide explanation to the characteristics of atomic structure and electromagnetic radiation (Rae, 2008). The appearance of quantum mechanics resulted in the emergence of a principle that has the ability to describe the nuclei, proton and neutron (Rae, 2008). Quantum theory has two sides, the first is the mathematical side and ...

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Methods for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry

18 Jan 2018

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Ola Agoro Table of Contents (Jump to) INTRODUCTION WAYS OF MAINTAINING SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 1. RENEWABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY 2. CATALYSIS 3. EFFICIENT WASTE MANAGEMENT AND RECYCLE 4. SAFER SOLVENT CONCLUSION REFERENCE INTRODUCTION Also known as green chemistry, sustainability in the chemical industry is the practise or a viewpoint of chemical researches that is ...

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Use of Atomic Spectrometry in Pharmaceutical Analysis

18 Jan 2018

5 (1,763 )

Jie Pan Introduction Pharmaceutical analysis is a critical issue for human beings, not only to verify the effectiveness of drugs, but also for the safety issues. The toxicity of various elements has been well studied and documented for many years. There are many ways to prove effective elements or compounds in drugs. For more than 100 years, the main focus on standard for testing ...

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ATR-FTIR Analysis for Oil Type Identification

18 Jan 2018

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Abstract Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis could greatly help in the identification of oil. By mere inspection of the IR spectra, saturated oils can be easily distinguished from coconut oils. Identification of oils can be enhance by the use of chemometrical techniques such Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Using this technique, subtle differences in the spectra can be used to classify vegetable oils. This ...

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Formation Processes of Silicon Carbide

18 Jan 2018

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Effect of silicon carbide dispersion on the microwave absorbing properties of silicon carbide-epoxy composites in 2–40 GHz Yaw-Shun Hong, Tzu-Hao Ting, Chih-Chia Chiang, Ken-Fa Cheng   Abstract Wide-band, strong absorption with low density and thin matching thickness are essential for electromagnetic wave absorbers. In this study, silicon carbide powders were successfully synthesized by the method of preheating combustion synthesis in nitrogen atmosphere and introduced ...

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Liquid Phase Surface Nitriding of Al-5052

18 Jan 2018

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Abstract: Liquid phase surface nitriding of Al-5052 was performed using the heat of a TIG (tungsten inert gas) torch in a gas shielding which was a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The feasibility of obtaining nitride compounds at various TIG processing parameters and nitrogen contents in the shielding gas were studied. The presence of AlN phase being formed during surface nitriding was proved by X-ray diffraction ...

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Synthesis of CNTs From Hydrocarbons Resources by CCVD

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,152 )

1. Introduction Carbon nanotube is one of the most promising candidates of nanomaterials which own wonderful mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. With one hundred times the steel’s tensile strength, thermal conductivity better than all materials except the purest diamond, and electrical conductivity contact to the copper with ballistic transport of electrons present the ability to carry much higher currents without heat generation. Carbon nanotube can be ...

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Expression of Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (rGFP)

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,750 )

Expression and Purification of recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (rGFP) from E. coli using Ni2+-Agarose Column Chromatography. Andrea Bustamante Janakikeerthika Darmarpandi   Abstract Green Fluorescent Proteins are vital components of bioluminescence in marine animals. There unique ability to withstand and recover from harsh conditions and regain fluorescence was of great interest. The purpose of the following set of experiments was to express and purify a ...

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Factors Affecting Reaction Rates: Experiment

18 Jan 2018

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Maria Angela R. Dulin and Felix P. Terencio Jr. ABSTRACT An area in chemistry that focuses on the speed or rate at which a chemical reaction takes place is chemical kinetics. In drug making, in pollution control and in food processing, knowledge about the rate of reaction is useful (Chang, 2010). Since chemical kinetics has a widespread application in our daily lives, it is ...

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Nickel-mediated Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

18 Jan 2018

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Abstract: The Ni(II) complexes [Ni(5-C5H3 R2)(X)(NHC)] 1a–f combined with MAO was tested in methylmethacrylate (MMA) polymerization. The complex 1f, bearing the bulky 2,6-diisopropenylphenyl substituents in the NHC ligand was found to be the most effective in the polymerization of MMA with TOF up to 200 h-1 resulting in a syndiotactic, high molecular weight PMMAs which can be explained by anionic, MAO-centered polymerization mechanism. Introduction: A great ...

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Atomistic Fabrication Technology to Enhance Accuracy

18 Jan 2018

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Importance of Atomistic Fabrication Technology to Enhance Machining Accuracy During Electrochemical Machining of Metals Ritesh Upadhyay, Arbind Kumar P.K. Srivastava   Abstract Atomistic fabrication technology fully utilizes physical and chemical phenomena with atomistic and electronic understanding. In the case of mechanical machining many defects are introduced when pushing the tool on the workpiece surface and then atoms on the workpiece surface are removed by ...

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Solvent Effect on the Interaction of C20 and N2H2

18 Jan 2018

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Solvent effect on the interaction of C20 and N2H2: A theoretical study Reza Ghiasi*,1, Hanieh Alavi2   Abstract: In this work, the interaction of C20 and N2H2 fragment was investigated in the M062X/6-311G(d,p) level of theory in both gas and solution phases. The influence of solvent on the interaction energy, structural parameters, frontier orbital energies and hyperpolarizability of C20…N2H2 complex has been explored. The interaction energies ...

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Determination of Adulterants in Honey Using HPLC Method

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,120 )

Determination of adulterants such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in honey using HPLC method 2. Materials and Methods 2.1 Materials Standard of hydroxymethylfurfural was purchased from sigma Aldrich. All the samples and standards were diluted using distilled deionised water. Methanol, sodium hydroxide,diphenyl-1-pikryl, ascorbic acid, 2,2- hydrochloric acid and acetic acid were of analytical reagent grade and purchased from Techno PharmChem, ...

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Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) Experiment

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,486 )

Abstract Artificial neural networks (ANNs) is applied for prediction of product selectivity in biological sulfide removal. An experimental setup is constructed for investigation of biological sulfide removal in a fed batch bioreactor. In this process, sulfide is biologically converted into elemental sulfur and sulfate by the bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus. In addition, thiosulfate is produced in a side reaction. The effect of various parameters (dissolved oxygen, concentration ...

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Importance of Natural Product Synthesis

18 Jan 2018

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History of medicine dates back practically to the existence of human civilization. Historically, the majority of new drugs have been generated from natural products and from compounds derived from natural products. Natural products, including plants, animals and minerals have always been a source of therapeutic agents for many years. Natural products sometimes exhibit pharmacological or biological property that can be of therapeutic benefit in treating diseases. ...

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Enhancement of Polymeric Materials through Nanotechnology

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,539 )

Performance Enhancement of Polymeric Materials through Nanotechnology Dr. P.C. Thapliyal   Abstract: In the last decade or so, nanotechnology has gained tremendous and widespread attention. Currently, nanotechnology is being applied in many fields to formulate materials with novel functions due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The major nanotechnology applications are identified as energy, agriculture productivity, water treatment, disease diagnosis, drug delivery system, food processing, ...

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Structure and Chemical Composition of Silk

18 Jan 2018

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Silk: A Natural Polymer By: David Church “The Silk Road,” a trading route that can be traced back to over 3600 years ago, but still is a household recognized name. Standing the test of time proves that this product was extremely important in shaping history. According to Chinese historians, silk began with the prince of China, Hoang-ti, and his wife, Si-ling-chi. The prince wanted his wife ...

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Classification of Wastewater

18 Jan 2018

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Wastewaters are numerous in kind and defy easy definition. It is difficult to evolve a universal classification for 'waste'. However, roughly there are three basic classification methods, which are combined to form a waste classification system (Hagerty., 1973). They are physical classification, chemical classification and thermal classification. The last one is directly related to thermal processing requirements and focuses on the information needed to select, design, ...

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Cell-Permeable Stapled Peptides from HIV1 Gene Products

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,515 )

Cell-Permeable Stapled Peptides Based on HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Derived from HIV-1 Gene Products Introduction HIV-1 Integrase (IN), is necessary enzyme for the replication of the virus into the host cells. It catalyzes the integration of viral DNA into the genome of host cells. The mechanisms employed by the enzyme are strand transfer and 3′-end processing reactions. The enzyme is vital for the virus life cycle and ...

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Detection of Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,759 )

Sensitive And Selective Detection of Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence Zhou Yan   Introduction Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect seeds and crops before and after harvesting. They have contributed significant economic benefits to society. At the same time, widespread use of pesticides has created serious problems regarding their effect on the environment and human health.[1]. Even low levels of contaminants can ...

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Effect of Exposure to Petroleum Products

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,096 )

Petroleum-derived products are chemicals (mostly volatile) that primarily used for internal combustion machines. These products are made up of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon components; hydrocarbons consist of (aromatic, saturated and unsaturated) and non-hydrocarbons consist of (N, S, O2, vanadium and nickel)(179,180). Some individuals ought to have a bigger risk of revelation to gasoline fumes; those individuals may include gasoline trucks drivers, Petroleum refining factory workforce, filling-station staff ...

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Antiglycation Studies of Pd(II)-Hydrazide Complexes

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,543 )

Introduction Glycation is a non-enzymatic spontaneous reaction between sugars and coexisting protein followed by a complex cascade of reactions including dehydration, redox reaction and other rearrangements [1, 2] forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs) [3]. Glycation reactions depend on the generation of reactive oxygen species by trace amounts of redox active metal ions [4] and on the degree and duration of hyperglycemia in vivo ...

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Synthesis of Janus Nanocomposites for Drug Delivery System

18 Jan 2018

8 (2,942 )

Over the past few decades, drug delivery systems have been well developed and studied to improve the curative effect of drugs.[1–4] Drug delivery systems can ameliorate the problems of conventional administration by prolonging duration time, enhancing drug solubility, retaining drug bioactivity, reducing side effect, and so on.[5, 6] A variety of carriers such as lipids,7, 8 polymer gels,[9,10] especially nanoparticles,11, 12 have been studied in drug ...

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Strategies and Technology to Determine Chicken Freshness

18 Jan 2018

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2.0 INTRODUCTION Recently, there have been various inventions of sensors to detect the freshness of food. A chemical sensor means that a tool that convert chemical information into an analytically useful signal. The device acts as an analyzer (Hulanicki et al, 1991). Smart or intelligent packaging has been the result of using such sensors into the food packaging technology. Smart packaging uses chemical or biosensor to observe ...

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Toxic Metals in Traditional Chinese Medicine Determination

18 Jan 2018

9 (3,244 )

Determination of toxic metals in Traditional Chinese Medicine samples by atomic emission spectrometry Traditional Chinese Medicines(TCM) have gained increasing attention worldwide because of their effectiveness and small side effects[1]. The excess of toxic metals in these medicines have become one of the biggest problems that affected their export and hindered their introduction to the world[2]. In recent years, many domestic and abroad testing organizations paid great ...

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Finishing Techniques for Leather

18 Jan 2018

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Summery These papers make a brief clarification of some of the finishing technique which is to applied to two finishing procedure and clarification for full grain aniline leather finish and a full grain pigmented leather finish the material to be used in it and whey to apply such material for such both finishing type . also an observation on the needs for the finish for the ...

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Importance of Chemical Bonding | Essay

18 Jan 2018

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George Brown Chemical bonds are either ionic or covalent. When a metal is present the bond is ionic as an electron is given from the metal to the non-metal, so the two ions are attracted to each other. When a bond is between two non-metal’s then it is covalent meaning that in the outer electron shells of the two atoms bonded electrons share ...

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Profiling Human Hair with FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

18 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT Profiling of Human Hairs using FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Technique Aufa Madihah Binti Mohamad Anwar 1122204 Hair is any of the fine threadlike strands growing from the skin of humans can be found in crime scene due to interaction between victim, perpetrator and/or witness as explained in Locard’s Principle. This paper's aim is to compare, categorize and identify human hair fiber using FTIR spectrometer and ...

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Review of Copper Recovery Methods From Metallurgical Waste

18 Jan 2018

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Apurva Patel, Prof. Nimish Shah Abstract: Copper is one of the most used metals in recent developments and demand of this red metal is increasing with passing of each day. Production of copper is 12 million tons per year and copper reserves are expected to run for 25 years with the estimated world copper reserves of 300 million tons. Recovery of copper from metallurgical waste is ...

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Laboratory Report on Aldehydes and Ketones

18 Jan 2018

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Mark Norly L. Tundag   I. OBJECTIVES At the end of the experiment, the students are able to identify the functional group present in aldehydes and ketones, also on determining their physical and chemical properties and to perform chemical test to distinguish one from the other. II. MATERIAL and APPARATUS The experiment used a bunsen burner, vials, 100 ml beaker, test tube holder, ...

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Synthesis of Levulinate Ester in Solvent-free System

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,092 )

MUHAMMAD YUSUF BIN YAAKUB   1.0 INTRODUCTION Fabrication of several of oxygenated fuels and chemical from biomass is not an easy task. This is because biomass needs to use catalytic processes to defunctionalized selectively (D.L.Klass, 2006). Both biological and chemical catalysts are being tailed by the global to transform biomass into biofuel and chemicals (A.Corma, 2007). There is some of the potential alternative to ...

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Composition of Hydrocarbons

18 Jan 2018

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Samerah Mansha Chemistry – Hydrocarbons – Organic compounds are molecules comprising of both carbon and hydrogen atoms. These compounds can be found as gaseous, liquid, or solid. Organic compounds are vital in life processes as they are found in the products we use daily such as soap, cosmetics, perfumes, plastics, rubber, paper, insecticides. The source of energy we use everyday such as ...

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Essential Trace Metals in Seaweed

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,781 )

0 Introduction Seaweeds are marine macro-algae that are one of the living renewable resources of the marine environment and well known for its potential food and therapeutic applications (Tseng, 2004). According to Awang et al. (2008), Sabah and Sarawak have a great potential for the cultivation of seaweed. The seaweeds found in Sabah such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Ulva reticulate, Gracilaria changgi, Caulerpa lentillifera and ...

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Effects of Soda Drinks on Health

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,480 )

Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tam   INTRODUCTION Healthcare has become the primary concerns of public. There are many factors to ensure people health’s quality. Among them, food-stuff has a directly impaction on people health. At the time when food-stuff industry develops swiftly, it is really hard to distinguish between good and bad products. Especially, chemicals have been misused to add on processing products – not ...

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Phosphorus Binders for Hyperphosphatemia Treatment

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,472 )

In the population of 385 individuals that have developed end stage renal disease in the United States, about 250,000 individuals have a condition called hyperphosphatemia (Fink & Vincent, 2011, p. 194). This condition is defined by “a serum phosphate level above 4.5 mg/dL; it may be clinically significant at levels over 5 mg/dL” (Fink & Vincent, 2011, p.195). People with kidney disease are not able to ...

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Processes in Producing a Chemical Reaction and Hazards

18 Jan 2018

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Elephant Toothpaste Objective/aim Understand the processes involved in producing a chemical reaction Identify hazards involved with using particular chemicals Demonstrate an understanding of chemistry terms such as catalyst, oxidation, and exothermic (Harper & Nickels, 2008). Background Information The elephant toothpaste experiment is an experiment that produces great amount of steaming foam (Helmenstine, 2014). Its great amount of foam is what ...

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Enthalpy of Combustion

16 Jan 2018

17 (6,429 )

Saran Singh Sound Aim: To determine the enthalpy change of combustion of Ethanol (C2H5OH), Propanol (C3H7OH) and Butanol (C4H9OH). Chemicals – Ethanol (C2H5OH) Propanol (C3H7OH) Butanol (C4H9OH) Data Collection – Table 1: List of apparatus and Least Count and Uncertainties of Measuring Instruments Used S. No. Instrument Unit Least Count ...

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Paracetamol Synthesis Experiment

16 Jan 2018

9 (3,271 )

N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanamide, otherwise known as Paracetamol or acetaminophen depending on where you live in the world, is one of the most widely used over the counter drugs. It has the molecular formula C8H9NO2. It is an analgesic (pain reliever) and also an antipyretic (fever reliever). For these reasons it is used to relieve a person of mild to moderate pain, for example; toothache, headaches or symptoms of ...

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Catalytic Reduction of Hydrazine to Ammonia

16 Jan 2018

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Ruvanthi Kularatne Catalytic Reduction of Hydrazine to Ammonia: The Site of Reduction in Nitrogenase Abstract The conversion of N2 to NH3 is done mainly via anaerobic bacteria. The enzyme nitrogenase, which can be found in these anaerobic bacteria, is responsible for this conversion. Much research has been conducted in order to identify the structure of the enzyme, the mechanism for the conversion, and the ...

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Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

16 Jan 2018

11 (4,061 )

  Laboratory Techniques Gopika Balasubramaniyam   INTRODUCTION Biomolecules are complex organic molecules. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus are the atoms that make up most of the biomolecules. These molecules form the basic structure of a living cell. The compounds such as amino acids, nucleotides and monosaccharide’s serve as the building blocks ...

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Green Synthesis of o-Phenyl-benzothiazole

16 Jan 2018

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Green Condensation of o-Aminothiophenol to o-Phenyl-benzothiazole David Fairchild, Alex Irion, Dominic Russo, Luke Sanders Abstract Herein we describe a simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly synthesis of o-arylbenzothiazoles, such as o-phenyl-benzothiazole, under standard ambient temperature and pressure via reaction of o-aminothiophenols with aromatic aldehydes using glycerol as a solvent. The combined characteristics of glycerol allow it to act as both a green and biodegradable solvent, but its ...

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Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Processes

16 Jan 2018

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Some wastewater treatment process in other hand classified into three categories which followed the nature of the treatment process that used nowadays, they are physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. Most of the full wastewater treatments systems are included several processes from these three categories. Physical methods wastewater treatment is the process that totally relay on physical phenomena only in progress of improving and treating the ...

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Development of Controlled Drug Delivery Systems (CDDS)

16 Jan 2018

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1.1 CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS (CDDS) Now a day’s on the development of Novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) marked consideration has been focused. The method of drug delivery to the site of action shows a significant effect on its efficacy. It leads to the development and evolution of novel drug delivery systems that enhanced performance of potential drug molecules. Novel drug delivery systems play a key ...

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Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+

16 Jan 2018

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Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+ During Anodic Disolution of Iron in NaCl Electrolyte R.K Upadhyay1, Arbind Kumar2 and P.K Srivastava3 Abstract: Taguchi’s orthogonal array L9 has been effectively used to study the effect of process parameters such as voltage, feed rate and electrolyte concentration on material removal rate in context of two different types of electrolyte namely aqueous NaCl solution and electrolyte solution containing ...

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Coordination Chemistry of Bidentate Ligands - Research

16 Jan 2018

10 (3,752 )

Elham Torabi Farkhani Mehrdad Pourayoubi Pavel V. Avdreev Katarina   Introduction The coordination chemistry of bidentate ligands has been studied for over thirty years [reference]. The bidentate ligands with phosphoryl and thiophosphoryl groups have been used as effective coordinating agents in the different metal chemistry, in most cases the reports were attributed to bonding between the metal cation and specific Lewis sites on the ...

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Amines Functionalized Upconversion Nanoparticles Synthesis

16 Jan 2018

3 (990 )

Chapter 1 Introduction Introduction To cure deadly disease such as cancer, significant endeavors have been done in synthesizing nanomaterials (Xue et al., 2011). Ideal nanoparticle system will own multimodality for imaging and therapy. It will carry out as an excellent bioprobes to find disease site and as a carriers to target cells. In biomedical field, they have been demonstrated to be useful in immunoassays, ...

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Properties of Poly(B-amino Ester)s

16 Jan 2018

9 (3,208 )

The poly(b-amino ester)s, a class of biodegradable cationic polymers, were firstly prepared by Chiellini in 198340. These polymers were based on poly(amidoamine)s developed in 1970 by Ferruti41, that contain tertiary amines in their backbones and can be synthesized by a simple Michael addition reaction of bifunctional amines and bisacrylamides. However, the interest over the use of poly(b-amino ester)s rised significantly after its use as transfection reagent at Langer Lab in 200042. ...

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Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography

16 Jan 2018

8 (3,118 )

Zarafath Jameel Table of Contents (Jump to) Introduction Applications of chromatography Types of Chromatography Paper chromatography Objectives Materials Methodology Results and Calculations The chromatogram The Rf calculated results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction Chromatography, Color written work. "Chroma" is a Greek roots prefix for color and "graphy" is a Greek roots postfix for composing. It is utilized ...

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Photochemical Degradation of Pharmaceutics Experiment

16 Jan 2018

5 (1,961 )

Experimental Methodology Experimental methodology executed for accomplishment of a project is one of the most important parts of study, deciding the ultimate outcomes of the study. For the present study It aimed at metal doped MCM-41 for the removal of pharmaceutics by then degradation under UV irradiation. The present investigation was therefore designed to avoid discrepancies as much as possible, and to maximize the outcomes. The ...

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Laboratory Report on Properties of Carboxylic acids

16 Jan 2018

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Ramona Mae S. Rajaratnam Abstract: This report presents the different properties of carboxylic acids including solubility, acidity of some carboxylic acids, difference in strength of carboxylic acids compared to phenols, action of oxidizing agent on the carboxylic group and the neutralization equivalent of carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids like acetic acid, butyric acid, oleic acid, succinic acid, stearic acid and benzoic acid were each mixed ...

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Development of Magnesium-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell

16 Jan 2018

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Performance of Carbon felt cathode for Magnesium–Hydrogen peroxide fuel cells K. Naga Mahesh, Balaji Rengarajan, K.S. Dhathathreyan* Centre for Fuel Cell Technology, International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), 2nd Floor, IITM Research Park, Taramani, Chennai–600113. Abstract Carbon felt and carbon cloth are used as a cathode in Magnesium-Hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. The performance of the cathode are tested in a 30 ...

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Lab Scale Preparation of Gypsum Wallboard

16 Jan 2018

7 (2,670 )

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH (State succinctly the problem which is to be addressed. Clearly outline the importance of the problem, the originality of the approach and the impact it may have on the field if successful. Give an overview of the broader significance as well as the immediate impact of this research.) The main purpose of this research is to create ...

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History and Methods of Chemical Warfare

16 Jan 2018

4 (1,585 )

Cori Haws In this report I intend to investigate from the perspective of a chemist the history and development of chemical weapons systems focusing primarily on their development, and the usage throughout the 20th century to present day and the means to which they act. As a starting point it is important to clarify what is meant by a chemical weapon or CW. The ...

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Potassium Lithium Hydrogen Phthalate Mixed Crystals

16 Jan 2018

11 (4,042 )

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SECTION 3.1 Synthesis, growth, structure and characterization of potassium lithium hydrogen phthalate mixed crystals* In the present work, we report the growth and structure of a new mixed crystal C16H16KLiO11 (PLHP), which crystallizes in a non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and SHG-active. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization studies which are briefly described below. Here it is established that by synthesising ...

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Effects of, and Uses for Paracetamol

16 Jan 2018

4 (1,250 )

Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used medicinal drug available over the counter The chemical name for Paracetamol is N-acetyl-p-aminophenol. Over-the-counter (OTC) Analgesic and antipyretic action with weak anti-inflammatory action Synergic effect with other analgesics, especially codeine and NSAIDs, resulting in better overall pain control Major ingredient in cold & flu remedies Used in combination with opioid analgesics Oral Paracetamol has an oral bioavilabity ...

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