Mitochondria: Genome, Inheritance and Features

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Mitochondria are energy producing Organelles present in both Human and Plant cells. They Convert Food into ATP through process of oxidative Phosphorylation. They have double membrane. Outer membrane separates inner side of mitochondria from cytoplasm, while inner membrane has invaginations forming cristae. Cristae define the matrix of mitochondria. Inner Membrane contains embedded five enzyme complexes responsible for oxidative phosphorylation system. Mitochondria contain its ...

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Priority Pollutants and their Health Effects

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Man has always been carving out an easy life from nature which has always made nature to get polluted with lots of toxic chemicals. The hurry to achieve this above mentioned peace has again made heavy adverse impacts on mankind which was not that dominant in earlier days but extremely evident now-a-days. The type of pollution’s that were dealt in lower classes has probably got ...

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Telomeres: Effect of Length of the Cell

28 Mar 2018

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Telomeres: being or immortal or getting cancer? “Death takes place because a worn-out tissue cannot forever renew itself and because a capacity for increase by means of cell division is not everlasting but finite” said A.Weismann at Oxford in 1881 and without noticing that he made a brief description of the structure of what we now call as the telomere. The term is originating from ...

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Identification of Cryptosporiopsis Spp Causing Cashew Blight

28 Mar 2018

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Materials and methods Symptomatic characterization, isolation and identification of Cryptosporiopsis spp causing cashew blight Cashew plantations were regularly inspected for disease in many locations across Tanzania, during the period 2010–2011. Susceptible cashew clone AC4 was used throughout the study. Macroscopic appearances of signs and symptoms of leaf and nut blight disease from the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) were captured with ...

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Desflurane versus Sevoflurane in Pediatric Anesthesia

28 Mar 2018

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Abstract Objectives: Meta analysis to compare the effect of desflurane versus sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia. Methods: Rev.Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 software were applied for the meta-analysis. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of for relevant indexes of patients with fractures of radial head were collected and calculated in a fixed-effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) or a random-effects model (the ...

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Assembly of Functional Cellulolytic Enzymes

28 Mar 2018

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In the present study, we reported the assembly of functional cellulolytic enzymes using a synthetic, cell-surface engineered yeast consortium. Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII) and cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII) and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I (BGLI) were displayed as fusion proteins with the AGA2p C-terminus of a-agglutinin on the cell surface of the diploid yeast strain Saccharomyces. cerevisiae Y5. The immobilization of each enzyme on the cell surface ...

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Antiviral Activity of Camelthor’s Methanolic Extract

27 Mar 2018

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Study of antiviral activity of Camelthor’s methanolic extract on FMD virus in cell culture   Abstract: Foot and mouth disease is an infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, that has adverse economic impacts. Due to the high prevalence of viral infections and having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study ...

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Cellular Metabolism and the Immune Response Control

27 Mar 2018

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Cellular Metabolism and the Immune Response Control PRESTES, A. F. R. O.1; KONDO, F. V.2; HUETE, G. C.3; MURILLO, O.4   Keywords: mTOR, metabolism, Akt, immune system, regulation, mitochondria, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory I. Introduction Metabolism and immune system: The metabolic system was seen only as a system of power generation and metabolites for the functioning of cells. Today we know that changes in metabolic regulation may ...

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Endothelial Dysfunction as a Genetic Predictor

27 Mar 2018

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Investigation of endothelial dysfunction as a genetic predictor of low bone mass and cognitive decline in postmenopausal females Postmenopausal health has emerged as an important public health concern in India. During postmenopause, abrupt hormone and endocrine changes occur, which impact on the physiology and as a result, body becomes vulnerable to several health problems including osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cognitive impairment. Clinically, it is evident ...

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Research Advance: Wnt Signaling Pathway in Tooth Development

27 Mar 2018

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Yu Jian [Abstract] Tooth development begins with reciprocal signaling interactions between the neural-crest-derived ectoderm epithelium and the ectomesenchyme cells. In recent two decades, a mass of signaling molecules and transcription factors which are crucial for these processes have been confirmed, among which Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulation of embryo tooth development. This article reviews the research advance on the ...

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Anatomical Studies of Medicinal Taxon Ajuga orientalis L.

27 Mar 2018

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The anatomical studies of medicinal taxon Ajuga orientalis L. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey Abstract. Ajuga orientalis[a1], with a wide distribution area in Turkey, is traditionally used medicine in the treatment of some skin diseases in Anatolia. The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical characteristics of the root[a2], leaf, petiole, calyx and corolla of medicinal taxon [a3]A. orientalis in cross sections. As a result of ...

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Transcript Expression Level of White Kelampayan

27 Mar 2018

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Functional Annotation and Transcript Expression Analysis of RNA-Seq Data (via NGS) from White Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) using bioinformatics approach Lim Leong Rui   Table of Contents LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABI/SOLiD Applied Biosystems/Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection cDNA Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid CHIP-Seq Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing ...

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Tomato Growth, Ripening and Postharvest Physiology

27 Mar 2018

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2.1 DEVELOPMENT Fruit anatomy moves our opinion of fruit quality. The generic term “fruit” covers a expansive range of structures, supporting and protecting the seeds, but where the diverse parts have evolved from the original fertilized flower in assorted characteristic ways. The development process of fruits can be divided into the following stages: Cell Division Cell Expansion Maturation Ripening Senescence During the early stages of ...

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Advances in Genetic Data and Genome Sequencing

27 Mar 2018

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Bio-resource refers to the total biological variation manifested as individual plants, animals or their genes, which could be utilized as drugs, food or feed, etc., along with the development of improved crops and animals for higher yield and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Man depends on these bio-resources for his continued existence and, therefore, he must use and preserve them for future generations (Sayers et ...

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Types of Leadership Styles

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction Leadership is a complex and diverse place of knowledge and it transforms potential into reality. (J Antonakis, etal, 2004) According to author being a leader changes everything. It's all about contribution, performance and success. This essay describe about the leadership and the styles of leadership. Firstly the author will give the explanation of leadership with different definitions. Secondly the author will explain the styles of ...

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Methadone Pharmacology and Its Mechanism of Action

27 Mar 2018

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Table of Contents (Jump to) 1. Goal 2. Aims and Objectives 3. Background 4. Methadone Pharmacology and Its Mechanism of Action 4.1 Methadone History & Background 4.2 Benefits of Methadone 4.3 Deaths Involving Methadone 4.4 Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Methadone 4.4 Cytochrome P450 4.5 Cytochrome P450 Polymorphism and Adverse Drug Reactions   1. Goal Methadone is the most common and widely used drug for the opioid ...

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Streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetes Experiment

27 Mar 2018

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MATERIALS AND METHODS   3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Animal Selection and Care STZ induced diabetes are commonly performed in Male Wistar Kyoto rats. In these models, male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age (200–300 g) are selected from animal supply facility of SGPGIMS Lucknow, and house in a 12-h light, 12-h dark cycle environment, temperature 25°C, with standard rat diet and water in metabolic ...

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Types of Nasal Surgeries and Procedures

27 Mar 2018

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Neurocranial restructuring Neurocranial restructuring is the relaxation of neuro tissues to relieve tension and return the skull's structure to its naturally designed appearance. Neurocranial restructuring has been successfully used for many years to relieve a variety of serious conditions as well as being used as a non invasive alternative to cosmetic therapy. The methods of actually engaging in Neurocranial restructuring vary depending on the nature of ...

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Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

27 Mar 2018

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Reactive Oxygen Species Ever since the introduction of oxygen by the oxygen releasing photosynthetic organisms Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been the unwelcomed guests of aerobic life (Halliwell, 2006). Being a free radical molecular oxygen contains two unpaired electrons sharing same spin quantum number that makes it preferable to accept electrons, generating the so called Reactive oxygen species. Most dominating ROS include Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Hydroxyl ...

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Growth Characteristics of Bacteriophage

27 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 4 GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIOPHAGE INFECTING AQUACULTURE BACTERIAL PATHOGENS 4.1 Introduction Bacteriophage are naturally occurring viruses that predated on bacteria (Clokie et al., 2011). They self-replicate exponentially and leave the commensal flora unaffected makes them useful for industrial application (Tsonos et al., 2014). However, the high number of bacteriophage in environment (Clokie et al., 2011) provide the challenges to the discovery of the most effective phage ...

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Bacterial Transformation of E-Coli

27 Mar 2018

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Bacterial Transformation Guiadem Ntoukam   Abstract: In biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct intake of the genetic material called DNA. Bacterial transformation is a really easy way to transform due to the fact that it is single- cell. In this lab experiment, E. coli bacteria is used because it is singled-cell. The pGLO plasmid will be inserted ...

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Pegylation: Properties and Cytokines

27 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION: 1.1 What is Pegylation? The process of covalent attachment of the non-toxic, hydrophilic polymer chain of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to another molecule, a drug or therapeutic protein is called as Pegylation [1]. Pegylation was first carried out in 1970s by Davies and Abuchowski for the modification of catalase and albumin [2]. Since then, Pegylation is widely and tremendously developed. Nowadays, pegylated proteins make ...

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Heavy Metal Concentration in Oyster Tissues

27 Mar 2018

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Discussion As summarised in the above chapter, a wide variation of heavy metal concentration(Zn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and Co) in oyster tissues such as gills, muscle, shell and remaining soft tissue, sediment and seawater have been observed at the studied coastal areas. Therefore the main aim of this chapter is to establish relationship between heavy metal concentration in the oyster tissues namely gills, muscle ,shells ...

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Production of Pure Lipases

27 Mar 2018

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Most Rhizopus lipases described in the literature are produced by their host cells in very small amounts, which is not suitable for large-scale industrial applications. Another drawback of working with native microorganisms is that Rhizopus sp. usually produces different isolipases with different biocatalytic properties, which complicates biocatalytic application with unwanted side effects caused by unrelated enzymes (67). Thus, in order to implement more industrial lipase applications, ...

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Genetic Engineering: Nutritional Grain Traits in Rice

27 Mar 2018

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Genetic engineering, an alternative approach to enhance nutritional values by transgenic has been considered to be the potential tool for the sustainable and an efficient strategy for increasing the nutritional quality traits in target area of plants (Lucca et al. 2001; Zimmermann and Hurrell 2002; Holm et al. 2002). Genetic engineering flavors transferring of desired genes precisely between interspecies/ intregeneric into the target area, there by ...

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Obtaining DNA Polymerase with Proofreading Ability

27 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 1.0 : INTRODUCTION Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is widely used in biotechnology and molecular biology for various studies including genetic research and molecular studies. It is a technique developed by Kary Mullis where he was thinking about his DNA sequence experiment before this technique came into his mind (Mullis 1990). Soon, various techniques such as qPCR, RT-PCR, nested PCR and so on were being introduced. ...

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Subunit Structure of Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction In the present study, the authors of this paper mainly used limited tryptic proteolysis to explore and probe the subunit structure of dihydrolipoyl transacetylase of bovine heart. The results of the paper have demonstrated that the subunit of bovine heart dihydrolipoyl transacetylase consists of two different folding domains designated the subunit-binding domain(Mr≈26,000) and the lipoyl domain(Mr≈28,600), respectively. They also concluded that the compact subunit-binding domain ...

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Enzyme Kinetics of Acetylcholinesterase

27 Mar 2018

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David Romero Perez Enzyme kinetics of Acetylcholinesterase and its behaviour in the presence of Edrophonium. Abstract The aim of the present study was to test the effects of edrophonium on the enzyme kinetics of acetylcholinesterase. The use of s-acetylthiocholine as a substrate with its breakdown by acetylcholinesterase and the later reaction into a coloured product, allowed the utilization of colorimetric technique in conjunction with ...

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Growth of Microbes Using Hay Infusion Experiment

27 Mar 2018

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran   Lab # 6 Hay Infusion Introduction: The micro organisms grow in everywhere on the earth. They can be found in the air, water, and the earth's surface. They need only the growing factors. Growth factors are varying from microbes. Most of the bacteria grow in the environment with the moderate temperature, neutral pH, and the sufficient O2 supply. Some of them ...

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Signatures for Adaptive Traits in Chicken

27 Mar 2018

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IN SILICO ANALYSIS OF SIGNATURES FOR ADAPTIVE TRAITS IN CHICKEN (Gallus domesticus)   Sigei Chepkorir Caroline ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS QTL Quantitative Trait Locus WHO World Health Organization KNBS Kenya National Bureau of Statistics GDP Gross Domestic Product MLD Ministry of Livestock Development CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background Information The indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) is a type of bird that is widely domesticated across ...

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Drosophila Melanogaster Eyes and Wings Genetics

27 Mar 2018

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Preyash Patel Steve Hoang Introduction: The experiment conducted used drosophila or fruit flies to test certain crosses such as a sepia female drosophila x wild male drosophila, a white female drosophila x wild male drosophila, and red/vestigial female drosophila x sepia/normal male drosophila. They are easy and inexpensive to maintain and can also be easily examined (“Drosophila melanogaster"). In addition, drosophila has ...

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Importance of Rural Production Technology of BGA

27 Mar 2018

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BGA are a large and morphologically diverse group of phototrophic prokaryotes, which occur in almost every habitat on earth. This versatility may explain the remarkable lack of morphological (and presumably physiological) change seen in 3.5-billion-year-old fossilized cyanobacteria and their modern day counterparts(Adams, 2000). Total energy required for the production of global ammonium fertilizers is equivalent to 2 million barrels of oil per day. The energy crisis ...

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Analysis of GC-MS Rice Metabolomics Data

27 Mar 2018

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Integratedion pathway-based and network-based analysis of GC-MS Rice metabolomics data under Diazinon Stress with Metaboanalyst and Metabolic Networks Reveals Reporter Reactions Vahideh Mahdavi, Zhaleh Hosseini, Sayed-Amir Marashi, Alireza Ghassempour Abstract Diazinon insecticide is widely applied throghout rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Iran. However, concerns are now being raised about its potential adverse impacts on rice fields. In this study, a time-course metabolic change in rice ...

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Evaluating Anticancer Drug Efficacy With Biochemical Pathway

27 Mar 2018

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A Novel approach to evaluating anticancer drug efficacy based on biochemical pathway network Abstract and Keywords Abstract As cancer is a complex disease, recent cancer research is increasingly carried out as systems-level. And this conducts novel polypharmacological strategies to evaluate anticancer drugs which will alter the entire pathway network rather than inhibit or activate single target. In current work, a novel approach was developed by integrating ...

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DNA Protein Cross-links in Human Saliva

27 Mar 2018

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Reproducibility and sensitivity issues of K-SDS assay-inter specific cohort studies Suresh P.K[1]., Amrutha Kalyansunder*., Munmun Saha* Abstract— A covalent bonding between a protein moiety and DNA molecule forms a DNA protein crosslink (DPC). Previous work on DPC’s has attempted to identify the specific proteins and create optimized techniques for their isolation to use in proteomic studies. Our experiment involves reproducing the K-SDS assay for DPC determination ...

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Bacterial α Amylase Production

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction Starch is the primary repository of carbohydrates in evolved plants [1]. It is not only the prime form of a dietary sugar storage molecule but has extensive industrial applications in the manufacturing of packaging substances to the synthesis of alcohol [1]. The enzyme alpha amylase has the ability to degrade starch to simpler sugars with reducing ends [2]. They are termed as endohydrolases as they ...

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Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles

27 Mar 2018

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1. Introduction 1.1 The advance of nanoparticles The synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (F e3O4) has been put on with their enormous interest for a very long time. It is especially because of their tremendous technological applications in the pattern of ferrofluids. The ferrofluid is a kind of gluey suspension of fairish oiled magnetite particles in type of liquid medium having abnormal properties as a result of ...

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Regulatory Roles of Cellular Proteins

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction The degradation of proteins is an essential cellular process mainly mediated by the action of either the lysosome or the proteasome. The UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) consist of two separate processes in which first, ubiquitin, a small highly conserved protein is conjugated in a tri-enzyme (E1-E3) cascade to a lysine residue of the substrate, whereby the last step can be carried out by two mechanisms. While ...

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Debates on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

27 Mar 2018

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Leif Swan Kisha Hawkins-Sledge The debate of whether genetically modified foods are helpful or harmful has been getting more and more intense. GMO's were touted as essential product in feeding the world but Genetically Modified Organisms and crops are a controversial topic and the world is still hungry. GMO's have not been around long enough, and there is not enough research on the long-term ...

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Structure of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

27 Mar 2018

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Cardiovascular system component Structure Function (s) Heart Figure 1: Internal view of the heart Valves Atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid valves) - separate ventricles from atria Aortic valve - divide left ventricle + aorta Pulmonary valve - separates right ventricle + pulmonary artery One directional blood flow: -Atrioventricular: stop ...

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Prioritising Drug Targets for Antimalarial Drugs

27 Mar 2018

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Shi Ruifei Introduction Plasmodium is a single-celled amoeba which can cause malaria. In mosquitoes’ and human liver and blood, they represent in several different shapes and sizes for the sake of escaping from the attack of immune system. There is no symptom when Plasmodium in human liver, they start to thrive after entering the red blood cells then severely result in the break of red blood cells, ...

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Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) Treatment

27 Mar 2018

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EPIDEMIOLOGY There has been a surge in the number of EPTB cases in recent times (2). Share of EPTB as a proportion of total number tuberculosis [TB] cases in USA has increased from 7.6 in 1962 to 15.7% in 1993, and to 21.0% in 2006 (3-5). Bone and joint tuberculosis accounted for 5337 (11%) cases out of a total of 47,293 cases of EPTB reported in ...

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Issues with Modern Day Meat Production

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Modern day meat inspection currently in a practice in many developed countries has its roots back in late eighteenth century. It was developed to check out various pathogenic and transmissible diseases which were prevalent in Europe at that time (Blackmore, 1986). This meat inspection practice formed a base for the eradication of various diseases like tuberculosis during 1960’s resulting in drastic improvement in ...

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Amyloid-b Peptide Production: Alpha Secretase

27 Mar 2018

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Ab is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of APP by a group of enzymes known as secretases [Esler and Wolfe, 2001; Samabamurti et al., 2002]. APP is processed by alternative proteolytic pathways that generate different breakdown products. In the secretory pathway, at least three different secretases appear to be active. The majority of APP is cleaved at Ab16 by ‘‘a-secretase’’ to generate soluble amino-terminal derivatives of APP (sAPPa). This cleavage bisects the Ab peptide and ...

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Mutant Virus Research Dilemma

27 Mar 2018

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Harsh Patel Introduction Avian influenza (AI), also known as Bird Flu, is an infectious disease caused by various strains of AI virus. It majorly affects wild water fowl for example geese and ducks, however it can cause large-scale outbreak among domestic poultry resulting into significant economic loss1. Majority of AI viruses do not cross the species barrier and infect humans, nonetheless, two strains – ...

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Agarwood: Diseases, Applications and History

26 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 2 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 History Agarwood, or locally known as gaharu is the world’s most high-priced agro-product from karas trees. The tree is suitable for cultivations in almost all agro-climatic conditions, especially for the climate in and around mountain area. Its cultivation is an amazement in each and every condition right from the less expenses, no maintenance costly, non-labour oriented with high returns and huge global ...

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Microbial Spoilage and Hazards in Cereals and Cereal Product

26 Mar 2018

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Name: Goh JiaYeen 1.0Introduction Cereals, belonging to the Gramineae or the grass family, are the basic carbohydrates sources for the human population (Adams & Moss, 2008; Swanson, 2011). Currently, the most important cereal crops supplying the nutrients for a large proportion of people in the world are rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum spp.), and maize (Zea mays), as stated by Adams and Moss (2008) and Harris ...

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Mutagenesis and Its Effects on Crops

23 Mar 2018

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Mutagenesis is the change in genetic information of organism by use of different mutagens like physical or chemical mutagens. Or Mutagenesis is the process in which mutations are induced. Mutations can be occur due to exposure of natural mutagens e.g uv light. Mutagenesis is important because it tells about genetic mechanisms of heredity and gene expression. Protein functioning is also studied by mutations. Mutagenesis term is ...

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Risk Factors and Treatments for Diabetes

23 Mar 2018

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A healthy diet may improve or maintain an optimal health by eating a good and proper meal and apply a balanced diet in daily lifestyle. Without a healthy diet, there is no meaning for a healthy lifestyle and it can cause so many diseases that related to diet such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dental disease, osteoporosis, bone fracture and cancer. If we never take a ...

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Antiaging Compounds and Plant Extracts

23 Mar 2018

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Chapter one Introduction Introduction Aging is a progressive decline in the function and a decrease in the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis, it is associated with multiple physiological and pathological changes including formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and free radicals damage leading to impairment of cell organelle's function and an increase in the susceptibility to disease of organ (Nanda et al., 2010; Dammann et ...

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Effect of Virchow –Robin Spaces on Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

23 Mar 2018

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Effect of Virchow –Robin Spaces in Early Diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis patients. A Case – Control Study in a Chinese ethenic Group. MD Eqbal Ahmad. Prof. Li Yong Mei.   Key Words:- Magnetic resonance imaging. Multiple sclerosis. Virchow –Robin space .Chinese . Abbreviation:- MS= Multiple sclerosis; VRS= Virchow robin space; CSF= Cerebro spinal fluid; FLAIR=Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; ABSTRACT:- Background: Virchow-Robin space (VRS) are pia-lined extensions ...

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Inhibition of Dacarbazine on Melanoma Stem Cells

23 Mar 2018

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Inhibitory Effects and Mechanism analysis on the Inhibition of Dacarbazine on Melanoma Stem Cells Proliferation in vitro Abstract Melanoma is a growing interest over the past decades and a very difficult obstacle which is needed to be overcome because of its malignant and poor outcome. In this study, we investigated the effects of the dacarbazine (DTIC) on melanoma stem cells regression and subsequent tumor recurrence. Both ...

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Bruchid Pest Management in Pulses: Past, Present & Future

23 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Pulses are the highly nutritious seeds, belong to the family Fabaceae (formerly named as Leguminosae), which usually covers all legumes grown for their dried seeds (COPR, 1981). This inhabit an indispensable position in human nutrition not only because of its rich source of high quality protein, but also for its dietary fiber, complex carbohydrates, resistant starch, complex of vitamins and minerals such as folate, potassium, ...

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Developing Visual Data on PCNA Markers

22 Mar 2018

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  Detection of proliferating cell population in intestinal, liver and brain tissues by way of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and use of diaminobenzidine (DAB). Lewis Buchan Introduction and Aims Immunohistochemistry as with immunocytochemistry is a visual aid in the clinical or research examination of cell growth, disease and therapy response by variation in cell protein changes (Hannon-Fletcher and Maxwell, 2009). Identification of proliferating cells without ...

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Gastric Cancer in Mice

22 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION: While incidences of stomach cancer have decreased over the past several decades, the disease remains an important public health problem. A variety of experimental animal models have been established in order to recognize pathological and molecular biochemical mechanisms (TetsuyaTsukamoto, 2007). As a result, experimental efforts have focused on identifying chemical, infectious or genetic means to induce gastric cancer in animals (Yoku Hayakawa2013). Still, most inbred ...

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Characterization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

22 Mar 2018

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Definition and characterization of Endothelial progenitor cells Introduction Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were first isolated from human peripheral blood by Asahara et al. in 1997. These were described as a population of circulating cells which displayed properties of both endothelial cells and progenitor cells. (Asahara et al., 1997; Asahara et al., 1999) Accumulating data suggests that these circulating cells play a role in new ...

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Effect of RF-EMF on Growth of Lepidium Sativum

22 Mar 2018

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Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Research Question: 1.2 The Original Experiment 1.3 The Everyday Significance of RF-EMF and Wi-Fi 1.4 Lepidium sativum 1.5 Pilot Study CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY 2.1 Aim of Investigation 2.2 Hypothesis 2.3 Variables 2.3.1 Constant 2.3.2 Manipulative 2.3.3 Responding 2.4 Materials 2.5 Procedures 2.5.1 Set-up procedures 2.5.2 Maintenance procedures 2.5.3 Data collection procedures and sampling methods Data Collection Analysis of Data ...

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Effect of Stress on Different Personality Pulse Rates

22 Mar 2018

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Louise Rich   Title Does mild stress have a significant effect on the pulse rate of type A personalities when compared to type B’s? Contents   Summary To be completed at the end Introduction When the body encounters stress the brain produces stress responses which are managed by the hypothalamus. Stress can have a negative physiological effect on the body, including a rise in ...

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Production of Callus From Coffea Arabica

22 Mar 2018

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Materials and Methods Somatic embryogenesis There are two types of somatic embryogenesis: direct embryogenesis or indirect embryogenesis. According to Carneiro (1999), direct embryogenesis or known as low frequency of somatic embryogenesis (LFSE) uses only one medium without producing callus and there will be less number of somatic embryos obtained. However, the indirect embryogenesis or high frequency of somatic embryogenesis (HFSE) uses two media (Carneiro, 1999). The ...

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Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Organisms

22 Mar 2018

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Question 1 Part A Bacteria are prokaryotes. They are single celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. The size ranges from 10 to 100 micrometres long from looking at them on a microscopic level. The bacteria can have a number of shapes that determine what it look like, its three shapes include; cocci, rods and spirilla. The cocci being a round shape of ...

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Effects of Cor and US on Taxol Production of Taxus x Media

22 Mar 2018

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SUMMARY OF PROPOSED RESEARCH INCLUDING KEY GOALS For scientifically qualified assessors: Taxol is a natural diterpenoid alkaloid first isolated from the inner bark of pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia (Wani et al., 1971) and widely use in the pharmaceutical industry as the antitumor agents. However, low taxol content, high cost of extraction and the destruction of yew trees spark a major environmental controversy and cause ...

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Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of α-glucosidase

22 Mar 2018

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Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of an α-glucosidase (MalA) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi Mara Cuebas-Irizarry1*, Ricardo Irizarry-Caro1*, Carol López-Morales, Keyla Badillo-Flores2, and Rafael Montalvo-Rodríguez1§   Abstract Alpha-glucosidases are enzymes capable of hydrolyzing nonreducing terminal 1,4-linked D glucose residues. α-Glucosidases (EC. 3.2.1.20) constitute a widespread group of exo-acting glucoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of α-D-glucose from the non reducing ends of various α-linked substrates (Alarico et al., ...

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Hydrolysis on Reducing Capacity of Whey Protein Hydrolysate

21 Mar 2018

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Abstract The main objective of the present study was to optimize the operation conditions including pH, temperature and enzyme substrate ratio for the sequential action of pepsin and trypsin to hydrolyses whey protein isolate at the substrate concentration containing 8 per cent of protein content and investigate the effect of hydrolysis on reducing capacity of whey protein hydrolysate as compared to that of whey protein isolate. ...

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Experiment on the Functions of Antibodies

21 Mar 2018

5 (1,998 )

James King Practical Report: Heamagglutination Introduction: Many important assays are based around an antibodies ability to its antigen and cause a change in its physical state which is more often than not visible by eye. One example of this is agglutination, this often occurs when the antibody binds to the antigen which is displayed on the surface of a large particle such as ...

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Analysis of Aspergillus Fungi

21 Mar 2018

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Micheli in 1729 named one of the oldest genera of fungi as Aspergillus. Micheli, while viewing the spore bearing structure of Aspergillus under the microscope, was reminded of the device used to sprinkle holy water by the Roman Catholic clergy as part of a liturgy called as asperges (Ainsworth, 1976). Many mycologists and industrial microbiologists were attracted to study about Aspergillus not because of their occurrence ...

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Neural Stem Cell Niche and the EGFR Protein

21 Mar 2018

4 (1,508 )

Sina Sadeghi Abstact A stem cell niche is a microenvironment responsible for the maintenance and growth of stem cells. Each stem cell niche is responsible for the production of distinct cells. There are two neural stem cell niches located in two distinct location in the brain. The SVZ of the lateral ventricle produces neuroblast, which differentiate to neurons and other neural cells, and the ...

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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Practical

21 Mar 2018

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Intro Commonly used in immunology, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique takes advantage of the great specificity of antibodies for a particular antigen. In ELISA a protein (antigen or antibody) is fixed to the walls of a microtiter plate well using this specificity. In addition to this, an enzyme can be attached to either of them in order to create and amplify a coloured signal, allowing the ...

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Elucidating the p53 Signalling Network by Reverse Genetics

21 Mar 2018

18 (6,912 )

Reiyyan Tariq Nizami   Aim In my research project I am working with four different strains Caenorhabditis elegans. I have been performing a double mutant screen using an RNAi knockout library. Cep-1 is a protein that causes apoptosis due to DNA damage in the worm. The cep-1 protein is an ortholog of the human tumor suppressor protein p53, which is found mutated in many ...

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Causes and Treatments

21 Mar 2018

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Lucy Crawshaw Irritable Bowel Syndrome – What is IBS and what are the treatments? The aim of this report is to provide information on Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and inform those diagnosed with IBS about the treatments available. IBS is a common condition of the small and large intestine, or ‘bowel’. It affects about 15% of the population and of those affected, about 9% ...

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Analysis of Stanley Lloyd Miller's Experiment

21 Mar 2018

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“The origin of life is one of the great outstanding mysteries of science.” Paul Davies INTRODUCTION Evolution means an unfolding or unrolling-a gradual orderly change from one form to another. The principle of organic evolution states that all the various plants and animals existing at the present time have descended from other, usually simpler, organisms by gradual modifications which have accumulated in successive generations. Postulating ...

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Types of Pathogens and Diseases

21 Mar 2018

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Pathogens and Disease TAQ 1 Pathogen is known as a microorganism that may cause disease to its host. Bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa are all microorganisms that cause disease. 1.2 Features Virus Bacteria Fungus Protozoa shape ...

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Importance of Field Margins to Agro-ecosystems

21 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Field margins are a crucial aspect of agricultural landscapes which occur in different forms next to all agricultural fields (Marshall 1988; Moonen and Marshall 2001). These margins can provide a series of extremely important functions within the landscape which can be divided according to (de Snoo 1995; Udo de Haes 1995) into agronomy and animal husbandry function by defining land ownership, providing stock fencing and ...

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Morphological Characters of Colchicum L. Species

21 Mar 2018

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Botanical studies of the Turkish flora have been started on botanical trips approximately 300 years ago by French botanist Tournefort on north – northeast Anatolia (Davis H.P. 2008). Following years botanical investigations have been continued and according to these investigations a well-known publication has been prepared by Davis (1965-1988) with the name of “The Flora of Turkey and East Aegian Islands” and subsequently to the publish ...

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Developing Glycosylated Therapeutic Antibodies

21 Mar 2018

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Abstract The therapeutic property of an antibody relies on the extent and the form of glycosylation in that particular antibody [1]. Glyco-engineering has been developed to make the best use of this fact and thus manufacture glycosylated recombinant antibodies in a controlled manner so as to enhance its pharmacological property [1]. Mogamulizumab is the landmark in the field of glycosylation. Mogamulizumab is a glycosylated recombinant monoclonal ...

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Risk Factors for Cancer in Pet Dogs

21 Mar 2018

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Contents (jump to) Introduction Chapter 1: Epidemiologic Studies of Risk Factors for Cancer in Pet Dogs 1.1 Frequency of Cancer in dogs by Site 1.2 Epidemiology of Cancer of Selected Sites in Dogs 1.2.1 Female Breast Cancer 1.2.2 Testicular Cancer References Introduction Cancer is one of the most important disease that affects humans but also companion animals. In 2008, 7.6 million cancer deaths were reported in ...

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Overview of Glycation Related Diseases

12 Mar 2018

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D) Glycation related diseases: Glycation is a deleterious form of post translational modifications of macromolecules and has been linked to a number of diseases. (Harding et al. 1989). Cardiovascular Diseases: The in vivo accumulation of AGE’s over time contributes to changes in function and structure of the cardiovascular system which results in formation of artificial stiffening, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial relaxation abnormalities. Certain mechanisms are responsible ...

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Experiment to Treat Theileria in Cows

12 Mar 2018

5 (1,798 )

Theileria is a vector borne protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis which is a fatal disease for cows. It is a disease of tropics. Theileria poses a serious challenge to the exotic crossbred cattle population. T.annulata and T. parva are considered to be the most pathogenic species of theileria. Tropical theileriosis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle caused by T. annulata. It is transmitted ...

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Nasonia Vitripennis and Nasonia Giraulti Memory Analysis

12 Mar 2018

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Formation and retention memory : a comparison between Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti 1 Introduction Learning and memory are similar traits across the Animal Kingdom, at the behavioural as well as the cellular level (Dubnau, 2003). The Nasonia genus is a good model to study memory for several reasons. Indeed, these insects reproduce rapidly and easily so it ...

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In Vitro Estimation of Th1/Th2 Cytokines by ELISA

12 Mar 2018

6 (2,042 )

Study of mechanism of Action of S012-0975:  In vitro estimation of Th1/Th2 Cytokines by ELISA: A drug like candidate should have the properties to completely eliminate the parasite either through activation of macrophages or by directly acting on parasite. Cure in visceral Leishmaniasis is observed by the production of Th1 cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α and enhanced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and disease ...

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Study of Anti-cancer Potential of Dodoneine

12 Mar 2018

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PROJECT PROPOSAL Anju Angel James Title of the project:Comparative study of anti-cancer potential of Dodoneine and its derivative. SUMMARY : Dodoneine [(R)-6-[(S)-2-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl]-5,6-dihydropyran-2-one] is a naturally occurring dihydropyranone which is isolated from Tapinanthus dodoneinfolius DC Danser, also known as African mistletoe. Tapinanthus dodoneinfolius is a parasitic plant that feeds from the sheanut tree in Burkina Faso. The unique, challenging structural and functional features of Dodoneine created ...

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Early vs Late Reduction of Cervical Spine Injury

12 Mar 2018

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Ghulam Farooq , Alisha Sial OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of early (<72hours) surgical intervention in subaxial (C3-C7) cervical spine injury through anterior approach among adults. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Primary Outcome: The ASIA impairment scale is a validated tool to describe a patient’s functional impairment as a result of their cervical spinal cord injury (attached as annex).The principal investigator will determine it by physical examination of ...

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Smoking and Alveolar Repair

12 Mar 2018

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Lakshmi Mohanadas   Cigarette smoking is one of the major cause for many of the lung diseases. Smoking is a practice of burning a dried plant and inhaling the smoke. It is one of most common form of recreational drug usage. People who smoke, get addicted to smoking which leads to gradual damage to the body. The substances that are inhaled causes reactions at ...

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Experiment on Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

12 Mar 2018

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May Zheng Lab Partners: Vena G. and Sara W. Observations: Part A: The Effect of Surface Area on Enzyme Activity Table1: Amount of Foam Produced by Potato Samples with Different Sizes Potato Samples Maximum Height of Foam Produced (mm) Large cubes 1mm Small cubes 5mm ...

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Prioritisation Assessments in Species Conservation

12 Mar 2018

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Are some species more worthy of conservation than others? Due to anthropogenic activities, the present rate of extinction rise is taking place at nearly 1000 times that of then natural background level of extinction observed from the fossil record. Conservation biology traditionally focuses on preventing extinctions, This magnitude of species decline far outweighs the amount of resources available to conservation in saving each one. As we ...

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Structure of the Male Reproductive System

12 Mar 2018

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New chapter 35 The Male Reproductive System INTRODUCTION The male reproductive system has three principal functions: The differentiation and maintenance of the primary and secondary sex characteristics under the influence of the hormone testos­terone, made in the testes. Spermatogenesis—the creation of the male gametes inside the testes. The penile delivery of sperm from the testes into the female’s vagina in the act of procre­ation. This ...

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Public Health Issues: Type 2 Diabetes

12 Mar 2018

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Abhishek Kumar Is type 2 diabetes a public health emergency? Definition: The term “”diabetes mellitus”” describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate , fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion , insulin action , or both . The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage dysfunction and failure of various organs.(WHO) Types of ...

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Soft Sediment Communities Composition

12 Mar 2018

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DISCUSSION 5.1 Comparison of Soft Sediment Communities Composition and Sediment Type from Different Scales Generally, macrobenthic organisms were found in abundance at Tanjung Bungah. Polychaetes have been observed to dominate in muddy area. Bivalves and gastropod were observed to be dominated in sandy area. Rhoads & Young (1970) noticed that sandy substrates tended to be dominated by suspension-feeders such as bivalves while mud substrates ...

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Strategies for Feeding Livestock in the US Pork Industry

12 Mar 2018

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Literature Review Overview of the US Pork Industry The US pork industry is a dynamic and versatile industry that have progressed over the past 50 years from producing lard-type pigs to a more meaty and heavier muscled animal (Cunha, 2012). This change in progress is due to the current global population estimated at over 7.2 billion people and growing at a rate of 1.14% per annum ...

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Article Review: Metformin and Cancer

12 Mar 2018

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“Metformin and cancer: from the old medicine cabinet to pharmacological pitfalls and prospects” Review article This essay aims to identify and explain the main points made in the Review article ‘Metformin and cancer...’ and discuss their implications and overall significance in a pharmacological context. Metformin is a synthetic biguanide and the most common prescribed drug in treating Type Two Diabetes (T2D); studies have now discovered unforeseen ...

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Genome Study of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

12 Mar 2018

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of hepatitis C, which is an infectious liver disease of humans. Estimates indicate that 170 million people are chronically infected globally and are at risk of developing liver disease including cirrhosis (scarring of tissue) and liver cancer. Furthermore, 350,000 deaths occur each year due to all HCV-related causes [1]. Although 20%–30% of the 170 million people infected with ...

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Reporter System Using LuxABCDE

12 Mar 2018

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La Rosa, S.L., Diep, D.B., Nes, I.F., et al. (2012) Construction and application of a luxABCDE reporter system for real-time monitoring of Enterococcus faecalis gene expression and growth. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (19): 7003-7011 Reporter genes are the genes encoding a protein which can be tracked and quantified by microscopy and various biochemical assays. They provide a non-invasive and sensitive method to monitor levels of ...

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Mechanisms of Activation of NFκB Signaling Pathway

12 Mar 2018

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Objective: we aimed to analyze the mechanisms of activation of NFκB signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of LSCC. Methods: Protein array was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins involved in NFκB signaling pathway in 50 LSCC cells compared with 50 cases of normal throat mucosa. Correlation analysis between significantly differentially expressed proteins and clinical characteristics was also performed. The expression of IKK-β was detected both ...

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Evaluation of Purified Extracts of Leptogium Papillosum

12 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Free radicals are highly reactive atom having one or more unpaired electron produced from the oxidation reaction that takes place in the transfer of electrons capable of attacking the stable biomolecules. These free radicals initiate cascades of events which ultimately lead to cellular damage [1]. However, physiologically these free radical preserve homeostatic action by signal transduction process [2]. Formation of these highly reactive free radical ...

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Acute Nitrite Exposure of Fish Using Common Carp

12 Mar 2018

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Acute nitrite exposure of fish using common carp as a model species The acute exposure of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to enhanced nitrite concentration at a low molar ratio of Cl-/NO2- (0.21) for 48 hours caused high mortality and increased blood plasma nitrite to concentrations 7 times that of the ambient water. Jensen et al. (1987) observed that exposure of carp to nitrite for 48 hours ...

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Uses of Medicinal Plants: Literature Review

12 Mar 2018

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People all over the world use different medicinal plants for curing various diseases and to find a solution to various ailments. India being the home to rich flora and fauna holds the panacea to many illnesses. The branch of ethno botany becomes very relevant here as it gives clear definition as to how the use of ethnic botanic medicinal plant becomes a cure to illnesses and ...

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The Hutchinsonian and Eltonian Shortfalls

12 Mar 2018

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A number of recognized knowledge shortfalls currently exist in biology. The first that appears to have been identified is taxonomical, and is known as the Linnean shortfall (Raven and Wilson 1992). This concerns the disparity between species described by scientists and the actual number of species in the world. The second, the Wallacean shortfall, is biogeographical, and is related to uncertainties in the geographical distribution of ...

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Role of Taurine Against Toxic Effects of Nanosilver

12 Mar 2018

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To evaluate the preservative role of taurine against toxic effects of nanosilver, ovine epididymal sperm were exposed to different concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 0.4 M) of taurine (T) and nanosilver colloid (N) (1 ppm) for 120 min in vitro and then, the viability and motion parameters of sperm were assessed. The percentage of live sperm in taurine–treated groups did not differ in comparison with control (P > ...

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Improving Treatments

12 Mar 2018

6 (2,010 )

Summary ALS is a progressive, fatal motoneurone disease, ultimately leading to paralysis and respiratory failure within 3-5 years. There is currently only one FDA-approved drug, Riluzole, but its lack of disease prolongation combined with the aggressive disease nature means identifying new treatments is essential. This review highlights 3 of the most current and promising research areas. Recent Phase 1 Clinical trials have proven safety of stem ...

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History of Transgenic Animals

12 Mar 2018

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Long before farmers were used selective breeding to enhance economically important trait like growth, milk production, egg production, and etc…consequently, this situation sets the foundation of genetics study that support the study of regulation and function of mammalian genes. The study was either through the observation of inherited characteristics from the parent or the unexpected occurrence of transformation (mutations). After 1950s things were changed to molecular ...

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Origin of Multicellular Eukaryotes

12 Mar 2018

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The beginning of multicellular Eukaryotes is one of the most important event in earth’s history regarding Eukaryotic life. As we can observe, most if not all animals, plants, and fungi are multicellular Eukaryotes therefore multicellularity is a key component of the early evolution regarding complex life. However, multicellularity nor Eukaryotic cell suddenly occur at once. In fact there is an order regarding the events that occurred ...

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