Blood Protozoan Disease Theileriosis: Causes and Prevalence

25 Jan 2018

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The genesis of the problem has been the introduction of the 6 cows from Rajasthan, a hot and dry state of India in the Holstein cross bred herd in the Graphic Era University dairy at Dehradun capital of hill state of India. Suddenly after introduction of these Sindhi cows there was death of death of 8 cross breed cows in 2010. In spite all possible veterinary ...

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Screening of Exopolysaccharides Producing Bacteria Strains

25 Jan 2018

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1.0 Introduction Among the microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) play a significant role in main physiological functions and applications. The increased demand for current and natural polymeric materials by several industrial fields such as pharmaceutical, food and others has moved the interest to the polysaccharides produced by microorganism during the past years. Polysaccharide is a macromolecule comprising more than about ten monosaccharides residues linked glycosidically in branch ...

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Functions of Food and Food Types

25 Jan 2018

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Introduction: A look over past decade shows an evident surge of consumer concern towards the health augmenting role of some specific foods which are refer as functional foods. Evidently all foods that we consume are functional in nature as they dispense specific aroma, taste and nutritive value, however during last decade the term has been related to the food stuff which has some additional ...

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Analyzing the Phylum Chordata through Biology

25 Jan 2018

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Hamza Ali Introduction: The topic chosen for this biological study was the Kingdom Animalia. This study will specifically be analyzing the Phylum Chordata, by providing an introduction to Chordates, Vertebrates, The Classification method of Cladistics, Fish, Amphibian, and Reptiles. What are vertebrates? -Vertebrates are known as animals that have an internal spine made of bone.Vertebrates include reptiles, amphibians, fish, birds, mammals, primates, rodents and ...

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CD8+ effector and memory T cells Differentiation

25 Jan 2018

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What controls CD8+ effector and memory T cells differentiation? Introduction: The capability of initiating and cultivating a population of memory T cells is the key component of an effective adaptive immune response and the fundamental foundation for a productive vaccine since memory cells can trigger an aggressive response upon reinfection. Throughout an infection, T cells can differentiate into a multitude of effector and memory cells, which ...

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Role Of Bacteria In Assisting Cancer

25 Jan 2018

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Cancer can be promoted by several pathogenic bacteria to initiate abnormal cell growth by attacking the immune system or suppressing apoptosis (Mager 2006). However, bacterial toxins can still be used for tumor suppressor and cancer vaccines on immunotoxins of bacterial origin(Patyar et al. 2010). Bacterial colonization of tumors was initially attributed to the hypoxic nature of solid tumors (low O2 levels).30 It has been proposed that ...

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ATP and Adenosine: Biochemistry and Metabolism

25 Jan 2018

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ATP and adenosine: biochemistry and metabolism Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an endogenously occurring nucleoside triphosphate, which is ubiquitous in all cell types and constitutes the natural precursor molecule of adenosine, (AD) a purine nucleoside formed by adenine and ribose. One ATP molecule consists of three phosphate groups, and is synthetized by several enzymes, namely ATP synthase, from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP is ...

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Impact of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) on Biology

25 Jan 2018

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PCR- How has this technique revolutionised molecular biology in the last 30 years? PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) has been in existence for several decades now and in that time has become one of the most commonly used of all lab techniques in biology. In its simplest form it is a way of enzymatically replicating a chosen section of DNA in vitro, without the need for any ...

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Absent Joining Chain Effect on Immune Response

25 Jan 2018

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Critical Review of a Journal Kallberg, E. and Leanderson, T., 2006. Joining-chain (J-chain) negative mice are B cell memory deficient. European Journal of Immunology, 36, 1398-1403. Overview The journal article falls under the main subject area of cellular immune response, where the effect of the absence of joining chain locus on T- cell dependent immune responses on mice was explored. While the authors’ previous study establishes ...

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High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assays: Uses and Formats

25 Jan 2018

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The increasing demands placed upon the pharmaceutical industry to produce a rapid turnaround of new drugs is a driving factor in the automation of the processes at the initial screening stage of drug discovery. This has lead to the development of numerous high throughput screening (HTS) assays, with the increasing miniaturization of the whole process (1). An explosion in genomic and proteomic studies in recent decades ...

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Microbial Mutagenicity Tests: Strategies and Benefits

25 Jan 2018

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Human beings are exposed to an ever-increasing array of chemicals; from food additives, medicines and cosmetics to environmental exposure to pesticides and flame-retardants. It is essential to establish the potential toxicity of these compounds before they are used, and in particular to assess their capacity to cause mutational damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Such genotoxicity can cause heritable damage to germline DNA or may increase the ...

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Classification System of Ectomychorrhizae Fungi

25 Jan 2018

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Introduction Cladistics is a method of phylogenetic systematics which aims to determine an organism's classification, by decent, in a taxonomic system. Cladistics uses synapomorphies, which are shared derived characteristics, between groups of organisms to make decisions about how the group fits into the classification system. For this cladistic study the group of organisms known as ectomycorrhizae fungi has been selected. Ectomychorrhizal (EM) fungi plays a key ...

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Antibodies Inhibit Prion Propagation

25 Jan 2018

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Critical Essay of “Antibodies inhibit prion propagation and clear cell cultures of prion infectivity.” Background Information Prions are the actual action centers of nervous system diseases (Selkoe, 2005, 193). They are a dendritic package that replicates and spreads neural diseases (Selkoe, 2005, 193). They also are can be considered the pathways or pathogenic agents that help to transmit various nervous system diseases such as scrapie and ...

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The Occurrence and Function of Play Behaviour in Mammals

25 Jan 2018

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Summary Play in mammals is a widely reported behaviour. It tends to occur in younger mammals and diminishes as they reach adulthood. Play in young mammals often mimics adult behaviour that is essential for survival e.g., predatory skills. This has led to the theory that the function of play is to enable young mammals to practice and develop the skills that are required for adult survival. ...

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Saliva Analysis for Diabetes: Pros and Cons

25 Jan 2018

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Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a common and widespread disease, characterised by poor regulation of glucose due to pancreatic insufficiency. Traditional methods of diagnosis and monitoring utilise blood glucose analysis and highly accurate mechanisms exist for this. However, as many insulin dependent diabetics have to monitor their own blood glucose, the constant obtaining and testing of blood can be very inconvenient and reduce patient compliance. Therefore the ...

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MCP-1: Origins and Uses for Inflammatory Treatment

25 Jan 2018

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Introduction Chemokines are able to attract and activate leukocyte subsets in exclusion to other subsets (1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory chemokine that targets monocytes, T lymphocytes and cells that express the C-C chemokine receptor (2) including myocytes (3). MCP-1 (also known as CCL2) was the third chemokine to be purified to homogeneity, after platelet factor 4 and interleukin 8 (4). It ...

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The Microstructure of a Cell

25 Jan 2018

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The microstructure of a cell is made up of a complex system of organelles. Each organelle has an important function with regards to the production and transport of information into the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein. The nucleus contains DNA, the coded information required for protein synthesis. The genetic information coded within the nucleus is transcribed and exported via mRNA to associate with the ...

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Literature Review on Impacts and Causes of Food Bacteria

25 Jan 2018

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The results show that foods tested varied considerably both in the degree of microbial contamination and the types of bacteria present. Bile salts in the MacConkey agar allow selective growth of bacteria adapted to grow in the mammalian intestinal tract (Heritage et al. 1996). The majority of these are Enterobacteriacae (enteric bacteria), including pathogens such as Escherichia coli (coliforms) and Salmonella spp., many of which are ...

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Anti-inflammatory Profile of Alnus nepalensis Leaves

25 Jan 2018

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Anti-inflammatory profile of Alnus nepalensis leaves extracts: In-vitro and in-vivo study Archana Saxena1, Deepti Yadav2, Anant kumar1, Madan M.Gupta2, Dnyaneshwar U.Bawankule1   ABSTRACT Ethnopharmacological relevance: Alnus nepalensis has been used in the traditional medicine to treat the inflammatory conditions in India, Korea and China but it lacks proper pharmacological intervention. Aim of the study: To evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory profile of A. nepalensis leaves ...

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Biological Causes of Alzheimer's Disease

25 Jan 2018

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Alzheimer’s disease is driven by two processes: extracellular deposits of beta amyloid and intracellular accumulation of tau protein.[9] “It is characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β peptide, generated by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase.”[10p554] The APP gene provides instructions for making APP. This protein is found in many tissues and organs including the brain and the spinal cord. It plays ...

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Bovine Spongy Encephalitis (BSE) in Japan

25 Jan 2018

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The essay aims to investigate the issue of Bovine Spongy Encephalitis (BSE) in Japan, with particular emphasis on the meat traceability system adopted by the Japanese regulatory authorities and its implications for the Japanese food markets, its beef industry, and the hospitality industry. Presumably written in late 2005 or early 2006, some three years after BSE reared its head in Japan, the essay attempts to trace ...

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Cell Cycle-related Genes Expression in HGA

25 Jan 2018

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Cell cycle-related genes are prognostic markers of survival in high grade astrocytomas Highlights: A total of 598 genes were identified as significant risk genes for prognosis. Prognosis genes including CDC6 and AURKA had higher degrees in the PPI network. CDC6, AURKA and CHEK1 were mainly enriched in cell cycle and mitotic cell cycle. Abstract Objective: High grade astrocytoma (HGA) is a kind of aggressive ...

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Efficacy of Antimicrobial Preservatives

25 Jan 2018

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Abstract. The aim of the experiment is to test the efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives by means of investigating the survival of one selected species of micro-organism which is deliberately introduced into the tested products. Introduction. Cosmetic products are not expected to be sterile as the raw materials used in their production, especially those originating from plants, animals or soil are often contaminated with micro-organisms. The extent ...

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DNASE1 VNTR polymorphism and SLE

25 Jan 2018

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Deoxyribonuclease I (DNASE1) polymorphism and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in Iranian population Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani1,2 ,Saeedeh Salimi1,2*, Maryam Moossavi3,Mahnaz Sandoughi4, Zahra Zakeri4, Maryam Khoddamian2 Abstract Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease. The etiology of SLE is multi-factorial and both genetic and environmental factors play role. In SLE patients a reduction of DNASE1 activity is observed. The aim of this study was ...

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Understanding an Unknown Protein Sequence

25 Jan 2018

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Title Understanding an unknown protein sequence provided that was found to be [Physcomitrella patens] >gi|162695322|gb|EDQ81666.1| Seq ID: gi|168001481|ref|XP_001753443.1S Abstract A protein sequence was provided to be subjected to the manipulation of various bioinformatics tools. The protein was found to be a predicted protein of Physcomitrella patens that is an important bryophyte that is utilised in general genomic studies such as reverse genetics, molecular farming, the production ...

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Analysis of Testicular Histological Structure in Lambs

25 Jan 2018

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Testicular Histological Structure and Scrotal During Postnatal Development till puberty Circumference in Najdi and Naemi Ram Lambs Ahmed A. Al-kawmania,,. Faisal M. Abou-Tarbousha,. Mohammad Abul Faraha,. Mansour M. Alfuraijib,. Salah A. Ibrahima. Abstract The present work is conducted to elucidate the relationship among chronological age, testis size, and the postnatal development of the seminiferous epithelium of the testes of the Najdi and Naemi ram ...

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Threats to Urban Bird Populations

25 Jan 2018

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Emily Bailes, Ann Bailey, Matheus Blezer Plumm, Tom McClellan-West, Lizzie Yarwood - Introduction The enigmatic creatures of the sky, birds are creatures that are treasured by many around the world, by some as cultural symbolism, others a hobby to indulge in and some just find their presence a pleasant addition to a grey and largely urban world. Human colonisation has had a huge impact ...

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Characterization of Leishmania Major in Dogs

25 Jan 2018

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Characterization of Leishmania major in dogs as a reservoir of the parasite, in Shiraz, southern Iran Summary Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with diverse clinical manifestations is prevalent and remains a major public health problem in Iran and its incidence has been increased over the last decade. The primary hosts of Leishmania are sylvatic mammals of several orders (Rodentia, Marsupialia, Carnivora, etc.). A PCR assay using a of ...

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Proteins for Xylose Utilization

25 Jan 2018

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Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic biomass, comprising up to 35% of the total carbohydrates (Lee, 1997; Saha, 2003; Jeffries and Jin. 2004; Qin et al, 2012). Microorganisms possess three different pathways for D-xylose degradation. The first pathway, present in many bacteria and few fungi, involves xylose isomerase which converts d-xylose to xylulose and phosphorylation of xylulose by xylulokinase followed by its entry ...

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Types of Agriculture and Farming

25 Jan 2018

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AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES Food is the major indispensable, fundamental and vital need of the people. “It has been calculated that a human under stress, performing hard labor, needs 2000grams of water, 470 grams of dry weight various carbohydrates and fats, 60 to 70grams of dry weight proteins and the appropriate amount of vitamins and minerals. Otherwise said, the colony will need a minimum of 30000 ...

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Determining Side Effects of Tumor Size Reducing Drugs

25 Jan 2018

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[APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SIDE EFFECTS OF TUMOR SIZE REDUCING DRUGS] 1. Introduction: Objective: Pfizer have developed a new drug that appears to reduce the size of specific tumors but are concerned about what effect the drug might have on normal tissue. Outline how you would use DNA technology to address this issue. Cancer disease has large ...

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Pseudomonas Syringae Caused by Avrpt2

25 Jan 2018

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‘RIN 4 Orthologs’ Maheen Rashid   Introduction Plants are susceptible to a wide range of bacterial diseases. Depending on the origin of the infection, these diseases can be localized within the stems, leaves or the roots of the infected plant. When a human body is compromised, as a result of it being infected by a bacterial disease, the infection’s symptoms can thus be visually ...

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Management and Mechanism of Amikacin induced Nephrotoxicity

25 Jan 2018

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Jasmeen Kaur Savita Kumari Amit Barwal Dr. Anil Sharma   Abstract— Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problem. It occurs when the body is exposed to various agents like drugs like aminoglycoside, antimicrobial agents, NSAIDS etc or toxins such as mercury, lead, arsenic etc. Aminoglycosides are one of the oldest antibiotics used to treat serious infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive ...

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Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP) Caused by Clomipramine

25 Jan 2018

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Clomipramine-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia-like syndrome leading to acute respiratory failure: a report of first described case Drugs are well-known causes of eosinophilic lung disease and patients with drug-induced eosinophilic lung disease can have variable clinical presentations. Clinical features may range from asymptomatic eosinophilic infiltrates to acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)-like syndrome leading to acute respiratory failure. This report describes the first case of clomipramine-induced AEP-like syndrome causing ...

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Analysis of Water Supply for E.Coli

25 Jan 2018

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In Canada, the research shows that at least one coliform or pathogenic bacterium present in 28% of water dispensed in workplaces when compared to 22% of contaminated tap water samples (Rim, 2009). The quality of drinking water dispensed from water cooler were complying with the WHO drinking water standard and Egyptian drinking water standard that concluded that microbial contamination had occurred inside the water cooler. The ...

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Role of Genetics in Obesity

25 Jan 2018

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Sabita Tamang Introduction This non-practical research report will include the role of individuals’ genetics in abnormal weight gain (obesity). Obesity is described as someone whose weight is above the normal weight (Medicinenet, 2013). A person is considered to be obese if their weight is 20% above the ideal weight, taking into consideration of their height, age, sex and figure (Medicinenet, 2013). . National Institutes ...

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Role of the Microglia Cells

25 Jan 2018

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Joshua Sael Microglia is an endogenous immunohomeostatic neuronal support cells in the Central nervous system (CNS) (Kettenmann et al., 2011). Microglial cells are responsible for surveying brain and spinal cord (invertebrates and vertebrates), in protection from pathogens and injury, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity and immune homeostasis (Garden and Moller, 2006). Microglia’s homeostatic function achieves profound salubrious therapeutic state corollary for prophylaxis of neurological health in ...

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Dominant Hemisphere of the Brain for Languages

25 Jan 2018

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BRAIN TUMOR A STUDY OF THE DOMINANT HEMISPHERE FOR LANGUAGES IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN TUMOR Author –Mitali Srivastava ABSTRACT Tumors are deviant organ system containing a convoluted interplay between the neoplastic compartment and recruited vascular, inflammatory, and stromal elements, Human brain tumor consist of multitude of various different tumors that can be distinguish at both histological as well as molecular level, it consist of wide ...

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Extraction of DNA from Green Split Peas and Chicken Livers

25 Jan 2018

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Lisa Lyons   Abstract: In this experiment, I extracted DNA from the cells of Green Split Peas and Chicken Livers. I used different variables for each. First, I did the experiment with all materials being cold. The second time I did the experiment with materials at room temperature. My objective was to see which method would extract more DNA. The results were that the ...

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Understanding Nutrient Interactions Within Simple Ecosystem

25 Jan 2018

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Jenny Shoener Lab Partners: Garrett, Jilda, & Ying Purpose The purpose of conducting this experiment was to see an overview of how an ecosystem works. Also to view how organisms and the environment interact to carry out a functional system. While observing and experimenting, it would show how the cycles work together along with organisms living in the ecosystem effect the water quality. This ...

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α-glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of Coffee

25 Jan 2018

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Abstract The activity-based fractionation of coffee solutions by a series of chromatography techniques led to the isolation of an active compound I which exhibited a strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. The structure of compound I was established as norharman (9H-pyrido[3.4-b]indole) on the basis of HR-FAB-MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 1H-1H COSY spectra. Compound I potently inhibited α-glucosidase in a concentration dependent manner but it did ...

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Oxygen Production During Photosynthesis

25 Jan 2018

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Oxygen Production During Photosynthesis Meera Kapadia and Amirah Mohd Ariff   Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the role of light in the production of oxygen gas through photosynthesis. The independent variable for this investigation was the time elapsed between recordings of the location of the sodium bicarbonate edge; the dependent variable was the displacement of the sodium bicarbonate edge; and ...

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Master Genes Involved in Cotton Fiber Development

25 Jan 2018

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Cotton fibers are seed trichomes, which are single celled and arose from the epidermal layers of ovules. Fibre formation in cotton has divided into four distinct stages viz; fibre initiation, elongation, secondary cell wall accumulation and maturation. In fiber initiation stage up to 15-25% of epidermal cells of cotton ovules are differentiated into lint fibers which generally occurs between 0 to 1 DPA, then these fibre ...

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Protein Precipitation & Isolation of Casein from Milk

25 Jan 2018

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A. Dilshan Jayawickrama Protein Precipitation Methods and Isolation of Casein from Milk  Introduction Protein is one of the major constituent of all living organisms on earth which are made up of in a sequence of amino acid. They are linear polymers of amino acids with high molecular weights which are known as ...

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Oil Degrading Bacteria: History of and Processes

25 Jan 2018

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Oil Degrading Bacteria Introduction Oil degrading bacteria are considered as the dominant hydrocarbon which helps in degrading the aquatic systems such as oceans. These bacteria’s are capable of diverse metabolic pathways which enable them to utilize most recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons that are not present in fungi. In recent years the microbial biodegradation of pollutants is a sustainable ways to clean up contaminated environment which is strive by ...

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Life Cycle of the G. Lamblia

25 Jan 2018

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Thuy Truc Pham Giardiasis Giardiasis, which is a protozoan infection in human, is caused by Giardia lamblia (synonyms as Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis). This disease is sometimes known as traveller’s diarrhoea, causing problems all around the world. The causative agent presents in two distinct forms: the disease-causing trophozoite and the dormant infectious cyst. This essay is to review the strategies employed by G. ...

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Relationship Between Myofibroblasts and Progenitor Cells

25 Jan 2018

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Introduction The liver is an organ with high regenerative ability in case of massive parenchymal cell loss it can restore its mass. Even if often thought of in the circumstance of acute liver damage. The liver reconstitution and regeneration are also related with fibrosis in acute liver damage. It is provided by recent literature that it has novel insights establishing a job for progenitor cells and ...

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Therapeutic Effects of Caffeine

25 Jan 2018

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Abstract Caffeine which is part of many beverages like tea, coffee, energy drinks, cola drinks and chocolates is one of the widely used stimulants by the human population all over the world. The consumption of caffeine varies across age groups. Generally adults follow a pattern in the consumption related to the time of the day, the sleep-wake cycle and other behavioral attributes. Caffeine acts as adenosine ...

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Using Fish Geometric Morphometric Markers

25 Jan 2018

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Use of Fish Geometric Morphometric Markers for Characterizing Shape Variations of Selected Fishes: Family Leiognathidae in the Marine Waters of Zamboanga City, Western Mindanao, Philippines Roldan T. Echem Abstract [AU1] In this investigation, geometric morphometric analysis was used to determine the extent and degree of morphological diversity within and among four species of fishes under Family Leiognathidae and one out-group under Family Menidae collected ...

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Declining Honey Bee Population: Causes and Effects

25 Jan 2018

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Abstract Introduction Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) numbers have declined significantly in recent years and there are numerous theories as to why. One of the fore runners is the emergence of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is: “an unsolved decline in honey bees from parts of the United States, Europe, and Asia” (Evans and Schwarz 2011). Even though a comprehensive idea of what causes Colony Collapse Disorder ...

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Preparation and Characterization of Mulbery Silk Films

23 Jan 2018

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Abstract: The silk films were prepared by dissolving degummed Bombyx mori raw silk fibers in LiBr salt solution using double distilled water as a solvent and subjecting the solution to dialysis using cellulose tube. These films may be of some use in treating burn injuries. We have characterized these films using X-rays and other physical methods to obtain information about the structure-property relation. We have also ...

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Environmental Impact of Tobacco

23 Jan 2018

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Price Anders Environmental Biology Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Surgeon General's report, approximately 443,000 U.S. adults die from smoking-related illnesses each year. In addition, smoking has been estimated to cost the United States $96 billion in direct medical expenses and $97 billion in lost productivity annually (Current Cigarette). ...

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Peregrine Falcon Management in Pennsylvania

23 Jan 2018

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Nikki McGaughey   Introduction Peregrine falcons are incredibly creatures, in and around the United States throughout history. They have been captivating our imaginations, being the fastest animal in the world, reaching up to 278 miles per hour in a stoop. According to scientists this should not even be possible, with the average weight of a ...

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Feasibility of Single-port Complete Thoracoscopic Lobectomy

23 Jan 2018

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Clinical comparisons of single-port versus three-port complete thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer patients Abstract Objective: To compare the feasibility and safety of single-port versus three-port complete thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 60 lung cancer patients from June 2014 to August 2014 in Department of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University. There were 30 patients in single-port complete ...

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Strategies for Prevention of Global Warming Effects

23 Jan 2018

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Rachel Tomsett How can we as a species prevent the continued effects of global warming and to what extent has irreversible damage already occurred? Global warming, also known as climate change, describes the rising temperature of the atmosphere and ocean. Throughout all of earth’s history climate has been a very fluctuate factor (for example the ice age). However if you take into account how ...

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Insertion of L. hesperus TuSp1 Gene into B. mori

23 Jan 2018

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Research Plan Detailing the Insertion of L. hesperus TuSp1 gene into B. mori Team 5: Riley Capizzi, Mingming Li, Jia Mikuls, Sarah Mrozek, Eric Nagarajan, Chandini Nair, Nate Payne, Matt Smith, Evan Templeman; 7 May 2014 Introduction: Figure 1. TuSp1 molecular structure (Solution structures of TuSp1 domains). The amino acid sequence of the TuSp1 gene contains a signal peptide at the N terminus that is ...

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Dent's Disease: Symptoms, Genetics, and Treatments

23 Jan 2018

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Dent's Disease Alessander Leyendecker Junior Clinical Aspects Dent's disease is a recently characterized syndrome caused by a genetic mutation that leads to a renal tubular disorder and is characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction. The proximal tubule is responsable for the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose and low-molecular-weight proteins (like retinol binding protein and α1 microglobulin and β2 microglobulin) and for the ...

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Development of Relational Enzymes Function Model

23 Jan 2018

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Development of Relational Enzymes Function Model for Medicinal Plants. June 2015 CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM DESIGN System Perspective/Architectural Design The main perspective of the system is to manage the enzymes details with proper structure and EC no. As the system is organized specially for the differently abled people it is designed in such a way that the person must be convenient in using the ...

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Testing GMO Content of Food Products

23 Jan 2018

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In order to double food production for the increasing population of the world. That is predicted to be around 11 billion people by the year 2050 (James and Krattiger 1996). The scientists and the developing communities believed that the conventional agriculture process would not produce enough food and resources to sustain the increasing population. This has lead scientists to research new technologies that will help increase ...

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Comparison of Light Microscope and Electron Microscope

23 Jan 2018

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  Light Microscope Electron Microscope (EM) How it works The stage of the microscope holds slides containing specimens. You can adjust the stage adding further light or move it allowing different layers of the object to be in focus. The user then looks through the microscope eyepiece, where amirrorat the bottom of the microscope ...

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Retroviral Mediated Gene Transfer

23 Jan 2018

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Retroviral methodology is an effectual method to integrate interested genes into animal genomes (Van et al., 1985). It is considered as a naturally occurring gene transfering system to integrate DNA into mammalian cells (Varmus, 1998). In 1974, the first healthy mice, that carry copies of foreign viral DNA was made by microinjecting SV40 DNA into the blastocysts (Jaenisch R, Mintz, 1974). Consequently, the germline transmission of ...

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Literature Review: Diabetes, Inflammation and Obesity

23 Jan 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW DIABETES The metabolic disease diabetes mellitus is marked by high blood glucose concentration as a result of impairment in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. The primary cause of high blood glucose concentration is most of the time not obvious as to be a result of either defects in insulin secretion or insulin action on target tissues since both impairments often occur in the same ...

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Allelic Polymorphisms of Leptin Gene in Sheep

23 Jan 2018

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Allelic polymorphisms of Leptin gene in Najdi and Naeimi sheep of Saudi Arabia Mahmoud A.H.1, Saleh A.A. 2, Almealamah N.A. 3, Abou-tarboush F.M. 1, Aljumaah R.S. 3 and Abouheif M.A. *3 Abstract Leptin hormone plays an important role in many biological processes in animals and humans, such as appetite, immune system and reproduction. In the present study, the genetic variability in the leptin (LEP) exon 3 gene ...

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Report on RNA-seq Transcriptomics

23 Jan 2018

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Giannakis Nikolaos Introduction Transcriptomics Transcriptomics is the field of biology that studies the RNA transcripts in a large scale manner. Transcriptome is the whole set of RNAs transcribed by the genome from a specific tissue or cell type at a developmental stage and/or under a certain physiological condition (Willingham and Ginger and Gingeras, 2006; Jacquier, 2009). RNAs are either coding or non-coding, which means ...

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Friedrich Miescher's Experiments on the Nuclei

23 Jan 2018

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In the year 1869, a Swiss physiological chemist named Friedrich Miescher identified a substance called nuclein which he found inside the nuclei of human white cells. He was the first to identify such a substance from leukocytes also called white blood cells. Miescher’s intention was not to isolate the nuclein from the white blood cells but rather to isolate the components of the protein in the ...

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Growth and Lipid Production of L. Starkeyi Mutants

23 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Diesel is one of the components in fossil fuel. However, the over-use of diesel is producing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide gases which are the major elements leading to global warming. Hence, due to increase in demand and source limitation, biodiesel is introduced as a substitute for diesel fuel (Wild et al., 2010). Biodiesel is a diesel fuel substitute that is extracted ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Biotechnology

23 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION Generally, biotechnology is the manipulation of living organisms and organic materials that help to meet our basic needs. According to International Unions of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1981) biotechnology is the application of biochemistry, biology, and microbiology, chemical engineering to industrial processes, products and on the environment (Bull et al, 1982). As define by European Federation of Biotechnology, biotechnology is the application of biochemistry, microbiology ...

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Identification and Characterisation of ZmCYP Genes

23 Jan 2018

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Methods: Gene structure, chromosomal locations and promoter analysis Conserved motifs and phylogenetic analysis of ZmCYPs Gene expansion and synteney Gene expression Methods: Identification and Charechterization of ZmCYP genes: Identification of all ZmCYP genes in the Zea mays genome was done by performing nucleotide Blast search using a reported ZmCYP sequence as a query (NCBI accession number: M55021) against maize genome database (http://www.phytozome.net). Each of the newly ...

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Anatomy of the Urinary System

23 Jan 2018

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Joanna Cartwright   (http://purchon.com/biology/?page_id=140) The kidneys are organs that filter blood, removing excess waste, regulate blood pressure and secrete vital hormones into our bodies. They are a complex filtration system, made up of various sections. Kidneys are bean shaped organs that sit behind our digestive system, under the ribs and are approximately 12cm long and 7cm wide. Each kidney is made up ...

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Function of Motor Subunit of Ecor124i and Ecoa1

23 Jan 2018

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Function of motor subunit of EcoR124I and EcoA1 restriction-modification systems Introduction Effects of the Type I restriction-modification systems were described in the early 1950s, constituting the ability of certain bacterial strains to restrict or enlarge the host range of viruses after only one growth cycle. This phenomenon was called ‘host-controlled variation in bacterial viruses’ [1-3]. A decade later it was discovered to be the result of ...

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Synthesis of Biologically Active Compounds

23 Jan 2018

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One pot synthesis using 3-chloro benzaldehyde, malononitrile and 3-(dimethylamino)phenol has yielded molecule 1 with moderately good yield after purification using preparative TLC. Preliminary biological evaluations such as in vitro anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory studies were carried out. The IC50 value for the molecule (25.2µg/mL) was found to be good when compared with ascorbic acid (IC50 = 24.8µg/mL). The dimethyl amino group and presence of chlorine seems to ...

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Study of Effect of Smoking on the Oral Micro-flora

23 Jan 2018

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AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF EFFECT OF SMOKING ON THE ORAL MICRO-FLORA Vishalkumar V. K, Sreedevi N, Angelica M, Priti Talwar*   Abstract: It is a well-known fact that cigarette smoking (CS) is directly associated with cardiovascular diseases, chronic bronchitis, and various types of cancers worldwide. In this study, two parameters were taken in consideration. Firstly, we have focused on how cigarette smoking is affecting the oral ...

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Effects of Ocean Acidification and Global Warming

23 Jan 2018

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Introduction: Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from our industrial and agricultural activities has resulted in increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Over a period of less than a decade, the change in seawater chemistry due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels becomes one of the most critical and pressing issues, identify as ocean acidification. The ability of the ocean ...

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Association between Asthma and IL23-Receptor R381Q

23 Jan 2018

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Analysis of Association between Asthma and IL23-Receptor R381Q Gene Variant BACKGROUND Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Th17 andTh2 derived cytokines (such as IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) are involved in pathophysiology of asthma. IL-23 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly produced by dendritic cells and monocytes and active macrophages and is need for differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells. IL-23 ...

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Applications of Forensic Toxicology

23 Jan 2018

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Introduction: Forensic Toxicology is a scientific test which identify the present of any drugs or chemicals in the body. This can be identified from bodily fluids and tissue samples. Toxicology is the investigation of the unfavourable impacts of chemicals on living creatures. Forensic toxicology takes it above and beyond, including various related controls to aid in the location and elucidation of pills and harms poisons and ...

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Answer to the Chicken and Egg Question

23 Jan 2018

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Chicken vs. Egg The questions that drive everyone insane, which one come first, the chicken or the egg? One always ends up at the same place while thinking over again and again. This is a life cycle of chicken: from egg to chick then hen or rooster. ‘A circle has no beginning’, said by dotty the witch from Harry Potter. It is a no win-win situation, ...

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Effects Pine Beetles Have on the Forests

23 Jan 2018

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Climate change and the effects pine beetles have on the forests. Introduction The ever growing effects of natural and man-made climate change are having a wide-spread effect on many mixed and coniferous forest ecosystems. Particularly as average annual temperatures increase, the habitat for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosa, has expanded, because the beetle is able to occupy new habitats at higher elevations, which were previously ...

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Biocompatibility Study of Lactobacillus Casei

23 Jan 2018

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BIOCOMPATIBILITY STUDY OF LACTOBACILLUS CASEI ISOLATED FROM CUCUMBER AND EVALUATION OF PROBIOTIC EFFECTS IN THE HUMAN GUT NANNU SHAFAKATULLAH* and M. CHANDRA   Abstract: Probiotics are live microorganisms introduced orally in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that are able to contribute positively to the activity of intestinal microflora and therefore, to the health of its host. A variety of probiotic supplements are currently available in the market ...

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Identification of Unknown Bacteria

23 Jan 2018

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Unknown Lab Report Haridja Kabuyi Ilunga   Abstract To discover the identity of the unknowns that have been given to each student, a series of biochemical tests were requisite. The different biochemical tests that were perform was Methyl Red test, Vogues-Poskauer test, Citrate test, Urea Hydrolysis, Gelatin Hydrolysis test, Sulfure Indole Motility test and Triple Sugar Iron Agar slant. Prior to the ...

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Symptoms and Causes of Arteriosclerosis

23 Jan 2018

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Kum Cheng Foong   Introduction Arteriosclerosis is a general term that refers the hardening as well as the loss of elasticity in the arterial wall. It happens when the arteries transport oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body become thick and stiff, sometimes obstructing blood circulation to the organs and tissues. Healthy arteries are flexible and adaptable but arterial walls could ...

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Plants in Production of Recombinant Antibodies for Research

23 Jan 2018

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Chris Charlton A Discussion of the Techniques, Advantages and Disadvantages of the use of Plants in Production of Recombinant Antibodies for Research and Therapeutic use with Named Examples Since Kohler and Milstein demonstrated the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from mouse hybridoma cells (1975) these proteins have become important tools for diagnostics, research and human therapy. As of November 2014 there were 47 mAbs licenced for ...

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Benefits of DNA Technology on Forensic Science

23 Jan 2018

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Discuss how DNA technologies have been applied to these cases including reference to the challenges facing Forensic Scientists in these cases. Illustrate your answer with appropriate case studies. Introduction Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling has been used as an investigative tool since the discovery of the polymorphic nature of short tandem repeats by Jefferys in 1985 (Aronson 2005). The benefits of using DNA profiling in the identification ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Stem Cell Research

23 Jan 2018

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JOSHUA REED ‘Do the potential benefits of stem cell research outweigh the risks and negative ethical implications associated with it?’   1.INTRODUCTION Stem cell research is currently one of the biggest fields in modern day science. It has numerous benefits currently, and it is only the beginning. The possibilities are endless, but there are many ethical implications associated with it, as well as many risks. Do ...

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Effect of Temperature and pH on Enzymes

23 Jan 2018

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Gabriel Soto [K1] Introduction:[K2] Catalysts is a reactant that increases the rate of chemical reactions. The reason is because it lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction to start. Activation energy is the energy that must be added to start a reaction in the first place. A reaction happens because chemical bonds are broken and atoms are rearranged. Some chemical bonds are stronger ...

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Wallago Attu Populations: Distribution and Genetic Analysis

23 Jan 2018

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Estimation of geographical distribution and genetic characteristics of populations is the need of the hour for conservation genetics program. Study of genetic similarity and genetic distance within and between fish populations and species of fishes is an important application of the DNA based genetic markers. Genetic variation is vital in maintaining the developmental stability and biological potential of an organism. To develop microsatellite markers for population ...

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Benefits of Bacteria

23 Jan 2018

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NURFATHINISSA MD ROSLAN Is Bacteria Our Friend? Bacteria are relatively simple, single-celled (unicellular) organisms. Bacterial cells are called prokaryotes, (from Greek words meaning prenucleus), because their genetic material is not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane. Bacterial cells generally appear in one of more than one shapes. Bacillus (rodlike), coccus (spherical or ovoid) and spiral (corkscrew or curved) are among the most common one, ...

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Impacts of Hybridization

23 Jan 2018

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Introduction Hybridization is a process that happens when two animals or plants of different species reproduce resulting in the appearance of a new organism commonly called hybrids. By only read this explanation we can assume that hybridization is beneficial, because it is in some cases, the origin point of new species but this is not necessarily true. It can also cause the extinction of numerous species, ...

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Wound Repair and Regeneration: Literature Review

23 Jan 2018

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The skin is the largest organ and one of its functions is as a protective barrier of human body. As it is the largest organ, hence it is prone to have injuries. Once injury occurs, this barrier will be disrupted and thus it needs to regain its function to prevent invasion of pathogens and blood loss. Wound healing involves multiple steps which includes blood clotting, re-epithelialization, ...

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Role of Sex Hormones in Complement-mediated Therapy

23 Jan 2018

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Introduction A pathologically increased activation of complement appears in autoimmune diseases which might enhance the inflammatory reaction. Disruption or exhaustion of complement-mediated clearance of immune complexes and apoptotic cells, and of its bridging to adaptive immunity, are contributing factors of autoimmune diseases. Additionally, the endocrine system is a target for autoimmune diseases where local effects of sex hormones seems to consist mainly in modulation of cytokine ...

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Neurodegenerative Diseases: Systems, Causes and Treatments

23 Jan 2018

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Simon Mendy Compare the symptoms, causes and available or future treatments for Motor Neuron Disease, Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Myasthenia Gravis. Neurodegenerative diseases are hereditary (inherited) and sporadic (acquired during a person’s life) conditions caused by progressive nervous system dysfunction (http://ec.europa.eu/health/major_chronic_diseases/diseases/brain_neurological/index_en.htm). Motor neuron disease and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (shrink) are neurodegenerative conditions that arise due to motor neurons dysfunction and Myasthenia Gravis is an ...

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Ebola Virus Mechanism of Infection

23 Jan 2018

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The Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus, which together with Marburg virus, makes up the filoviridae family. The virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever associated with 50-90% human mortality1. Four species of the virus (Zaire, Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, and Reston ebolavirus) have thus far been identified, with Zaire typically associated with the highest human lethality2. A fifth EBOV species is confirmed in a 2007 outbreak in Bundibugyo, Uganda3,4. ...

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Pantothenate Synthetase: Function, Production and Kinetics

23 Jan 2018

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Pradyumna Raparti ABSTRACT: The enzyme Pantothenate Synthetase (also known as Pantoate--beta-alanine ligase,Pantoate-activating enzyme; abbreviated PS or Panc) is an important drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is essential for the in vitro growth and survival of M. Tuberculosis. The panC gene encodes for pantothenate synthetase. PS catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of pantoate and beta-alanine to form pantothenate with AMP(adenosine monophosphate) and pyrophosphate as ...

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E2F8 Transcription Factors

23 Jan 2018

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Abstract E2Fs is a common and important family of transcription factors. E2F transcription factors have been widely studied in many organizations, it has many regulating function related to cellular proliferation differentiation, DNA repair, cell cycle and cell apoptosis. E2F8 is recent identification member of E2F family, it has high degree of similarity with E2F7 on structure and function. E2F8 have a duplicated DNA-binding domain(DBD) and control ...

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Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

23 Jan 2018

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Alice Smith Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells   Similarities Differences Prokaryotic cells Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Nucleoid Pili Cell wall (apart from in plant eukaryotic cells) Capsule Plasmid Eukaryotic cells Flagellum Ribosome's Nucleus Nuclear pore Chromatin Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Golgi apparatus Secretory ...

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Cas 9 and CRISPR: Systems, Mechanisms and Applications

23 Jan 2018

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Introduction : Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetations of base sequences. CRISPR systems are type of adaptive immune system confined to many bacterias for protection from foreign plasmids, viruses and also nucleic acids. They also protect bacterias from horizontal transmission of various genetic element. In CRISPR system the palindromic repeats are followed by spacer DNA , the ...

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Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Skeleton and Muscles

23 Jan 2018

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Louise Rich Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Skeleton and Muscles Assessment Criteria 1.1 and 1.2 Criteria 1.1 Describe the structure and functions of bones Criteria 1.2 Explain the relationship between the structure and function of the human skeleton In a short account explain skeletal and bone features which aid it carry out its roles. Remember to link structure and function for both. (300 ...

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Field Effects of Climate Change Literature Review

23 Jan 2018

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Preliminary review of Literature A preliminary review has been compiled to cover on field effects of climate change and agronomical responses to irrigation methods. The literature was reviewed in association mapping studies of durum wheat and for dissection of Global Warming traits. QTL analysis studies for agronomical traits was also reviewed. The literature reviews also covers the current status of research and agriculture status of Mauritania ...

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Association of IL-12β rs3212227 and Psoriasis

22 Jan 2018

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Title: Associations between IL-12β rs3212227 polymorphism and susceptibility to psoriasis: a meta-analysis Running title: Association of IL-12β rs3212227 and psoriasis Highlights: We performed a Meta-analysis to assess the association ofIL-12β rs3212227 and psoriasis. Association between IL-12β rs3212227 and psoriasis was proved. IL-12β rs3212227 is the susceptibility gene of psoriasis in Asian and European. Abstract Purpose The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether ...

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Genotype of PRNP: Buffaloes

22 Jan 2018

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INVESTIGATION OF PRNP PROMOTER AND INTRON 1INDEL POLYMORPHIMS OF ANATOLIAN, MURRAH AND CROSSBRED BUFFALOES Yalçın YAMAN1*, Cemal ÜN2, Orhan KARADAÄž1 ABSTRACT As a direct public health threatening disease, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) of the cattleprobablymost important disease among other Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). It can be transmitted to human and cause to a new variant of the Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). Unlike CJD, variant CJD (vCJD) has ...

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Effects of Eating Habits on Lifespan

19 Jan 2018

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CAN EATING LESS INCREASE YOUR LIFESPAN? There are many individuals and groups worldwide that have practiced annual or other, fasting of some sort for centuries, for an event or ritual of religious/cultural significance. There is sufficient evidence to presume that these fasts have physiological benefits. This report will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of intermittent fasting and calorie restriction diets. It will also give an overview ...

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