Types of Pathogens and Diseases

21 Mar 2018

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Pathogens and Disease TAQ 1 Pathogen is known as a microorganism that may cause disease to its host. Bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa are all microorganisms that cause disease. 1.2 Features Virus Bacteria Fungus Protozoa shape ...

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Importance of Field Margins to Agro-ecosystems

21 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Field margins are a crucial aspect of agricultural landscapes which occur in different forms next to all agricultural fields (Marshall 1988; Moonen and Marshall 2001). These margins can provide a series of extremely important functions within the landscape which can be divided according to (de Snoo 1995; Udo de Haes 1995) into agronomy and animal husbandry function by defining land ownership, providing stock fencing and ...

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Morphological Characters of Colchicum L. Species

21 Mar 2018

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Botanical studies of the Turkish flora have been started on botanical trips approximately 300 years ago by French botanist Tournefort on north – northeast Anatolia (Davis H.P. 2008). Following years botanical investigations have been continued and according to these investigations a well-known publication has been prepared by Davis (1965-1988) with the name of “The Flora of Turkey and East Aegian Islands” and subsequently to the publish ...

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Developing Glycosylated Therapeutic Antibodies

21 Mar 2018

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Abstract The therapeutic property of an antibody relies on the extent and the form of glycosylation in that particular antibody [1]. Glyco-engineering has been developed to make the best use of this fact and thus manufacture glycosylated recombinant antibodies in a controlled manner so as to enhance its pharmacological property [1]. Mogamulizumab is the landmark in the field of glycosylation. Mogamulizumab is a glycosylated recombinant monoclonal ...

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Risk Factors for Cancer in Pet Dogs

21 Mar 2018

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Contents (jump to) Introduction Chapter 1: Epidemiologic Studies of Risk Factors for Cancer in Pet Dogs 1.1 Frequency of Cancer in dogs by Site 1.2 Epidemiology of Cancer of Selected Sites in Dogs 1.2.1 Female Breast Cancer 1.2.2 Testicular Cancer References Introduction Cancer is one of the most important disease that affects humans but also companion animals. In 2008, 7.6 million cancer deaths were reported in ...

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Overview of Glycation Related Diseases

12 Mar 2018

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D) Glycation related diseases: Glycation is a deleterious form of post translational modifications of macromolecules and has been linked to a number of diseases. (Harding et al. 1989). Cardiovascular Diseases: The in vivo accumulation of AGE’s over time contributes to changes in function and structure of the cardiovascular system which results in formation of artificial stiffening, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial relaxation abnormalities. Certain mechanisms are responsible ...

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Experiment to Treat Theileria in Cows

12 Mar 2018

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Theileria is a vector borne protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis which is a fatal disease for cows. It is a disease of tropics. Theileria poses a serious challenge to the exotic crossbred cattle population. T.annulata and T. parva are considered to be the most pathogenic species of theileria. Tropical theileriosis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle caused by T. annulata. It is transmitted ...

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Nasonia Vitripennis and Nasonia Giraulti Memory Analysis

12 Mar 2018

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Formation and retention memory : a comparison between Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti 1 Introduction Learning and memory are similar traits across the Animal Kingdom, at the behavioural as well as the cellular level (Dubnau, 2003). The Nasonia genus is a good model to study memory for several reasons. Indeed, these insects reproduce rapidly and easily so it ...

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In Vitro Estimation of Th1/Th2 Cytokines by ELISA

12 Mar 2018

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Study of mechanism of Action of S012-0975:  In vitro estimation of Th1/Th2 Cytokines by ELISA: A drug like candidate should have the properties to completely eliminate the parasite either through activation of macrophages or by directly acting on parasite. Cure in visceral Leishmaniasis is observed by the production of Th1 cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α and enhanced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and disease ...

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Study of Anti-cancer Potential of Dodoneine

12 Mar 2018

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PROJECT PROPOSAL Anju Angel James Title of the project:Comparative study of anti-cancer potential of Dodoneine and its derivative. SUMMARY : Dodoneine [(R)-6-[(S)-2-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl]-5,6-dihydropyran-2-one] is a naturally occurring dihydropyranone which is isolated from Tapinanthus dodoneinfolius DC Danser, also known as African mistletoe. Tapinanthus dodoneinfolius is a parasitic plant that feeds from the sheanut tree in Burkina Faso. The unique, challenging structural and functional features of Dodoneine created ...

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Early vs Late Reduction of Cervical Spine Injury

12 Mar 2018

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Ghulam Farooq , Alisha Sial OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of early (<72hours) surgical intervention in subaxial (C3-C7) cervical spine injury through anterior approach among adults. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Primary Outcome: The ASIA impairment scale is a validated tool to describe a patient’s functional impairment as a result of their cervical spinal cord injury (attached as annex).The principal investigator will determine it by physical examination of ...

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Smoking and Alveolar Repair

12 Mar 2018

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Lakshmi Mohanadas   Cigarette smoking is one of the major cause for many of the lung diseases. Smoking is a practice of burning a dried plant and inhaling the smoke. It is one of most common form of recreational drug usage. People who smoke, get addicted to smoking which leads to gradual damage to the body. The substances that are inhaled causes reactions at ...

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Experiment on Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

12 Mar 2018

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May Zheng Lab Partners: Vena G. and Sara W. Observations: Part A: The Effect of Surface Area on Enzyme Activity Table1: Amount of Foam Produced by Potato Samples with Different Sizes Potato Samples Maximum Height of Foam Produced (mm) Large cubes 1mm Small cubes 5mm ...

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Prioritisation Assessments in Species Conservation

12 Mar 2018

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Are some species more worthy of conservation than others? Due to anthropogenic activities, the present rate of extinction rise is taking place at nearly 1000 times that of then natural background level of extinction observed from the fossil record. Conservation biology traditionally focuses on preventing extinctions, This magnitude of species decline far outweighs the amount of resources available to conservation in saving each one. As we ...

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Structure of the Male Reproductive System

12 Mar 2018

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New chapter 35 The Male Reproductive System INTRODUCTION The male reproductive system has three principal functions: The differentiation and maintenance of the primary and secondary sex characteristics under the influence of the hormone testos­terone, made in the testes. Spermatogenesis—the creation of the male gametes inside the testes. The penile delivery of sperm from the testes into the female’s vagina in the act of procre­ation. This ...

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Public Health Issues: Type 2 Diabetes

12 Mar 2018

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Abhishek Kumar Is type 2 diabetes a public health emergency? Definition: The term “”diabetes mellitus”” describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate , fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion , insulin action , or both . The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage dysfunction and failure of various organs.(WHO) Types of ...

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Soft Sediment Communities Composition

12 Mar 2018

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DISCUSSION 5.1 Comparison of Soft Sediment Communities Composition and Sediment Type from Different Scales Generally, macrobenthic organisms were found in abundance at Tanjung Bungah. Polychaetes have been observed to dominate in muddy area. Bivalves and gastropod were observed to be dominated in sandy area. Rhoads & Young (1970) noticed that sandy substrates tended to be dominated by suspension-feeders such as bivalves while mud substrates ...

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Strategies for Feeding Livestock in the US Pork Industry

12 Mar 2018

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Literature Review Overview of the US Pork Industry The US pork industry is a dynamic and versatile industry that have progressed over the past 50 years from producing lard-type pigs to a more meaty and heavier muscled animal (Cunha, 2012). This change in progress is due to the current global population estimated at over 7.2 billion people and growing at a rate of 1.14% per annum ...

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Article Review: Metformin and Cancer

12 Mar 2018

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“Metformin and cancer: from the old medicine cabinet to pharmacological pitfalls and prospects” Review article This essay aims to identify and explain the main points made in the Review article ‘Metformin and cancer...’ and discuss their implications and overall significance in a pharmacological context. Metformin is a synthetic biguanide and the most common prescribed drug in treating Type Two Diabetes (T2D); studies have now discovered unforeseen ...

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Genome Study of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

12 Mar 2018

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of hepatitis C, which is an infectious liver disease of humans. Estimates indicate that 170 million people are chronically infected globally and are at risk of developing liver disease including cirrhosis (scarring of tissue) and liver cancer. Furthermore, 350,000 deaths occur each year due to all HCV-related causes [1]. Although 20%–30% of the 170 million people infected with ...

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Reporter System Using LuxABCDE

12 Mar 2018

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La Rosa, S.L., Diep, D.B., Nes, I.F., et al. (2012) Construction and application of a luxABCDE reporter system for real-time monitoring of Enterococcus faecalis gene expression and growth. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (19): 7003-7011 Reporter genes are the genes encoding a protein which can be tracked and quantified by microscopy and various biochemical assays. They provide a non-invasive and sensitive method to monitor levels of ...

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Mechanisms of Activation of NFκB Signaling Pathway

12 Mar 2018

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Objective: we aimed to analyze the mechanisms of activation of NFκB signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of LSCC. Methods: Protein array was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins involved in NFκB signaling pathway in 50 LSCC cells compared with 50 cases of normal throat mucosa. Correlation analysis between significantly differentially expressed proteins and clinical characteristics was also performed. The expression of IKK-β was detected both ...

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Evaluation of Purified Extracts of Leptogium Papillosum

12 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Free radicals are highly reactive atom having one or more unpaired electron produced from the oxidation reaction that takes place in the transfer of electrons capable of attacking the stable biomolecules. These free radicals initiate cascades of events which ultimately lead to cellular damage [1]. However, physiologically these free radical preserve homeostatic action by signal transduction process [2]. Formation of these highly reactive free radical ...

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Acute Nitrite Exposure of Fish Using Common Carp

12 Mar 2018

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Acute nitrite exposure of fish using common carp as a model species The acute exposure of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to enhanced nitrite concentration at a low molar ratio of Cl-/NO2- (0.21) for 48 hours caused high mortality and increased blood plasma nitrite to concentrations 7 times that of the ambient water. Jensen et al. (1987) observed that exposure of carp to nitrite for 48 hours ...

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Uses of Medicinal Plants: Literature Review

12 Mar 2018

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People all over the world use different medicinal plants for curing various diseases and to find a solution to various ailments. India being the home to rich flora and fauna holds the panacea to many illnesses. The branch of ethno botany becomes very relevant here as it gives clear definition as to how the use of ethnic botanic medicinal plant becomes a cure to illnesses and ...

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The Hutchinsonian and Eltonian Shortfalls

12 Mar 2018

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A number of recognized knowledge shortfalls currently exist in biology. The first that appears to have been identified is taxonomical, and is known as the Linnean shortfall (Raven and Wilson 1992). This concerns the disparity between species described by scientists and the actual number of species in the world. The second, the Wallacean shortfall, is biogeographical, and is related to uncertainties in the geographical distribution of ...

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Role of Taurine Against Toxic Effects of Nanosilver

12 Mar 2018

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To evaluate the preservative role of taurine against toxic effects of nanosilver, ovine epididymal sperm were exposed to different concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 0.4 M) of taurine (T) and nanosilver colloid (N) (1 ppm) for 120 min in vitro and then, the viability and motion parameters of sperm were assessed. The percentage of live sperm in taurine–treated groups did not differ in comparison with control (P > ...

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Improving Treatments

12 Mar 2018

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Summary ALS is a progressive, fatal motoneurone disease, ultimately leading to paralysis and respiratory failure within 3-5 years. There is currently only one FDA-approved drug, Riluzole, but its lack of disease prolongation combined with the aggressive disease nature means identifying new treatments is essential. This review highlights 3 of the most current and promising research areas. Recent Phase 1 Clinical trials have proven safety of stem ...

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History of Transgenic Animals

12 Mar 2018

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Long before farmers were used selective breeding to enhance economically important trait like growth, milk production, egg production, and etc…consequently, this situation sets the foundation of genetics study that support the study of regulation and function of mammalian genes. The study was either through the observation of inherited characteristics from the parent or the unexpected occurrence of transformation (mutations). After 1950s things were changed to molecular ...

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Origin of Multicellular Eukaryotes

12 Mar 2018

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The beginning of multicellular Eukaryotes is one of the most important event in earth’s history regarding Eukaryotic life. As we can observe, most if not all animals, plants, and fungi are multicellular Eukaryotes therefore multicellularity is a key component of the early evolution regarding complex life. However, multicellularity nor Eukaryotic cell suddenly occur at once. In fact there is an order regarding the events that occurred ...

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Genetic Causes of Sickle Cell Anemia

12 Mar 2018

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Jay Patel Sickle cell anemia is one of the most common disorders which are inherited from a single gene disorder. Usually these disorders have been seen in African-Americans1. Sickle cell disease was first described in 1910 by dental student with pulmonary symptoms. Sickle cell shaped was first known as Herrick coined to describe the peculiar appearance of the red blood of the cell of ...

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Bioefficacy of New Generation Insecticides

12 Mar 2018

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BIOEFFICACY OF NEW GENERATION INSECTICIDES ON Spodoptera litura (Lepidotera: Noctuidae) IN AMARANTH P. M. KRISHNA, T.B. MATHEW Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvanathapuram 695022, Kerala, Inida. Email: [email protected] gmail.com ABSTRACT: Spodoptera litura major pest on vegetable amaranth. New generation insectiicdes such as Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 % SC - 0.006 %, Novaluron 10 % EC - 0.015 %, Flubendiamide 39.35 % SC - 0.0096 %,Spinosad ...

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Impacts of Genetically Modified Food on Health | Literature

12 Mar 2018

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Source 1: Genetically Modified Foods Reference Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? April 2000 Written by: Deborah Whitman [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php. [Accessed 19 October 2013] Summary GM foods and crops refer to those plants created for human consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques. The plants have been modified to enhance desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content. Genetic engineering, ...

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Molluscan Assemblage on the Intertidal Zones of Butuan Bay

09 Mar 2018

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MOLLUSCAN ASSEMBLAGE (UNIVALVIA AND BIVALVIA) ON THE INTERTIDAL ZONES OF BUTUAN BAY, AGUSAN DEL NORTE, NORTHEASTERN MINDANAO ARIEYL C. JAMODIONG INTRODUCTION Coastal zone is one of the marine environments where the most intense and harsh conditions in the world occurs. This aquatic biome often deals with the changing of tide daily allowing extreme exposure to sunlight so that high temperature, increase salinity (due to ...

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Radial Artery Access to Bronchial Artery Embolization

09 Mar 2018

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Radial artery access to bronchial artery embolization for massive hemoptysis: a case report Abstract Background: Massive hemoptysis is a potentially fatal respiratory emergency. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is commonly applied to treat massive hemoptysis. However, in most cases, BAE was performed via the access of femoral artery. The treatment via the access of radial artery is rare and challenging. Case description: Herein We we reported ...

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Exosomes: Roles and Applications to Cancer

09 Mar 2018

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Exosomes (The research behind cancer biomarkers) Afnan Elhag Introduction Exosomes are small vesicles which are found in many body fluids, such as blood and urine (1, 2). Its diameter is between 30 and 100nm, but much smaller than a bacterial cell. Exosomes can be released from the plasma membrane or by multi vesicular bodies fusing with the plasma membrane (3). Specialized functions of exosomes play a ...

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Phylogenetic Analysis of Universal Stress Proteins (USPs)

09 Mar 2018

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ABSTRACT Resistance to different stress conditions constitutes regulation of many proteins among which Universal stress proteins (USPs) are the most important group of proteins found in plant cells. USPs are reported to be essential in different stress conditions and assigned as conserved domain, were subjected to database search. We found 35 homologs of USP in Arabidopsis thaliana, Cicer arietinum, Solanum lycopersicum, Oryza sativa and Sorghum bicolor ...

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Experiment on Characteristics of Invertebrates

09 Mar 2018

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Lab 6 – invertebrate diversity Amine A. Harb Introduction Invertebrates are classified in relation to their lack of backbone or spinal column. A few distinguishing characteristics of invertebrates include distinctive respiratory organs, segmentation, radial and bilateral symmetries, and body organization. This experiment required us to dissect and examine an earthworm and a squid. The squid’s taxonomic classification derives from the Family Loligindae, Order Teuthoidea, Class Cephaopoda, ...

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Expression Levels of Artemis in Taxane-based Chemotherapy

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction Although decreasing in most countries, gastric cancer remains one of the most leading causes of cancer death in the world with poor prognosis. Patients with recurrent or unresectable gastric cancer usually have poor outcomes, with 5-year mortality of more than 95% [1]. Diffuse types of gastric cancer are strongly suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2000, including poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma and well-differentiated ...

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Effects of the Lionfish Invasion

09 Mar 2018

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Lionfish invasion Should Lionfish be removed? Introduction The lionfish are biological pollutants, they are considered predators and close to the top of the food chain, this makes them dangerous to the ecosystem and humans as they can inflict extremely painful stings. They are currently out-competing native predatory fish such as grupers as well as reducing herbivorous fish population through consumption, with no herbivorous fish controlling the ...

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Spatial Learning Ability of Male and Female Mice in Mazes.

09 Mar 2018

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PREPARED BY: ELANCHELIAN A/ L THEVER116637 FARAH HANI BINTI MUNJIAT116640 NURUL FATINIZZATI BINTI ABD HALIM116704 LUCIA EMPINA HARRY116650 NURFAZRINA BINTI JAINULABADEEN116685 INTRODUCTION: The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail. House mouse can live together with humans. The house mouse has been domesticated ...

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Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis of Agarwood

09 Mar 2018

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1.0 Introduction Agarwood is considered as the most expensive wood in the world which can be derived mostly from genera Aquilaria and Gyrinops from the family Thymelaeaceae (Akter, Tanvir, Zulkefeli, & Khan, 2013). According to Subasinghe, Hettiarachchi, and Rathnamalala (2012), some of the species from the Aquilaria and Gyrinops can be found across at least 12 countries including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, ...

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Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment Methods

09 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Autoimmunity is the inability of an organism in recognizing its own parts asself, which triggers an abnormal immune response against its own cells or tissues. Due to such a response, autoimmune diseases occur. Autoimmune diseases are broadly divided into the following: Systemic autoimmune diseases: The symptoms and damage occurs throughout the body, i.e the antigen is not tissue-specific. Localized autoimmune diseases: The ...

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Streptococcus Mutans: Causes, Effects and Transmission

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction Streptococcus mutans is the bacteria responsible for dental cavities in humans. The full taxonomy, or classification of the organism, is Bacteria Firmicutes Bacilli Lactobacillales Streptococcaceae Streptococcus Mutans (1). From S. mutans’ scientific name one can understand quite a bit about the bacteria. The domain and kingdom are Bacteria, meaning S. mutans is a one celled organism that doesn’t have a distinct nucleus. The phylum ...

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Diagnosing Diseases from Ancient Human Tissue

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction The pathogenesis of human diseases has been further understood based on findings in the study of ancient populations across thousands of human history [1]. The premise of these work is the diagnosis of ancient diseases [2]. With the progress in biology and medicine, archaeologists and palaeopathologists can obtain a great deal of biological information from ancient human specimens [1]. More information can be obtained from ...

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Synthesis of Structure Based Vaccine Against Hepatitis C

09 Mar 2018

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  C1.RESEARCH AREA Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics and Biochemistry D.PROJECT DIGEST HCV is very common infectious disease all around the world (180 million people effected per year) and in Pakistan too and is a cause of chronic liver hepatitis C. It’s a small virus containing RNA as a genetic material. Over the course of evolution this virus has developed ...

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Thermophilic Bacteria and Psychrophilic Bacteria Analysis

09 Mar 2018

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DISCUSSION Sikkim lies in The Great Himalayan Range, which is considered as a relatively young range of mountains in the world. Sikkim is also regarded as a hot spot having huge diversity in flora, fauna and microbial community. Sikkim has several hot springs; however, till date no systematic studies have been conducted on these hot springs which provide an opportunity to study the microbiological studies. In ...

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Welfare of Animals at the Time of Slaughter

09 Mar 2018

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Matthew Indge Animal Welfare Assignment 2: Literature review The Welfare of Animals at The Time Of Slaughter Abstract Introduction Animal slaughter is one of the most key processes in gaining food for many human beings. In many countries such as the US and Europe there are strict regulations on the Slaughter of animals (Nakyinsige et al., 2013). The problem arrises when these rules are either, not ...

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Analysis of Monthly Values of Magnesium in Water

09 Mar 2018

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Magnesium: Magnesium is required universally by chlorophyllus plants as the component of chlorophyll molecule. Magnesium is associated with calcium in all kinds of water but its concentration remains generally lower than the calcium (Venkatsubramani and Meenambal, 2007). It is a main cation causing water hardness. In natural water magnesium comes from natural processes i. e. dissolvent of mineral containing magnesium and from other sources like industrial ...

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Analysis of Cotton Growing in India

09 Mar 2018

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Abstract Important cash crop in India is Cotton. India is second largest producer of cotton after China and grown on twelve million hectares. Currently in India only Insect resistant Bt cotton is grown. Remarkable growth has been seen in production and cultivation of Bt cotton in India. This growth is seen with introduction of Bt cotton that has genes of soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and therefore ...

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Developing Immunology in Pregnancy

09 Mar 2018

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Immunology of Pregnancy (In human context) ABSTRACT: Nowadays there are cases of infertility, preeclampsia and recurrent abortions. For treating these problems it is important to gain knowledge of complex mechanism underlying pregnancy. These mechanisms are studied in the field of reproductive immunology. Immunology of pregnancy is not fully understood due to its complexity, yet a very interesting topic to study. Foetus acts like a semi-allograft, ...

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Causes of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI)

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction During the past two decades, significant and advance scientific researches in molecular biology and genetics have set the stage for a revolution in medical science. Advance researches in gene cloning, gene mapping and mutation study have contributed to an explosion of new information regarding the fundamental biological and patho-physiological basis for hundreds of human diseases. After the completion of Human Genome Project, a new wave ...

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UCA1 in Cisplatin Induced Ovarian Cancer Cell Resistance

09 Mar 2018

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The Expression of Long Non-coding RNA UCA1 in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Its Role in Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Vitro Running title: UCA1 in cisplatin induced ovarian cancer cell resistance Highlights Increasing expression of UCA1 RNA was found in ovarian cancer tissues. UCA1 can increase the cell migration, invasion and cisplatin resistance. The effect of UCA was extended through targeting SRPK1 and apoptosis related pathway. ...

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Molecular Causes of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMOP)

09 Mar 2018

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Abstract Purpose: We aimed to explore the molecule mechanism underlying postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and smoking-related PMOP. Methods: The microarray data of GSE13850 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differential expression genes (DEGs) between high and low bone mineral density (BMD) samples (DEG1) and postmenopausal female smokers with high and low BMD (DEG2) were analyzed. The GO (Gene ontology) and immune enrichment analysis were ...

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Relationship between Genetics and Prostate Cancer Risk

09 Mar 2018

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Abstract Purpose: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed male malignancies. Numerous studies have investigated the role of genetic variants in PCa risk. However, the results remain unclearly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rs2228001 in XPC, rs4073 in IL8, and rs2279744 in MDM2 with PCa susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Electronic database of PubMed, Medline and Embase were searched for relevant studies ...

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Effect of Serratia Marcescens Pilli on Red Blood Cells

09 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION. The aims of the investigation are to identify the effect of bacteria, for example, what effect can Serratia marcescens pilli on red blood cells gives when mixed with molecular inhibitor. Also, to examine how pathogenic bacteria for example Clostridium perfringes produce toxin and what effect does toxin have on cells. In addition to the above, to examine the microbial resistance by using four different antibiotics ...

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ERG11 in Drug-resistant of C. Krusei

09 Mar 2018

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Erg11 mutations and up-regulation in clinical itraconazole-resistant isolates of Candida krusei Some C. krusei isolates were resistant the antifungal drugs. Mutations including T939C, T642C and A756T were found in ERG11 of C. krusei. ERG11 was highly expressed in resistant C. krusei strains.. Abstract Objective We aimed to provide with light for better understanding of ERG11 gene in drug-resistance mechanisms in Candida krusei (C. krusei). ...

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Harmful Effects of Dyes and Additives

09 Mar 2018

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Bella Zavlanova Bioresearch Professor Schiffenbauer DO FOOD ADDITIVES/ DYES CAUSE HARM TO CONSUMERS? The objective of this paper is to find out if dyes and additives such as red 40, yellow 5, yellow 6 and blue 2, which are added to foods, drugs, and cosmetics, are harmful to the consumers? Do we really believe these dyes or additives can cause cancer or other more ...

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Oxygen Consumption By Different Animals

09 Mar 2018

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  Name & Matric No. Calvin Belulok Ngang 40754 Malinka Anak Sikim 41989 Philovenny Anak Pengiran 43733 Brenda May Engkian anak Nandong @ Sulie 40747 Christ Hani binti Lian Lee 40907 Racheal Anak Rosedy 43768 Hilda Jelembai Anak Nelson Ilan 41423 Muazzah Bt Abd Latif 42327 LABORATORY 2 INTRODUCTION There are two types of ...

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Ecosystem Based Management

09 Mar 2018

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Marine environments are complex adaptive systems adjoined across multiple scales by ocean currents and species movements (Ruckelshaus et al 2008). These ecosystems worldwide are in serious decline, primarily as a result of broadening anthropogenic pressures that exploit marine resources such as shipping, energy exploration, fisheries and tourism (MA 2005; Curtin et al 2010), which can alter natural ocean systems through habitat fragmentation, pollution, eutrophication, and biodiversity ...

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Effect of pH and Temperature: Enzyme Catalase Reaction Rate

09 Mar 2018

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The effect of pH and temperature on the reaction rate of the enzyme catalase INTRODUCTION Enzymes are proteins produced by living cells that act as catalysts during a reaction, meaning they lower the activation energy needed for that reaction to occur. Activation energy is the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction. In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction (ES), the substance that is to be acted ...

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Impact of Haemolysis in Accuracy of PT/APTT

09 Mar 2018

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Topic: Impact of haemolysis in accuracy of PT/APTT (Important of fast and accurate PT/APTT results in managing patients) CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 PT and APTT Theprothrombin time(PT) and its derived measures ofprothrombin ratio(PR) andinternational normalized ratio(INR) are measures of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation [3, 7]. They are used to determine the clotting tendency of blood, in the measure of warfarin dosage, liver damage, and vitamin K status. PT measures factors I ...

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Effect of Benzodiazepine Addiction on Genomes

09 Mar 2018

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BIO621 – GENETICS AND GENOMICS RESEARCH PROPOSAL Submitted By: Rabia Iftikhar Submitted to: Dr Aziz Mithani Date: 25th May, 2015 TITLE OF PROPOSED PROJECT Genome wide study of transcriptional and epigenetic changes induces upon addiction to benzodiazepine and their inheritance. RESEARCH AREA Pharmacogenetics PROJECT DIGEST Some drugs that are available over the counter as well as those prescribed are known ...

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Determination of Heavy Metals in Pigeon Feathers

09 Mar 2018

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DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN PIGEON FEATHERS IN THE DIFFERENT AREA OF AJMER CITY. Rajeshwari Acharya and Asha Sharma   ABSTRACT Metal determination using pigeon feather is most common method of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of mental exposure and its risks. Pigeon feather were collected from different area of Ajmer city of Rajasthan (India) and were analyzed for lead (Pb), ...

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Spasmolytic Activity of Calotropis Procera In Rabbit Jejunum

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,740 )

In-Vitro Study on Spasmolytic Activity of Calotropis Procera In Rabbit Jejunum Authors:, Dr Jagadeesh K, Dr Shreenivas Revankar, Dr Jagadeesh S C.   ABSTRACT: In ancient India many herbal plant products were used for their medicinal values. Calotropis procera known as arka, madar, milkweed. It was used as antimicrobial, anti-fertility, anticancer, leprosy and antihelmintic. In the present study the ethanolic extract of the leaf was used to ...

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Homeostasis, Co-ordination and Control and Excretory System

09 Mar 2018

10 (3,962 )

Stanley Agu   TAQ 1 Homeostasis is a term translated from the words Homeo meaning ‘’same’’ and stasis meaning ‘‘standing still’’. This term simply describe a dynamic state of equilibrium and the ability of the body to maintain a stable internal condition with a changing outside environment. This process is used to maintain and regulate body temperature, blood sugar level, blood pressure, endocrine system, ...

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Shotgun Metagenomics of the Human Stomach

09 Mar 2018

6 (2,173 )

Materials and Methods Biopsy samples Four fresh biopsy specimen taken from stomach. Two from antrum and two from the body. One biopsy from each side was stored in liquid nitrogen and another piece was used for the culture. For culturing, the fresh biopsy tissues was homogenized and simultaneously inoculated onto selective plates [5% horse blood and in the case of selective media antibiotics included trimethoprim (5 ...

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Reducing Levels of Diacetyl in Saccharomyces Pastorianus

09 Mar 2018

8 (2,841 )

A critique of approaches to understand and reduce levels of diacetyl in saccharomyces pastorianus Michelle Aherne Section 1: Background and Context Diacetyl is a vicinal diketone (VDK), produced as a by-product of intermediates in the valine biosynthetic pathway of yeast lager stains (Krogerus and Gibson, 2013b). It causes an unfavourable butterscotch flavour (Gibson et al., 2014). Yeast can remove diacetyl, but the process requires a long ...

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PD-targets for Voriconazole and Posaconazole

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,903 )

Based on the estimates of the PD-targets for voriconazole and posaconazole we can now determine if there remains a role for voriconazole or posaconazole in the management of azole-resistant disease. The integration of all above information is given in Table 5 for voriconazole and Table 6 for posaconazole. The underlying resis- tance mechanisms are provided for each MIC-value. Based on the estimates of the PD-target, the ...

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Intestinal Parasites in Wild Rates

09 Mar 2018

10 (3,767 )

Introduction Mauritius is a small island of 1865 km2 situated 900 km east of the Malagasy Republic in the southern Indian Ocean. The island was found to be suitable as a port of call for traders travelling along the famous Spice Route from Europe round the Cape of Good Hope to the East Indies and was named East India trade route. The Dutch introduced sugarcane, orange ...

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Hyaluronic Acid in Pharmacology and Drug Delivery: A Review

09 Mar 2018

4 (1,238 )

Introduction Hyaluronic acid (HA), also known as hyaluronan, is a naturally occurring biodegradable mucopolysaccharide that is found in mammals, bacteria, and most types of organisms. Hyaluronic acid has many biological functions, such as influence of cell differentiation and proliferation, regulation of cell adhesion and motility, as well as giving tissues various biochemical properties. HA also has many cell surface receptors (CD44, ICAM-1, RHAMM) that allow it ...

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Scanning Electron Microscopy on Silk Mesh Network

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,758 )

4.1 SEM of Silk Scanning electron microscopy was performed on dialyzed complete chain (degummed silk fraction), soluble silk (light chain) and Insoluble silk (heavy chain). On SEM imaging of complete silk mesh network of silk fibers was observed, but, on separation of silk fibers no such fiber network is observed which shows complete separation of light and heavy chains. The white spots present in complete silk ...

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Analysis of Phytocompounds in Spathodea Campanulata Leaves

09 Mar 2018

9 (3,213 )

Experimental and Computational analysis of Phytocompounds in Spathodea campanulata leaves Priyanka Pattnayak, Pankhuri Tiwari,   Shanthi V.   Abstract: Spathodea campanulata (Fountain Tree) has several remedial uses. The bark has antiseptic properties and can be used as a laxative and its other parts like roots, seeds and flowers also have medicinal uses. The leaves of Spathodea contain iridoids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids; classes of plant secondary metabolites. ...

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Biodegradation of Profenofos Using Fungal Isolates

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,415 )

Dr. Jayanthi Abraham*   Anjali.M, Caroline Jessica Solomon, V.Vinothini.   Abstract Biodegradation is a sustainable and eco friendly way to clean up contaminated environments. The biological processes harnessed play a major role in the removal of contaminants and they make use of the catabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade/covert compounds which are toxic and difficult to breakdown. The study was done to determine the biodegradation of ...

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In Vitro Activity of Malia Azedarach Linn

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,746 )

In vitro activity of Malia azedarach Linn. Against amphotericn B resistant Leishmania tropica strain Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is still a big health problem around the world and drug resistance has emerged as a major problem in treatment. The purpose of the study was to generate Amphotericin B resistant strain and evaluate the crude extract of Melia azedarach against wild and lab generated resistant strain of Leishmania ...

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Differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,507 )

Prokaryotes are a group of mostly unicellular organisms which do not have a membrane bound nucleus; they are made up of two main groups, the archaea and the bacteria. Eukaryotes on the other hand are mainly multicellular with a membrane bound nucleus, and are broken done into four main kingdoms; animals, plants, fungi and protoctista. Despite archaea and bacteria being grouped together under the title prokaryotes, ...

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Epidermolysis Bullosa: Mutations of Type VII Collagen Gene

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,772 )

A novel deletion mutation and two recurrent substitutions on type VII collagen gene in seven Iranian patients with epidermolysis bullosa Armita Kakavand Hamidi, Mohammad Moghaddam, Nasim Hatamnejadian, Bahar Sedaghati Khayat, Ahmad Ebrahimi   Abstract Epidermolysis bullosa is one of the most important series of mechano-bullous heritable skin disorders which is categorized into four major types according to the layer that bullae forms within basement ...

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Metabolism of Insulin: An Analysis

30 Jan 2018

9 (3,327 )

The metabolism of insulin and DDI between insulin and several anti-diabetes drugs Zhe Li In this paper, I am going to study the metabolism of insulin in human body and briefly introduce the drug-drug interactions between insulin and some anti-diabetes drugs. In the first part of the paper, I will introduce background information of insulin. Then, in the second part, I will talk about ...

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Developing Groundwater Sources in the UAE

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,699 )

ABSTRACT We all know that UAE is located in the desert where there is only limited sources of underground water, little rain and no rivers. This is the main problem that UAE government facing today having water shortage. That's why UAE rely in some water sources like desalination of sea water, Groundwater, Surface water and treatment of water. UAE is one of the biggest and populous ...

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Aspergillus Fumigatus Identification and Molecular Character

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,066 )

IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF Aspergillus fumigatus FROM SOIL R.V.Shalini, and Dr.K.Amutha,   ABSTRACT: Soil was collected, serially diluted and pure culture obtained; slant was prepared in potato dextrose agar and maintained throughout the study. Morphological, microscopical and macroscopically identification were carried out on the isolated organism. DNA was isolated from the 24 hour culture, for ITS-PCR amplification. DNA was amplified by mixing the template DNA ...

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Effect of Steroid Sulfatase (STS) on Sex Selective Disorders

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,609 )

Introduction The inner workings of the body are amazing. Through evolutionary time and random chance, proteins used in one area of the body become crucial in others. It would seem very unlikely that one enzyme would be responsible for proper brain function AND proper skin maintenance, because the two areas seem different in terms of function and composition. However, enzymes are associated with both of these ...

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Relationship Between Serum Folate Level and Cervical Cancer

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,076 )

The association between serum folate level and cervical cancer: a meta-analysis Abstract Objectives: This study is to evaluate the association between serum folate level and cervical cancer. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google scholar was searched for relevant trials. Rev.Man5.1 and Stata 11.0 software were applied for the meta-analysis. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were collected and calculated ...

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Cocaine: Properties and Effects

30 Jan 2018

3 (1,194 )

Cocaine is a drug refined from Erytroxylon cocoa bush leaves which grows in Peru and Bolivia. It is referred to using several names such as C, snow, flake, blow, or crack. Generally, it is sold on the streets as a hydrochloride salt. It has a fine, white crystalline powder appearance usually diluted with resembling substances such as talcum powder, or amphetamine. There are several methods of ...

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Identification of Fatty Acids in Launaea Procumbens

30 Jan 2018

9 (3,522 )

Identification of fatty acids in leaves and roots of Launaea procumbens by GC-MS and assessment of flavonoid and phenolic content and antioxidant activity This study presents an analysis of fatty acid composition of in root and leaves of Launaea procumbens by GC-MS and hexane extract were studied for the determination of total flavonoid and phenolic content along with scavenging assays by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).This analysis ...

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Incidence of Mycoflora in Spices

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,148 )

Incidence of mycoflora associated with some spices Hedawoo GB, Mishra SA and Maggirwar RC   Abstract: Black pepper, fennel and cumin are extensively used as spices in India. Seed pathogens adversely affect the production and quality of spices. The mycoflora associated with spices not only deteriorate the quality of spices but also increase the chance of consuming toxic elements through harmful fungi like Aspergilli. The present investigation ...

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Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Cymbopogon Caesius

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,497 )

Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Cymbopogon caesius (Hook. & Arn.) Stapf. of Kemmannugundi Regions of Karnataka, India Avinash K.S. and Y.L. Krishnamurthy*   Abstract: Cymbopogon grass produces many bioactive compounds and used for many medicinal purposes. In this study healthy leaf, stem and root segments were cultured on media like Potato dextrose agar and Malt extract agar medium and pure cultured. Endophytic fungi were isolated from ...

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Poultry Diseases: Impact, Types and Causes

30 Jan 2018

3 (1,183 )

Introduction: Poultry diseases had made an adverse effect on the industry during past few years. The data and studies related to the impact of poultry diseases and their prevalence is still not enough. The interpretation, forecasting of poultry diseases and their epidemiological analysis is very important at national and international levels. The monitoring of production and vigilant approach for disease control is very important ...

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Multi-slice Computer Tomography (MSCT) Analysis of Nodules

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,623 )

Multi-slice Computer Tomography (MSCT) Analysis of Benign and Malignant Nodules in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Highlights MSCT features is useful in differentiate the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients. MSCT is superior than plain CT scan in nodule diagnosis in CLT patients MSCT may apply as an important diagnostic modality in the clinical practice. Abstract Objective To assess the clinical significance of ...

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Exogenous IL-10 and Golimumab for Heart Failure Treatment

30 Jan 2018

11 (4,123 )

Synergistic Effect of Exogenous IL-10 and Golimumab in the Treatment for Heart Failure in Rats Running title: Heart Failure Treatment Highlights: The level of TNF-α decreased after treatment with IL-10 and golimumab. The level of IL-10 was increased by IL-10 combined with golimumab. IL-10 and golimumab have a synergistic effect on HF in rats. ABSTRACT Objectives We attempted to assess the therapeutic effect of ...

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The Future for Clinical Immunology

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,548 )

A.N. Other (SID ), Department of Pathobiology, University of Turku, Finland. The last ten years has seen a tremendous increase in our understanding of the molecular basis of different disorders. clinical immunology is a specialism which is currently developing in different ways, some of which are highlighted here. This discipline has a responsibility to provide a complete array of analytical measurements for the diagnosis and treatment ...

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Risks to the Human Population

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,720 )

Human Populations are at Risk from outbreaks of New Diseases Diseases are the disturbance of body processes impacting homeostasis, the emergence and resurgence of diseases is majorly dependent on social, ecological and geographical change rather than the molecular or microbiological aspects (Mayer, 2000). This essay will cover the growing evidence that climate change poses health concerns for the ...

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Annotated Bibliography: Bt Cotton Studies

30 Jan 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW Tabashnik et al. explained that using transgenic crops such as Bt cotton could significantly reduce the use of chemical insecticides and pesticides. They also pointed out that excessive use of transgenic crops initiated the development of resistance in pests, which must be delayed. They suggested the use of two different Bt toxins to target the same pest, such as integration of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab ...

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Production of Mutant Based Epsilon Toxin (ETK) Vaccines

30 Jan 2018

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Critique of Li et al. Article: A low-toxic site-directed mutant of Clostridium perfringens É›-toxin as a potential candidate vaccine against enterotoxemia Name: Donnelle Phillips Vaccines improve the immune system of an animal or human by stimulating the production of antibodies to fight and combat bacteria, protozoan or viruses effectively creating ...

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Pink Disease of the Rubber Tree: Causes and Effects

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,574 )

INTRODUCTION The rubber tree is the most important source of natural rubber. It is constantly under threat from various pathogens that cause severe diseases like abnormal leaf fall, Corynespora leaf disease, brown root disease, and pink disease and Colletotrichum leaf disease. Leaves alternate, palmate and each leaf with 3 leaflets. Leaflets elliptic petiolated, with a basal gland, pointed at the tip with lengths varying up to ...

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Impacts on Population Growth

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,762 )

Submitted By MUHAMMAD BILAL   Contents (Jump to) 1. POPULATION 2. POPULATION GROWTH WITHOUT ANY REGULATION 2.1 BIOTIC POTENTIAL 2.2 EXPONANTIOAL GROWTH EXAMPLE 2.2.1 ASSUMPTIONS OF EXPONENTIAL GROWTH 2.2.2 APPLICATIONS OF THE EXPONENTIAL MODEL 3. POPULATION REGULATION 3.1 EXTRENSIC FACTORS 3.1.1 ABIOTIC FACTORS 3.1.2 BIOTIC FACTORS 3.2 INTRINSIC FACTORS 4. DENSITY INDEPENDENT FACTORS 4.1 CLIMATE 4.2 SPACE 4.3 SUNLIGHT 4.4 RAINFALL 4.5 Natural Disasters 4.6 SEASONAL ...

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Role of Cell Signalling in Regulation of Homeostasis

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,233 )

NEHA HITENDRA RANE Introduction What is Homeostasis? Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes. Homeostasis is a ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though there is continuous change in outside world. The term homeostasis is derived from the two Greek words homeo and stasis. Homeo which means unchanging and stasis means standing. It means ...

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Analysis of Nilaparavata Lugens (Stal.)

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,438 )

Nilaparavata lugens (Stal.) Nilaparvata lugens is generally called as brown plant hopper or Asian rice brown plant hopper (BPH). N. lugens comes under order: Hemiptera, Suborder: Auchennorrhyncha and Family: Delphacidae. The delphacid genus Nilaparvata consists of 18 species. Nilaparvata is a crucial genus economically, with one amongst its member N. lugens being serious insect pests of rice and are cosmopolitian particularly in tropical Asia wherever rice ...

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Alzheimer's Disease and Calcium Signalling

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,239 )

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is complex, and involves many molecular, cellular and physiological pathologies. The leading candidate for the trigger of Alzheimer’s disease is the Aβ peptide,which is produced by the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP; BOX 1). Its primacy has been manifested in the ‘amyloid-cascade hypothesis’,which posits that the accumulation of Aβ (resulting from overproduction, altered processing or a failure of ...

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Effect of Different Substrate and Temperature on Yeast

30 Jan 2018

3 (1,191 )

background information introduction to cellular respiration Cellular respiration is the catabolic process of converting the chemical energy stored in chemical bonds into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP. Adenosine triphosphate is a high energy molecule, used in cells as a "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer(Bergman, J 1999). Cells are capable of working when the energy released from ATP, when ...

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Development of the Bio-Chemical Sector in the UAE

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,416 )

Saman Masood BIO-CHEMICALS: The term ‘bio-chemical’ comprises of two words, that is, ‘bio’ which means ‘life and ‘chemical which means any ‘chemical substance’ that arises from a chemical compound which makes up a living cell. There are number of bio-chemicals which can be obtained from various sources, for example, proteins from beef pancreas, plants and other natural ways. Just like a small example, when ...

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