Effects of Lab by Inquiry in Educational Settings

26 Jan 2018

8 (2,942 )

Briana Bruske   Abstract The purpose of this literature research was to distinguish the differences between verification and inquiry based laboratory experiments in educational settings, and their effect on student education. Examples of the incorporation of inquiry into course curriculum were found. The effect of inquiry on knowledge type gained by students, and classification of their laboratory reflective statements was analyzed based on results contained in ...

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Paracetamol: History, Structure and Dangers

26 Jan 2018

4 (1,274 )

What is Paracetamol? Depending on where you live in the world, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanamide is known as Paracetamol or acetaminophen with the molecular formula of C8H9NO2. Paracetamol or acetaminophen belongs to a group of medicines which have analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reliever) properties. For these reasons it is used for reliving a person of mild to moderate pain including headache, joint pain and toothache. ...

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Standardization of Polyherbal Formulations for Drug Analysis

26 Jan 2018

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Standardization of polyherbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles (markers or standards). As Mentat tablet (MT), a herbal formulation consist of natural multi-ingredient formula with active constituents responsible for treatment of neurological disorder and improvement of mental health, therefore it is worthwhile to take it as a model for standardization of polyherbal formulation. ...

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Lab Report: Heat Capacity Ratio For Gases

26 Jan 2018

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran   Introduction: Heat capacity of gases is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one mole of the gas through one degree Celsius at constant pressure or volume. Heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp), the volume will increase and heat capacity at constant volume (CV), the pressure will increase. The main physical properties of gases are compressed in the ...

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Oxidative Decolourisation of Rosaniline Hydrochloride (RAH)

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,635 )

Kinetic, thermodynamic studies for oxidation of rosaniline hydrochloride dye by persulphate in ambient temperatures Z. M. Abou-Gamra* Abstract The kinetics of the oxidative decolourisation of rosaniline hydrochloride (RAH) by sodium persulphate was studied spectrophotometrically over pH range 3.5-9.5 at 30-45 oC. The reaction was second order with respect to dye and half order to persulphate. Increasing the pH of the medium increased the rate of decolourisation ...

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Impact of Bisphenol A in Bottles on Children’s health

26 Jan 2018

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  Name of student: Le Tien Dat   INTRODUCTION The history of Bisphenol-A is a long story, and the development of this substance has gathered benefits and drawbacks. In fact, BPA brings several benefits for life’s people. It is used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. The polycarbonate plastics may be encountered in many products ...

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Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)

26 Jan 2018

9 (3,272 )

Spectral analysis, thermal behavior, XRD and morphology study in synthesis of carbon nanotubes decorated by Cysteamine Or A simple and efficient procedure for synthesis of Thiolic Composite with use Oxide Multi Walled Carbon Nanotube Or A simple and efficient procedure for synthesis of composite thiol with use oxide multi walled carbon nanotube and sulfur Or Behnam Maazinejad, Hamidreza Sadegh, Imran Ali, Ramin Shahryari Ghoshekandi, Vahid Ali ...

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Los Procesos Químicos Del Cuerpo

26 Jan 2018

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Casandra Hernández Introducción A través de este trabajo la investigadora realizó una revisión de literatura relacionada a los procesos químicos que ocurren en el cuerpo humano. Se comienza definiendo conceptos esenciales para comprender los procesos químicos. Según Aguilar (2012) el cuerpo de los seres humanos es un sistema que está compuesto por células las cuales forman los tejidos. Mediante las células el cuerpo humano ...

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Inserted-Plate Coated of Methanol Steam Reformer

26 Jan 2018

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High Efficiency Inserted-Plate Coated of Methanol Steam Reformer: PEM Fuel Cell Applications Methanol can be easily stored and transported and converted to H2 using a reforming reactor that makes it an excellent hydrogen and energy source for fuel cell applicationsEasily storage, transporting and converting to H2 by a reforming reactor using makes it an excellent energy source for PEMFC applications [1-3] During the last decades, there ...

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Graphene Oxide With Covalently Linked Porphyrin Antennae

26 Jan 2018

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Swetanshu Tandon Paper Title: Graphene oxide with covalently linked porphyrin antennae: Synthesis,characterization and photophysical properties. Relevant spectroscopic Techniques UV-visible spectroscopy ATR-IR spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy Fluorescence spectroscopy Transient absorption spectroscopy Introduction In this paper, the authors describe the synthesis, characterisation and properties of a hybrid material, GO-H2P, obtained by treating graphene oxide (GO) with 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10, ...

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Analysis of Biochemical Compounds in ‘gynura Procumbens’

26 Jan 2018

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Extraction of Biochemical Compounds in ‘gynura Procumbens’ Using 3 Mixture Design and Gcms Name : Syazliana Syamira Binti Hashim NOVEMBER 2014 Gynura procumbens or known locally in Malaysia as ‘Sambung Nyawa’ or in chinese, it is called ‘Nan Hui Ye’ is a plant that was found in South East Asia usually inThailand, Indonesia and Malaysia.This plant belongs to the Asteraceae Family.It is a famous traditional herb ...

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Determination of Sodium Thiopental Using Gold Nanoparticles

26 Jan 2018

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Development of a new colorimetric method for the determination of sodium thiopental using gold nanoparticles Sodium thiopental (sodium pentothal) is in a group of drugs called barbiturates.this barbiturate commonly used anesthetic induction agents in man and animals because recovery is rapid and it has the advantage of having very little or no side effects[1].It is used for intensive-care patients with head injuries to control convulsions and ...

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Differential Pulse Voltammetry

26 Jan 2018

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Introduction In this era of globalization, scientist had discovered various method of analysis. One of the methods of analysis is known as electrochemical method of analysis. Electrochemical method of analysis consists of coulometry, voltammetry and potentiometry. (Harvey, 2000) Coulometry is a method of analysis either with fixed current or constant current. Coulometry is also known as amperometry. In amperometry, current passes through a polarisable electrode. The ...

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Tolnaftate Drug Profile:

26 Jan 2018

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Trade Names: Tinactin Synonym: Tolnaftato, Tolnaftatum Structure: Fig: Structure of Tolnaftate Chemical Name: 0-2- naphthyl methyl (3- methyl phenyl thiocarbamate) Description: Tolnaftate is a synthetic thiocarbamate used as an anti- fungal agent that may be sold without medical prescription in most jurisdictions. It may come as a cream, powder, spray, or liquid aerosol, and is used to treat fungal conditions such as jock itch, athlete's ...

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Diketo Analogues and Their Significance

26 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION Medicinal chemistry is the branch of science, which has remarkable value for synthesis of novel drugs with intense therapeutic activity. It concerns with discovery, development, identification and interpretation of mode of action of biologically active compounds at molecular level. The molecular biological revolution and progressive mapping of human ‘genome’ have created a new biochemical and biostructural ‘world order.’1 These developments have provided new challenges and ...

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Anti-hygroscopicity of Ammonium Nitrate (AN)

26 Jan 2018

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Anti-hygroscopicity of Ammonium Nitrate (AN) coated by surfactant materials Baha Eldien Ismail Abd Allah Elzaki1,2, Zhang Yue Jun2   Abstract The ammonium nitrate (AN) particles were coated by surfactant materials, using precipitation coating method. The hygroscopicity of AN - coated and AN without coating (used as control) were tested, and the samples of AN coated by surfactant materials, and were characterized by Fourier ...

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Factors Affecting the Oxidation of Iron Alloys

26 Jan 2018

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Alexander Thompson Abstract This paper is about the prevention of the formation of Iron Oxide. For the purpose of this investigation three coatings have been electroplated to the steel electrodes. The electrodes were then placed next to a salt solution approximately the same as that of ocean water .The mass changes in the metal were then ...

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Synthesis of Closantel Experiment

26 Jan 2018

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Abstract:- The paper describes the synthesis of Closeted. It is used as an anthelmintic i.e. an agent that destroys or causes the expulsion of parasitic intestinal worms so it is used as Anti-worm drug. The synthesis of Closantel was carried out using four different hydrotropes. The effect of various hydrotropes on yield, rate constant and activation energy at various temperatures and concentrations are studied. Keywords :- ...

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Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

26 Jan 2018

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  Kaneshanathan Kumaraguru Contents (jump to) Introduction Objective Materials Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction A macromolecule is “a molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetitions of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass” (Jenkins et al., 1996, p.2289). Carbohydrates are made of monosaccharides, which ...

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Comparison of Home-Made and Store Bought Apple Juice

26 Jan 2018

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COVER PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT This extended investigational report was aimed to show and prove how store bought apple juice (golden circle) is unhealthier and less beneficial to the body than home-made apple juice. The apple juice samples were analysed and tested using - pH using litmus paper Determination of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) by iodine titration Determination of fruit acids by iodine titration ...

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Method Development for Protein Detection

26 Jan 2018

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Binding-induced and label-free colorimetric method for protein detection based on binding-induced DNA hybridization and DNAzyme-based signal amplification INTRODUCTION In diagnosing the early stage of a disease or pathological condition, proteins, especially those associated with cancers, are of great importance because they are the molecular machinery of life.[BB2013-AM-3, 1,2] Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most commonly used method for protein detection.[PD-3,1,2] Unfortunately, this antibody-based assay requires ...

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3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-Propenoic Acid Synthesis

26 Jan 2018

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Antimicrobial activity of Co (II) complex of 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid and sonochemical synthesis of nanoscale mixed –ligand EDA coordination for preparation of CoCl2.6H2O anoparticle Abstract 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid abbreviated as EDA was synthesized and characterized. Co (II) metal complex of this ligand prepared by reaction of chloride salt with EDA in dry acetonitrile. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown ...

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Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

26 Jan 2018

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Regina Marin   Gas is called the state of matter in which, under certain conditions of temperature and pressure, its molecules cross-react only weakly with each other without forming molecular bonds, taking the shape and volume of their container and tending to separate , and expand, their best for their high kinetic energy. Gases are highly compressible fluids that experience large changes in ...

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Mechanisms that Lead to Dynamic Self-organization

26 Jan 2018

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SELF-ORGANIZATION AND GROWTH OF NANOSTRUCTURED BRANCHED CRYSTAL PATTERN IN BELOUSOV-ZHABOTINSKY TYPE CHEMICAL REACTIONS ROHIT SRIVASTAVA, M.Phil.   1. Introduction The self-assembly of structural motifs and the self-organization of dynamic motifs into highly ordered one-, two-, or three-dimensional patterns with controlled structures have received much attention in recent years, because of their importance in basic research and their potential applications [1,2]. The spontaneous formation of ...

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Development of Water-soluble Metal

26 Jan 2018

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Development of Water-soluble metal working fluids and study of their wear properties Chidambaram CT, L.A.Kumaraswamidhas, Suman Dutta* Abstract Metalworking chemistry evolved from simple oils to water-based technology. The tool life was extended by reducing wear by metal working fluids. This study shows parameters affecting on Wear Scar Diameters (WSD) with different water soluble metal working fluid having different mineral oil and phosphorous EP additive ...

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Timolol Maleate 0.5% Eye Drop Preparation

26 Jan 2018

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Formulation of eye drops (TIMOLOL MALEATE 0.5% m/V EYE DROPS) By: Introduction The Timolol Maleate 0.5% M/V Eye Drops is indicated for the reduction the intraocular pressure in the (IOP) persons suffering from ocular hypertension or glaucoma they are insufficiently responsive to the topical Beta Blockers. It is shown to reduce IOP in patients that have chronic open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and in Aphakic patients with ...

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Kinetics: The Iodination of Propanone

26 Jan 2018

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Mary Adesina This individual investigation will be exploring kinetics through experimentation the reaction: This reaction is described as autocatalytic as it is produces the very species that increases the rate of reaction (hydrogen ions7). Background Reactants Iodine is chemical that takes place in the reaction. Iodine is a halogen (group 7 on the periodic table) with a simple molecular covalent structure. Halogens are ...

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Composition of Minerals in Soil Related with Date Fruits

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,628 )

Research Proposal Topic Study the Composition of Minerals in Soil Related with Date Fruits using AAS. Introduction Generally, plants require optimum mineral nutrients from the soil other than water, sunlight and carbon dioxide. Mineral is a crystalline solid of inorganic element. It has their own characteristic on physical properties such as crystalline structure, hardness, density, flammability, and color with certain chemical composition ...

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Erythromycin Stearate Tablets: Quality Assurance Assessment

25 Jan 2018

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QUALITY ASSURANCE ASSESSMENT OF SOME COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ERYTHROMYCIN STEARATE TABLETS. Aiwaguore Johnbull Obarisiagbon1*, Oladejo Peter Ogunlowo2 ABSTRACT Erythromycin drug products have been mostly imported into Nigeria from different countries of the world; with relatively no Nigeria based pharmaceutical company manufacturing same. Cases of therapeutic failures have been reported in some of our hospitals. Hence, the need arises to study some of the physicochemical parameters of some ...

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Quantification of Venlafaxine in Tablet Dosage Form

24 Jan 2018

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New chiral normal phase UFLC method for determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations ABSTRACT Aim: A simple, specific, precise, sensitive and rapid normal phase-UFLC method was developed for determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulation. Methodology: The method was developed on a Lux amylase 2 column (150 x 4.0 mm I.D., particle size 5 μ); the mobile phase was n-hexane and ethanol (97:3 ...

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Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in Different Environments

24 Jan 2018

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Most confinement studies have focused on the effects of freezing and melting pure liquids like water, hydrogen and helium; inert gases and organic liquids in nanoscale pores. Thus, many studies have shown that melting points and enthalpies of fusion in nanoscale crystals can differ significantly from their bulk scale counterparts. It has been shown (Christenson H.K., 2001) that melting points decrease in crystalline solids embedded within ...

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Synthesis of New Coordination Polymers or MOFs

24 Jan 2018

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1.1 Design Principles Coordination polymers also known as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) or metal-coordination networks are compounds constructed from organic ligands and metal ions connected through coordination bonds and other weak chemical bonds which can extend infinitely into one two or three dimensions [1-3]. The arrangement of the components in coordination polymers mostly exists only in solid state which results from coordination interactions and weaker forces forming ...

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Burgess and Martin Dehydrating Reagents

24 Jan 2018

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An understanding of synthetically useful dehydrating reagents for the reduction of hydroxyl groups, various functional group interconversions and other synthetically useful operations. Oday Alrifai   Dehydration of alcohols has been a synthetically useful strategy in order to attain olefins in high yields through the treatment of secondary, tertiary and homoallylic alcohols. Martin sulfurane and Burgess dehydrating reagents have been useful because of their mild ...

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Copper Recovery Methods From Metallurgical Waste

24 Jan 2018

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REVIEW OF COPPER RECOVERY METHODS FROM METALLURGICAL WASTE Apurva Patel, Prof. Nimish Shah   Abstract: Copper is one of the most used metals in recent developments and demand of this red metal is increasing with passing of each day. Production of copper is 12 million tons per year and copper reserves are expected to run for 25 years with the estimated world copper reserves ...

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PSA Composite Fibers and Membranes

24 Jan 2018

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Polysulfonamide/nano titanium dioxide (PSA/nano-TiO2) composite spinning solutions with various nano-TiO2 mass fractions were prepared using the solution blending method. The corresponding composite fibers were developed by wet-spinning technology and the composite membranes were prepared using the digital spin-coating technique. The properties of PSA/nano-TiO2 composite fibers and membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, etc. The effects of nano-TiO2 and its mass fractions ...

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Purification of 1,3-PD from Complex Fermentation Broth

24 Jan 2018

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MTZ is calculated as Eq. 6[24], where H is adsorption bed height (cm). tb is the time (min) of breakthrough point, which defined as the time when Ct/C0=0.05. te is the time (min) of saturated point, which defined as the time when Ct/C0=0.95. As showed in Table 2, increasing the 1,3-PD concentration, tb and te decreased. The dynamic adsorption of 1,3-PD to resin usually fails to ...

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Biography of Primo Levi: Vanadium

24 Jan 2018

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‘Vanadium’ – The Periodic Table (Primo Levi) Annerita Ng Primo Levi was a Jewish chemist and author born in Italy. The majority of his writings revolved around his experience surviving the Holocaust of World War II, some with a heavy subtext of chemistry. One of his books entitled ‘The Periodic Table’ is a memoir of his life collated in 21 chapters, each of which ...

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Structural Interconversion of Holin Transmembrane Domain I

24 Jan 2018

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Structural Interconversion of Holin Transmembrane Domain I is Dictated by a Single Proline: A FRET-based Analysis and its Functional Importance in Pore Formation. Muralikrishna Lella,† Soumya Kamilla,‡ Vikas Jain‡,* and Radhakrishnan Mahalakshmi†,* KEYWORDS (Word Style “BG_Keywords”). If you are submitting your paper to a journal that requires keywords, provide significant keywords to aid the reader in literature retrieval. ABSTRACT: Mycobacterial cell lysis during the ...

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Uses and Applications of Acid and Bases

24 Jan 2018

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Rami Saadat Acid and bases in our life Acid and bases are very important in our everyday activity. Almost every liquid you find is acid or bases but it is not just liquid you can find it almost everywhere. Both are used in our usual activity especially in our body. They have a variety of uses like in medicine, food, cleaning, fertilization, industry and ...

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Green Solvent for Synthesis and Catalysis

24 Jan 2018

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Adnan S/OAbdul Qayyum Title Green Solvent for synthesis and catalysis: Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Abstract This proposal describes a research project to synthesis the ionic liquids; the alternative green, non-volatile solvent to harmful volatile organic solvent and chemical industries in the future. The ionic liquids, whose properties can be predicted before their synthesis. The already known properties enable to gain ...

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Classifications of Liquid Crystals

24 Jan 2018

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1. Introduction 1. Introduction to Liquid Crystals 1.1 Historical background Liquid crystals are a unique state of matter, between solid (crystalline) and liquid (isotropic) phases some compounds form a distinct, different intermediate phase, sometimes referred to as the “fourth state of matter” or “mesophase”. These compounds display properties of both solid and liquid. Anisotropic intermolecular interactions of the molecules, or mesogens, within a liquid crystalline material ...

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Synthesis of Isatin Based Caspase Inhibitors

24 Jan 2018

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DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF ISATIN BASED CASPASE INHIBITORS FOR RUTHENIUM CAGING APPLICATIONS KASUN CHINTHAKA RATNAYAKE ABSTRACT Apoptosis is the energy dependent programmed cell death. Improper function of apoptosis could lead to diseases such as cancers, strokes, alziemer’s disease. Caspases are the enzymes involved in the later stage of this process. Peptidyl and non-peptidyl caspase inhibitors have been synthesized recently. One of these non-peptidyl compound ...

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Esterification of 4-methyl-2-pentanol and Acetic Acid

24 Jan 2018

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Joseph Nuernberg   Esterification of 4-methyl-2-pentanol and Acetic Acid by Reflux and Distillation and Characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Abstract: The objective of this lab was to successfully synthesize an ester from an alcohol and acetic acid. This experiment used 4-methyl-2-pentanol with excess acetic acid to produce (1,3-dimethylbutyl) acetate as seen in Figure 1. The mixture of acetic acid with 4-methyl-2-pentanol and sulfuric acid was refluxed, extracted, ...

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Analysis of Compound 109 using 13C NMR Spectra

24 Jan 2018

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The 13C NMR spectrum of compound 109-114 is represented in Plate 40-45. Structural elucidation of 109 by 13C NMR spectrum has been described and it was confirmed from the two dimensional NMR reports of 109. Assignments for the other compounds 109-114 made by comparing with compound 109. Table 33 lists the chemical shift values of 109. A collection of signals resonated in the aliphatic region at ...

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Testing Drug Content of Famotidine Core Tablets

24 Jan 2018

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6. Formulation development and evaluation 6.1 Preparation of core tablets Core tablets of famotidine were prepared by direct compression and batch size was kept as 100 tablets. Drug , sodium chloride, polymer and MCC were co-sifted through sieve # 30 Now the blend is mixed in polybag for 10 min Citric acid was crushed using mortar and pestle and sifted through sieve # 60 And ...

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Experiment to Learn the Amount of Iron in Iron Tablets

24 Jan 2018

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GABRIELA CARUSO KANDIR 1.1 What is Topic area you are investigating in to: Prepare and standardize a potassium permanganate solution and use it to determine the amount of iron (II) in iron tablets What is your title: Analyze the actual amount of iron (II) present in a tablet of iron supplement What is your Aim: Demonstrate if iron supplements have the ...

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Ion Mobility as Explosive Detector

24 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION Explosives are highly reactive substances which possess large amount of energy (potential energy) that leads to the production of explosions, they are usually accomplish with lighten, heat, sound and pressure when they are suddenly released. Explosive can be classified based on their sensitivity, velocity, composition and physical forms [23]. Ion Mobility Spectrometry is an analytical technique which is widely acknowledge in the area of detection ...

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Human Hair Profiling with FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

24 Jan 2018

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Profiling of Human Hairs using FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Technique AUFA MADIHAH BT MOHAMAD ANWAR   Research Proposal Topic Profiling of Human Hairs using FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Technique. This research is about classifying human hair (subjects) using FTIR and Chemometrics. The subjects should be Malay, Woman and included in one of the age group required. (20-30, 31-40, 41-50, >60) ...

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Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Uses and Properties

24 Jan 2018

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CFRP: carbon fiber reinforced polymer Urvish Gajjar In the end of 1800s first time Edison used the carbon fiber in the electricity bulb. CFRP- carbon fiber reinforced polymer is a one type of the carbon fiber. Edison used the fiber into the filament of bulb but he was unsuccessful because his fiber produced by carbonization of cellulose stand such as cotton or from bamboo. ...

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Modernization in High-throughput Bioanalysis by LC–MS/MS

24 Jan 2018

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Introduction and scope Liquid chromatography coupled with MS is widely used in drug discovery and development. Mass spectrometry is a very sensitive technique and is widely regarded as having good selectivity. However, in many applications, it is necessary to isolate the target analyte from what could be a sample containing thousands of other different molecules. Typically, mass spectrometry alone is unable to meet this ...

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Morphology Control in Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis

24 Jan 2018

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Hammed A. Salami   Introduction One of the most significant current discussions in the field of nanotechnology is the development of novel nanomaterials. When materials are reduced from bulk to the nanometer-scale dimension, they begin to exhibit unusual physical and chemical properties [1, 2]. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in the elucidation of the structure-function relationship of these novel nanomaterials [3, ...

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PbS Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Optical Properties

24 Jan 2018

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Sruti Hemachandran Menon   Abstract— PbS quantum dots have attracted more attention in quantum dot sensitized solar cells as sensitizers on photoanode because of its high efficiency, high absorption coefficient and broad range of absorption. In this paper, we synthesized PbS quantum dots on the glass substrate coated with TiO2 paste by SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction) method The quantum dot size ...

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Homogenized Mushroom Tissue Based Biosensors

24 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT Homogenized mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissue based biosensors by using plant tissue materials is a relatively new development in the biosensor technology. A simple in dip stick kind of visual ethanol biosensor that based on immobalised alcohol oxidase (AOX) homogenized from mushroom tissue onto polyaniline (PANI) film for ethanol (> 5% concentration ) detection in toiletries products. The colour going to change from green to blue ...

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Chemical Properties of Silicon and its Uses

24 Jan 2018

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Silicon and its Chemical Properties: Role in Architecture and Construction Introduction Silicon ranks seventh as the most abundant element in the universe and second most abundant element in earth with 27.7% composition of crust by mass (Exley, 1998). Silicon is a metalloid of atomic number 14 and chemical symbol Si discovered by Swedish chemist, Jöns Berzelius in 1823. Natural silicon contains three isotopes: 92.2% of Si-28, ...

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Chemical Analysis of Manuka Honey

24 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Manuka honey Manuka honey is a monofloral honey delivered from the Manuka bush Leptospermum scoparium, has long been known as a food and beverage. Study also suggested that manuka honey has ameliorative properties in wound healing, fungal infections, ophthalmic disorders, diabetes, gastrointestinal tract disorders, skin ulcers and infectors (Medhi et al, 2008). Bees foraging and gather nectar from the manuka bush, create ...

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Copolymerization of Styrene and a Cyclic Peptide

24 Jan 2018

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Putting peptides into the backbone chain of polyolefins: the radical copolymerization of styrene and a cyclic peptide containing the disulfide bond Anja C. Paulya, Daniel Rentschb and Fabio di Lena*a.   Supporting Information ABSTRACT: For the first time, a vinyl monomer such as styrene has been radically copolymerized with a cyclic peptide containing the disulfide bond. A new class of bio-hybrids is obtained in which the ...

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Molecular Functions of Secondary Targets

24 Jan 2018

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Kasun Ratnayake Identifying the relationship between molecular functions of secondary targets and side effects of drugs Abstract Small molecule drugs can involve in unidentified secondary targets other than its primary target in vivo1. The specific binding interactions should be studied in order to identify the potential effects on certain drugs which are administered1. The identification of secondary targets of a drug could help to ...

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Mark Ratner's Concepts of Molecular Electronics

24 Jan 2018

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Mark Ratner and The Basis of the Future: Molecular Electronics Levent Bahadırhan KarakuÅŸ     2. Introduction Mark Ratner, He is professor of chemistry and professor of materials science and engineering at Northwestern University. He studies the theory of fundamental chemical processes related to nanoscale application. Ratner is a member of the Internatioanal Academy of Quantum Molecular Science also, His lectures subjects were “Transport in molecular Junctions”and “Nano ...

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Interactions between Pr(III) & Sm(III) Cations

24 Jan 2018

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pH-metric study of substituted3,5-diaryl isoxazolines complexes in 70% Dioxane solvent media . S.A.Thorat1,S.D.Thakur2 ABSTRACT:- The complex formation between Pr(III)&Sm(III) metal ions and 3-(2-hydroxy-3-nitro-5-methylphenyl)-5-(2-phenylethenyl)isoxazoline[HNMP2EI]L1,3-(2-hydroxy-3-bromo-4-nitro-5-methyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazoline[HBNM4MI]L2,3-(2-hydroxy-3-bromo-4-nitro-5-methyl)-5-(3-nitrophenyl)isoxazoline[HBNM3NI]L3have been studied at 0.1M Ionic Strength (26±0.1)oC in 70% Dioxane water mixture by Bjerrum method as adopted by Calvin & Wilson .It is observed that Pr(III)&Sm(III) metal ions form 1:1 & 1:2 complexes with ligand L1,L2&L3.The data obtained were used to estimate & ...

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Synthesis and Anticancer Activities of 5-halogeno Pyrimidine

24 Jan 2018

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SOLID STATE MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF N-DERIVATIVES OF 5-HALOGENO SUBSTITUTED PYRIMIDINE 2, 4 DIONE BY TAHIRA SAGHIR ABSTRACT This study will report the synthesis of some substituted 5-halogenated pyrimidine 2,4dione by conventional and solid state microwave assisted methods. Derivitization of 5-halogenated pyrimidine,2,4 dione give predominately N1and N3-subsituted compounds where R may be the alkyl ,aryl, allyl, acyl, cyclohexenyleetc. 5-halogenated pyrimidine 2,4 dione derivatives represent ...

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Number of Microorganisms and Level of Spoilage Relationship

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,718 )

1.0 Materials and Method 1.1 Chemicals 50 g of dried powder of curcumin will be extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with 500 mL of 95% ethanol. The process will be done until the solvent is colourless. The extract then will be filtered and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The dried ethanolic extract will be stored for further usage. A stock solution of curcumin will be prepared by dissolving ...

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Nanoparticles: Applications and Impact on Science

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,469 )

Nanoparticles (NPs) functionalised with cores composed of inorganic and organic materials like noble element, magnetic metals, their alloys and oxides, and semiconductors are ehaustively studied and have huge potential for application in various areas. The spectrum of applications are endless and embraces nano-biomedicine, nanoprobes for diagnostics to treatment of diseases, nanobots for early detection of neoplastic cell, nano drug delivery systems, Nanosuspension, SPION, nanolithography for nanoelectronics ...

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Dolutegravir Drug for Virologic Suppression

24 Jan 2018

9 (3,561 )

Graphical abstract: Dolutigravir, second generation integrase inhibitor: A new hope for HIV patients Geeta Yadav Mesra, Ranchi Abstract: Undeterred efforts have been made and will be made in future to make it possible for HIV-infected individuals to achieve the goals of virologic suppression and one more result of this rigrous exercise is dolutegravir drug. It is the recent integrase inhibitor approved by the ...

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Synthesis of API’s and API’s based Derivative

24 Jan 2018

8 (3,096 )

Title of Proposed Project: Efficient synthesis of API’s and API’s based Derivative for their Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacokinetics Profile Project Details Project Summary This project concern with the establishment of organic synthesis facilities in Department of Chemistry, UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI. The established facilities will be used for the training of BS/M.Sc./MS/M.Phil. And Ph.D. scholars in the field of Organic Synthesis. In this project ...

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How Electron Configuration Accounts for Ion Formation

24 Jan 2018

3 (1,045 )

Consider electron configuration as it applies to the periodic table and explain in detail how this accounts for the formation of ions. Elements are arranged in the periodic table (see figure 1) according to their electronic configuration, which describes the number and arrangement of electrons in an atom, helping to make sense of the chemistry of an element. The notion of Electron configuration was first highlighted ...

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Effect of Temperature on the Activation Energy

24 Jan 2018

10 (3,608 )

Title: Investigating the Effect of Temperature on the Activation Energy Planning A. Hypothesis I predict that as temperature rises, the faster are the rates of reaction. The reaction that will be studied in this experiment is between magnesium and sulphuric acid. This reaction is shown in the chemical equation below: Mg (s) + H2S04 (aq) → MgS04 (aq) + H2 (g) In this ...

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Effect of Changing Concentration on the Order of Reaction

24 Jan 2018

16 (6,010 )

Title : An Investigation into the Effect of Changing the Concentration by Continuous Method on the Order of Reaction Planning A. Hypotheses I predict that the rate of reaction is influenced by the concentration of the reactants; and that the rate of reaction and the concentration of reactants decrease as time intervals increase. I predict that the order of reaction is affected ...

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A Study of Tainted Drinking Water

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,533 )

A study of tainted drinking water looked at several cases in Pennsylvania and Texas. The study examined watering wells found contaminated by methane and other hydrocarbon gases. Researchers detected methane gas in excess of 130 Pennsylvania and Texas water wells. At first it was believed that the contamination was caused by fracking in near areas. Shale-gas producing companies use the process of fracking to extract natural ...

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Kiliani-fischer Synthesis of Monosaccharides

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,223 )

Teoh Shi Hao Sean Introduction Monosaccharides are the most basic unit of carbohydrates, playing an essential role in the biochemistry of life. The most important and commonly occurring form is glucose, used as an energy source in cells (Solomon et al., 2011). Monosaccharides have the chemical formula (CH2O)n (where n 3) but those with eight or more carbons are uncommon due to their ...

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Role of Weak Attractions in Macromolecular Structure

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,662 )

Weak attractions in aqueous system? Hydrogen bonding in water. Crucial role of weak attractions in macromolecular structure and function. Muhammad Sanain Javed   Group A Water is also known as universal solvent because it is the only solvent which mostly use in almost every reaction. There are many types of weak attractions which are present in aqueous system. The weak attractions which are present in the ...

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Microphase Separation of Miktoarm Star Copolymers

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,976 )

Abstract: Miktoarm star shaped copolymers have attracted much attention due to their unique shape and intriguing properties compared to the linear block copolymers, including compact structure, higher critical micelle concentration, lower viscosity, efficient synthetic routes and wide range of morphologies. The different synthetic routes such as anionic polymerization and controlled radical polymerization have made it possible to synthesis diverse molecular architecture of copolymer and these diverse ...

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Determination of the pKas for Glycine

24 Jan 2018

8 (3,137 )

Name: Aleksandra Redlinska Lab Partner: Adrianna Czerlonko Lab Instructor: Jenq-Kuen Huang Lab TA: Chandra K.Ailneni Objectives: The purpose of this experiment is to titrate glycine and determine its pKa values. This is done to show that glycine is a dipolar ion. This experiment will help explain how pKa values and pH are closely related and will help show the importance of pH in amino acids. Background: ...

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Synthesis of Substituted Quinazolinones

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,249 )

6. DISCUSSION Heterocyclic compounds, widely distributed in nature are very essential to life. They play a vital role in the metabolism of all living cells. With their high degree of structural diversities and broad spectrum activities, they have proven to be one of the most economically useful chemotherapeutic agents. Synthesis of novel heterocyclic compounds with more potent activities, better efficacy and lower toxicity is the need ...

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Mechanism and Optimization of Melphalan

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,522 )

Melphalan Introduction Cancer in general is referred to body cells that grows rapidly and over the limit of normal cells (Hayflick limit). There’s over 200 different types of cancer, where some cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body leading to further complications. It’s one of the biggest leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore interest in finding treatment and prevention for this disease has ...

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Density and Salinity of Seawater – Comparison of Methods

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,257 )

Sergian Murtanu, Lab partner: Sammy Chaaban Abstract: The goal of this experiment was to compare the salinity of seawater from different methods. The average salinity in seawater is around 35 parts per thousand. 3 The BOD bottles were used to find the density of seawater, the equation to state was then applied, using density to determine the salinity. The salinity of seawater from the ...

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Quantum Mechanics in Commerce

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,523 )

Alec Bolme Tobi Odeleye In today’s world, there are general rules that everything seems to follow. This can include simple things like how putting force on an object or pushing it will result in the object moving in the direction of the force. Also things such as how gravity will affect an object make it fall. If someone were to let go of an ...

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Chemical Analysis of Water Supply

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,564 )

Introductions This EEI’s purposed is to identify and make justified conclusions to three unlabelled water supply that have been taken from different locations within the Kedron Brook area. Using several tests to find which water supply came from, measuring its pH, turbidity, conductivity and etc. There are other task such as systematic analysis (comparing and contrasting previous year student’s results) and how to make water drinkable. ...

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Quantification of Bioactive Compounds in Mentat Tablet (MT)

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,950 )

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of twenty-eight major bioactive compounds in Mentat tablet (MT), a complex Indian herbal medicine used in the treatment of neurological disorder and improvement of mental health. Multiple-reaction monitoring scanning was employed for quantification in positive and negative mode. The analysis was accomplished on Waters AQUITY UPLC BEH C18 ...

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Organotin (IV) Compounds: Chemistry, Properties and Uses

22 Jan 2018

10 (3,638 )

Introduction 1.1 Tin Element It is undeniably that many research and studies had been done in the field of organotin chemistry for the past half century. Sn which is symbol bared by tin which is called as stannum in Latin. It is placed on group 14 and period 5 in the periodic table with atomic number of 50. It has an electronic configuration of [Kr] 4d10 ...

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Screening of Non Target Compounds in Wastewater Samples

22 Jan 2018

4 (1,600 )

Report Since October 2012, I have worked in a special project about Elimination of pharmaceuticals and organic compounds: Development of concepts and novel, cheap cleaning procedures – Formation of metabolites by ozonoation. It was a kind of training for me and a special key for my PhD work. We are interested in screening of non target compounds in wastewater samples. Wastewater samples are collected from different ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Chromium Complexes

22 Jan 2018

6 (2,042 )

Chromium is one of the transition metal in periodic table that is known for its ability in improving one’s health condition by preventing diseases and gives treatment. However in human body, only very small amounts of chromium are required and they are often regarded as the essential trace element in human body. Back in 1950s, the uses of chromium as nutritional and medical enhancement to glucose ...

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Dipole Moment of 5- Fluorouracil Molecule

22 Jan 2018

8 (2,941 )

Computational Term Paper: Theoretical studies on 5- fluorouracil to calculate its dipole moment, and how the values compare with other pyrimidine analog (namely uracil and thymine) and that of literature. Name: Farzana Nushin Rezvi   Abstract: In this experiment, the dipole moment of 5- Fluorouracil molecule was determined using the Gaussian software, and compared with literature values. The dipole moments of other pyrimidine analogs, namely Thymine ...

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Quantitative Determination of Sulphate

22 Jan 2018

10 (3,703 )

Quantitative Determination of Sulphate by Gravimetric Analysis Yeo Yi Joshua Gravimetric analysis is a quantitative method to determine the amount of a substance, sulphate, by selective precipitation of the substance from an aqueous solution. In this experiment, the amount of sulphate is determined quantitatively as barium sulphate, BaSO4 by gravimetric analysis. This experiment will allow one to determine the amount of sulphate SO42- ...

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Determination of Substance through Density

22 Jan 2018

8 (3,124 )

DExperiment #1 DENSITY OF SUBSTANCES Prepared by Paul Okweye and Malinda Gilmore   Purpose of the Experiment To learn about the properties of matter such as density that are used as a method of physical identification. In this experiment the objectives are: To teach the correct use of a balance and graduated cylinders, To determine the densities of solids, pure liquids and solutions, To determine ...

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Effect of Temperature and Cu2+ on Abscorbic Acid Stability

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,840 )

Effects of Temperature, pH and Cu2+ on Abscorbic Acid Stability NAME: Sophia Chai Lai Jin   Objectives: To perform a selected redox titrimetric procedure. To measure the stability of ascorbic acid under various conditions. Introduction L-ascorbic acid as known as Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for humans. L-ascorbic acid is one of the most potent compounds acting as an antioxidant in biological systems ...

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Cytotoxic Activities and Synthesis of Plumbagin

22 Jan 2018

10 (3,674 )

3.1 Introduction Plants produce a large number of diverse natural products or secondary metabolites which are involved in the normal cell growth, development or reproduction of organisms. Some of these compounds offer protection against herbivores and microbial pathogens, while others are involved in defense against abiotic stress, such as UV-B exposure Many of the secondary metabolites have interesting biological properties, which make them desirable candidates for optimization ...

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Role of Organic Geochemistry in Petroleum

22 Jan 2018

8 (2,906 )

A review on role of organic geochemistry in petroleum; characterization and applications of different basins Harish Chandra Joshi   Abstract Petroleum is a mixture dominantly of hydrocarbons with varying proportions of non-hydrocarbon constituents and traces of organometallic compounds. Generally Petroleum has an average composition of 85% carbon, 13% hydrogen, and 2% of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. The aim of study is to find out the physicochemical and ...

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Identifying Macromolecules by Means of Colour Change

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,646 )

By Marike Coetzee B Dietetics II 1. Introduction 1.1 Aim The purpose of this lab was to observe the colour changes (due to chemical reactions) indicators had on different macromolecules in food;1 such as starch, proteins and lipids; and then to identify the macromolecules found in an Unknown solution. These known solutions contained different types of macromolecules which each reacted with at least one indicator solution ...

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Ammonium Perchlorate Decomposition in Nano-titania

22 Jan 2018

11 (4,099 )

Thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate in the presence of commercial nano-titania Mostafa Mahinroosta*   Abstract Addition of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (especially transition metal oxides) to ammonium perchlorate improves its thermal decomposition via decreasing the high temperature of decomposition. Two mechanisms including electron-transfer and proton-transfer have been proposed for thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. In this research field, nanometer transition metal oxides have attracted a ...

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Synthesis of Aquasomes With Different Compositions

22 Jan 2018

6 (2,286 )

Executive Summary of Research Proposal (maximum 300 words) (Please include the problem statement, objectives, research methodology, expected output/outcomes/implication, and significance of output from the research project) The last three decades have witnessed remarkable and breathtaking advances in the field of biotechnology, biochemistry, molecular biology and peptide synthesis. These developments have facilitated the pharmaceutical industry to make remarkable progress in the development of peptide and proteins as ...

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Assessment of Naproxen and Paracetamol in Mixed Tablet

22 Jan 2018

7 (2,512 )

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ASSESSMENT OF NAPROXEN AND PARACETAMOL IN MIXED TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-UPLC K.KANAKAPARVATHI*, Vijay Nagarjan, Santha Arcot and CH Hemanth Kumar.   ABSTRACT An advancement design and corroboration for simultaneous assessment of Naproxen (NAP) and Paracetamol (PAR) in merged tablet dosage form by UPLC. The column used in determination was C18 thermo fisher (50cm x 4.6 mm x 3µm), mobile ...

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Synthesis and Properties of Liquid Crystals for VAN

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,910 )

Synthesis and properties of liquid crystals for vertically aligned nematic (VAN) displays Introduction Liquid crystals where first observed in 1853 and 1855 by Rudolph Virchow and C. Mettenheimer respectively, both observed a flowing fluid like compound which was birefringent (brightly coloured) between cross-polarisers much like a crystalline solid, hence the compound was both liquid and crystal thus liquid crystal. [3, 4]. It was not until the ...

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Copper: Structure, Functions and Chemistry

22 Jan 2018

7 (2,408 )

COPPER (I) Copper has played a significant role in the history of human civilization, he was the first metal produced on a larger scale and used for practical purposes. Copper has been used by humans since ancient times, in the oldest antiquity and almost certainly soon after gold and argint. Archeologists discovered objects of this metal dating from 8700 BC, the occurrence of copper, much ...

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Biflavone and a Plant Sterol Isolated from Antidesma bunius

22 Jan 2018

4 (1,228 )

A Biflavone and a Plant Sterol Isolated from Antidesma bunius (Linn.) Spreng. Ivan L. Lawagai,* Suad Naheedb, Mohammed Mosihuzzamanc, Allan, Patrick G. Macabeoadeg, Erickson Paragasefk, Peter Prokschh, Alicia M. Aguinaldoaeg   Keywords: Antidesma, Antidesma bunius, Amentoflavone, Betasitosterol, biflavone, sterols 1. Subject and source Antidesma bunius (Linn.) Spreng. (Euphrbiaceae) ‘‘bignay” is a common plant found throughout the Philippines. The bark is poisonous as it contains an alkaloid ...

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Free Surface Energy of Polymers

22 Jan 2018

12 (4,693 )

Free surface energy of polymers. Poly(itaconate)s and poly(methacrylate)s Ligia Gargallo1, Claudia Aguirre2, Angel Leiva2, Deodato Radic Abstract: The free surface energy (SE) for a series of mono and diesters derived from poly(itaconic) acid, was determined by wettability measurements and estimated by theoretical calculations from Sugden’s Parachor. For these polymers it was observed a decreaseing in the free surface energy as the size of the chain of ...

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Enhancing Paracetamol with Silver Metal Ions

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,708 )

1- Introduction The paracetamol (Fig. 1) is one of the famous analgesic drugs which is commonly named as N-acetyl-4-amino-phenol. Paracetamol has an antipyretic medication with little toxicological side effect [1-7]. The fluorometry [8], luminescence [9], electrochemical [10], nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy [11] and liquid chromatography [12] are different analyses techniques used to determination of paracetamol drug in pure and pharmaceutical fashions. Paracetamol has a side ...

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Sulfur Dioxide and Oxides of Nitrogen

22 Jan 2018

6 (2,395 )

Alan Chan Since the Industrial revolution, there were great increases in emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates, deteriorating air qualities more dominantly in industrial cities but also suburban areas and environments close by. Two of the very evident and dominant gases which cause much damage to our Earth include both sulfur dioxides and oxides of nitrogen which when reacted with water turn acidic through ...

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Vapour Pressure as a Function of Temperature of Ether

22 Jan 2018

14 (5,586 )

Xin Wang Title To measure the enthalpy of vaporization and the boiling point of diethyl ether by cooling the ether down and continuously recording a series of different temperature readings and their corresponding vapour pressure values. Abstract Vapour pressure p of ether under a series of different temperatures T were measured and three repeats were done. The three graphs of ln(p) against 1/T were ...

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Acid Leaching for Metallic Impurities

22 Jan 2018

10 (3,863 )

Acid Leaching for Metallic Impurities Evaluation of Some Mineral Ores in Nigeria *R.L. Tyohemba1& S. K. Emgba2   Abstract There is every need to access the impurity ratio of mineral ores in order to furnish investors and industrialists with information required to weigh the gains of venturing into their exploration. Metallic ores including; Zinc ore (Sphalerite), Iron ore (Magnetite), Iron ore (Heamatite), Copper ore (chalcocite), Lead ...

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Quantitation by Extraction

22 Jan 2018

5 (1,672 )

Syed Masood Hassan Akbari INTRODUCTION A liquid-liquid extraction phase consists of a component (a) which is to be removed from the feed phase. The addition of a second phase (b) a solvent phase which is immiscible with the feed phase but the component (a) is soluble in both the feed phase and the solvent phase. As it happens the solute (a) is transferred from ...

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